Vertebral Column Injury (specific injuries)


halo vest (fails in 1-16% cases) collar



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halo vest (fails in 1-16% cases)

  • collar (fails in 35-50% cases).

    Type 3A

    - horizontal osseous fracture through body of C2 extending into C1-2 facet joints:





    • associated with circumferential (atlantoaxial ligament, TM, interspinous and capsular joints) ligament avulsion - highly unstable!!!

    • described by Jea et al.

    Jea A, Tatsui C, Farhat H, Vanni S, Levi AD. Vertically unstable type III Odontoid fractures: case report. Neurosurgery. 2006;58(4):797–798

    Os odontoideum



    Definition - ossicle with smooth circumferential cortical margins representing odontoid process that has no osseous continuity with body of C2.

    Etiology - remains debated in the literature with evidence for both acquired and congenital causes.

    Clinical features:


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