Virgin islands families



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To think of Beverhout's remonstrance as clumsy in its expression is to mistake patois for incoherence. It is, in fact, eloquent, both of deeply held grievances and of a budding understanding of political rights andremedies. More than that, it is impossible to read its conditional acceptance of Clarkson's executive power and the repeated allegiance to the laws of England without seeing the document as a chapter in the long transatlantic history of liberty.


C. Fyfe, History of Sierra Leone.
p. 44] ...Henry Beverout [sic.], captain of a company and Methodist preacher, born free in St. Croix Island, whom he [Clarkson] suspected of having been under Peters' s indluence, he won round by making him Church Clerk. ... [Ref. Colnial Williamsburg - British Headquarters Papers; John Clarkson Diary, 21 May 1792 (Fyfe had owned, but sold by 1962).
p. 56] ... Beverout went to the Rio Pongas, but the Muslims he preached to were unimpressed by his roaring style of oratory. ...
p. 103] ...

German missionaries followed Nicol's example .. Nyländer married Phillis Hazeley. She died after a few months and he subsequently married her successor as schoolmistress, Ann Beverout, one of the Methodist preachers family. Her sister Frances, once Tilly's mistress at Bance Island, married the Rev. Charles Wenzel whose Eorpean wife had died in childbirth at the Rio Pongos. ...


p. 145] ... In 1823, Matthew Tilley, a son of the former Bance Island agent by one of the Beverouts ..., took charge with the title King's Printer.

1 RA, V-gK, Nr. 484, Landets Protokol 6 March 1672-2 October 1684, f. 9.

2 J. Hartog, History of Saba, Saba: The Saba Artisan Foundation, 1988, pp. 25-26.

3 RA, V-gK, Nr. 484, Landets Protokol 6 March 1672-2 October 1684, f. 14v.

4 Rigarkiv [National Archives], Copenhagen [hereafter, RA], Vestindisk-Guineisk Kompagni [hereafter, V-gK], Nr. 731, Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, List for February 1691, fol. 22, [no. 112].

5 RA, V-gK, Nr. 731, Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Planterne paa Ste. Thomas, 25 July 1688; published as The 1688 Census of the Danish West Indies, translated by Gary T. Horlacher, Edited and Annotated by David W. Knight (St. Thomas: Little Northside Press, 1998).

6 The Regional Archive for Zeeland, Denmark, St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1671-1795, f. 9.

7 RA, V-gK, Nr. 731, Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, List for February 1691, fol. 12, [no. 60].

8 RA, V-gK, Nr. 731, Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste over alle Planters en Habitantendes ..., March 1, 1692-March 1, 1693, f. 16.

9 RA, V-gK, Nr. 731, Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste over all D Planters en Habitanten ...c1693-94.

10 RA, V-gK, Nr. 487, Landets protokol, 1694-96. However, these may have been new inhabitants.

11 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste ofuer alle Plantere og Indevaaner ...1697-1698, f. 9

12 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste ofuer alle Plantere og Indevaaner ...1697-1698, f. 16.

13 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste Ower Deese Landts Planteres & Inwoonders ... 1699.

14 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste Ower Deese Landts Planteres & Inwoonders ... 1699.

15 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste Ower Deese Landts Planteres & Inwoonders ... 1699.

16 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Lands Liste ... tot d 1 Marty 1700.

18 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 20 April 1701.

19 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 11 May 1701.

20 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 13 May 1701.

21 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 21 May 1701.

22 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 28 May 1701.

23 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 1 June 1701.

24 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 10 June 1701.

25 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 11 & 14 June 1701.

26 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 20 June 1701.

27 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 16 July 1701.

28 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 17 July 1701.

29 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 4 August 1701.

30 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 11 October 1701.

31 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 20 November 1701.

32 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 26 November 1701.

33 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 2 December 1701.

34 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 3 December 1701.

35 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 29 December 1701.

36 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 1 January 1702.

37 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 6 & 7 January 1702.

38 RA, V-gK, Direktionenes korrespondeance, Breve og dokumenter fra Vestindian, nr. 95, 28/5 1719-27/7 1724, 20 Juli 1722, Character paa Indvaaneer paa Eylandet St. Jan.

39 RA, V-gK, Direktionenes korrespondeance, Breve og dokumenter fra Vestindian, nr. 95, 28/5 1719-27/7 1724, 20 Juli 1722, Character paa Indvaaneer paa Eylandet St. Jan.

40 Evidence that Anna, Aletta and Anna Elisabeth are sisters comes from J. L. Carstens' St. Thomas in Early Danish Times ..., English edition and translation, Arnold R. Highfield (St. Croix: Virgin Islands Humanities Council, 1997), pp. 10-11.

41 The Regional Archive for Zeeland, Denmark, St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1671-1795, f. 105.

42 St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1691-1795, Baptisms, f. 116; see variant spelling in: RA, Danske Kancelli E15... 4. Dept.s Lukkede og Aabne Breve 1771-73, ff. 47-55.

43 St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1691-1795, Marriages, f. 103.

44 RA, V-gK, Direktionenes korrespondeance, Breve og dokumenter fra Vestindian, nr. 95, 28/5 1719-27/7 1724, 20 Juli 1722, Character paa Indvaaneer paa Eylandet St. Jan.

45 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Landliste over Eylandet St.Jan, Anno 1728, no. 34.

46 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ower St. Jans ... Anno 1729 ..., no. 34.

47 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lans Liste for St. Jan pro Anno 1730 ..., no. 34.

48 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Landliste over Eylandet St.Jan, Anno 1728, nos. 50 & 51.

49 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ower St. Jans ... Anno 1729 ..., nos. 50 & 51.

50 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lans Liste for St. Jan pro Anno 1730 ..., no. 50.

51 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lans Liste for St. Jan pro Anno 1730 ..., no. 51.

52 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ... Anno 1731..., no. 33.

53 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ... Anno 1731..., nos. 49 & 50.

54 St. Croix Dutch Reformed Church, Baptisms and Marriages, 1764-1787, f. 136.

55 St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1691-1795, Deaths.

56 [Attributed to] J. L. Carstens' St. Thomas in early Danish times:... English edition and translation by Arnold R. Highfield (St. Croix: Virgin Islands Humanities Council, 1997), p. 11.

57 The Regional Archive for Zeeland, Denmark, St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1671-1795, f. 99.

58 RA, Danske Kancelli E15... 4. Dept.s Lukkede og Aabne Breve 1771-73, ff. 47-55.

59 St. John's Anglican Church, Christiansted, Church Book, Marriages, 1761-1787, f. 7.

60 RA, Danske Kancelli E15... 4. Dept.s Lukkede og Aabne Breve 1771-73, ff. 47-55.

61 St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1691-1795, Baptisms, f. 116.

62 RA, St. Croix Matricle, 1760, f. 24 [Queen's Quarter, no. 37].

63 Kenneth Barta, "von Bretons."

64 Kenneth Barta, "von Bretons".

65 RA & NARA, RG55, St. Croix Matricle, 1790, ff. 54,55,68.

66 RA, Guiniske Kompagni, C.142, 3 June 1767 & A.23, ff. 30-33.

67 RA, St. Thomas-St. John Matricles, Charlotte Amalie, f. (1768), f. 6 (1769), f. 7 (1770), f. 7 (1771), f. 4 (1772), f. 3 (1773), f. 3 (1774), f. 4 (1775), f. 4 (1776), f. 1 (1777), f. 1 (1778). There was no listing for 1779.

68 RA, St. Croix Matricle, 1769, Christiansted, 1 Strand St., when Lucas is found alone.

69 RA, St. Thomas - St. John Matricle, 1769, f. 8.

70 RA, St. Thomas - St. John Matricle, 1770, f. 3, where it indicates that he has married Mrs. Lieutenant Major Suhm. They were members of the Dutch Reformed Church, whose records for this period have not survived.

71 St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Charlotte Amalia, St. Thomas, Churchbook, 1691-1795, Baptisms, 2 April 1736, f. 142.

72 St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1691-1795, Marriages, 13 May 1751, f. 175.

73 RA, Danske Kancelli E15... 4. Dept.s Lukkede og Aabne Breve 1771-73, ff. 47-55.

74 RA, St. Thomas - St. John Matricle, 1770, f. 3.

75 RA, St. Thomas - St. John Matricle, 1771, f. 3.

76 RA, Danske Kancelli E15... 4. Dept.s Lukkede og Aabne Breve 1771-73, ff. 47-55.

77 RA, St. Thomas - St. John Matricle, 1772, f. 2.

78 RA, St. Croix Matricle, 1771, Christiansted, 2 Strand Street, f. 8.

79 RA, St. Croix Matricle, 1772, Christiansted, 2 Strand Street, f. 8.

80 RA, St. Croix Matricle, 1773, Christiansted, 2 Strand Street, f. 9.

81 RA, St. Croix Matricle, 1773, Christiansted, 2 Strand Street, f. 9.

82 NARA, RG55, St. Croix Matricle, 1774, Christiansted, 2 Strand Street, f. 8.

83 NARA, RG55, St. Croix Matricle, 1774, Christiansted, 2 Strand Street, f. 8.

84 RA, St. Croix Matricle, 1775, Christiansted, 2 Strand Street.

85 NARA, RG55, St. Croix Matricle, 1777, Christiansted, 2 Strand Street, f. 11. The 1776 matricle seems to be lost, as it is neither in Copenhagen or Washington.

86 NARA, RG55, Entry no. 313, box 723, ff. 28-29; Record of Deeds, Christiansted, Landsting, Panteprotokol, vol. D, f. 78.

87 NARA, RG55, St. Croix Matricle, 1778, Christiansted, 1 Strand Street, f. 10.

88 NARA, RG55, St. Croix Matricle, 1779, Christiansted, 1 Strand Street. f. 10.

89 Wade Catts's notes.

90 Tobias Boudinot to John Wheelock, May 30, 1798, John Wheelock Papers, Dartmouth College; Obituary, Mariana von Beverhoudt, Genius of Liberty (Morristown, NJ), May 31, 1798.

91 See website:< http://www.rootsweb.com/~njmorris/newspapers/genius-dn.htm>.

92 The Regional Archive for Zeeland, Denmark, St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1671-1795, f. 126.

93 I am not sure that this is sufficient documentation to be sure that Ruth was married to Johannes, as she is just referred to in the following as "my dear sister-in-law": RA, Danske Kancelli, %E15 ... 4. Dept.s Lukkeded og Aaabne Breve, 1771-73, f. 49.

94 RA, Danske Kancelli E15... 4. Dept.s Lukkede og Aabne Breve 1771-73, ff. 47-55.

95 St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook,1691-1795, Baptisms, f. 132.

96 The Regional Archive for Zeeland, Denmark, St. Croix Dutch Church, Baptism, 1760-1787, f. 74.

97 William C. Reichel & Wm. H. Bigler, A History of the Moravian Seminary for Young Ladies, at Bethlehem, PA., with a Catalogue of its Pupils, 1785-1870. Bethlehem, PA: Published for the Seminary, 1901., p. 342. The date given for her birth, a year earlier, does not agree with the Dutch Reformed Church Book, see above.

98 William C. Reichel & Wm. H. Bigler, A History of the Moravian Seminary for Young Ladies, at Bethlehem, PA., with a Catalogue of its Pupils, 1785-1870. Bethlehem, PA: Published for the Seminary, 1901., p. 342.

99 RA, Danske Kancelli E15... 4. Dept.s Lukkede og Aabne Breve 1771-73, ff. 47-55.

100 RA, Danske Kancelli E15... 4. Dept.s Lukkede og Aabne Breve 1771-73, ff. 47-55.

101 RA, Danske Kancelli E15... 4. Dept.s Lukkede og Aabne Breve 1771-73, ff. 47-55.

102 RA, Danske Kancelli E15... 4. Dept.s Lukkede og Aabne Breve 1771-73, ff. 47-55.

103 RA, Danske Kancelli E15... 4. Dept.s Lukkede og Aabne Breve 1771-73, ff. 47-55.

104 RA, V-gK, Nr. 499, Journal holden paa Ste. Thomas ... 29de January 1691 til 31te May 1692, 31 May 1692.

105 The Regional Archive for Zeeland, Denmark, St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1671-1795, f. 11 & 13.

106 The Regional Archive for Zeeland, Denmark, St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1671-1795, f. 63; Kay Larsen, Guvernører, Residenter, Kommandanter og Chefer ... (København: Arthur Jensens Forlag, 1940), p. 78.

107 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste Ower Deese Landts Planteres & Inwoonders ... 1699 & ibid., Lands Liste ... tot d 1 Marty 1700.

108 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste Ower Deese Landts Planteres & Inwoonders ... 1699

109 The Regional Archive for Zeeland, Denmark, St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1671-1795, f. 81.

110 The Regional Archive for Zeeland, Denmark, St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1671-1795, f. 125; E. Gullach-Jensen, "Bidrag til de dansk-vestindiske Øers Personhistorie," Personalhistorisk Tidsscrift, 7 Rk., 1 Bd. (1916), 251.

111 St. Thomas & St.John, West Indies, Index to Probate Records: 1717-1814, Copied by Lolly Prime, Translated and edited by Gary T. Horlacher (St. Thomas, c1997), p. 53.

112 J. L. Carstens' St. Thomas in Early Danish Times ..., English edition and translation, Arnold R. Highfield (St. Croix: Virgin Islands Humanities Council, 1997), x.

113 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste ..., 1 March 1692-1 March 1693, f. 16.

114 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste ... c1693-1694.

115 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste Ower Deese Landts Planteres & Inwoonders ... 1699.

116 RA, V-gK, Nr. 487, Landets protokol, 1694-96.

117 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste ofuer alle Plantere og Indevaaner ...1697-1698, f. 16.

118 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Liste Ower Deese Landts Planteres & Inwoonders ... 1699. There is listed in a census of Saba from 1699, a Geloude van Beverhout, with a wife. He would seem to be a different Glaudi from the one on St. Thomas. At the same time there is a widow, Susanna Beverhout, with 29 slaves on Saba. She might have been the spouse of the Engel van Beverhoudt mentioned in the beginning. This all remains to be untangled. (Source: ARA WIC 247, "Liste van Saba also tegenvoordig te Manschappen Vrouwen Kinderen Negermans ... en Kinderenis bevindende op den 16 Mey 1699."

119 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Lands Liste ... tot d 1 Marty 1700.

120 The Regional Archive for Zeeland, Denmark, St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1671-1795, ff. 31, 33.

121 The 1688 Census of the Danish West Indies, translated by Gary T. Horlacher, Edited and Annotated by David W. Knight (St. Thomas: Little Northside Press, 1998), no. 2(B); RA, V-gK, Nr. 731, Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, List for February 1691, fol. 14, no. [69].

122 E. Gullach-Jensen, "Bidrag til de dansk-vestindiske Øers Personhistorie," Personalhistorisk Tidsscrift, 7 Rk., 1 Bd. (1916),, p. 320.

123 RA, V-gK, Direktionenes korrespondeance, Breve og dokumenter fra Vestindian, nr. 95, 28/5 1719-27/7 1724, 20 Juli 1722, Character paa Indvaaneer paa Eylandet St. Jan.

124 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Landliste over Eylandet St.Jan, Anno 1728, no. 22.

125 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ower St. Jans ... Anno 1729 ..., no. 22.

126 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lans Liste for St. Jan pro Anno 1730 ..., no. 22.

127 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ... Anno 1731..., no. 21.

128 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, Lands Liste ... tot d 1 Marty 1700.

129 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 15 & 15 August 1701.

130 RA, V-gK, Nr. 501, Journaler over det paa St. Thomas passerede, 1696-1702, 11 Sept. 1701; E. Gullach-Jensen, "Bidrag til de dansk-vestindiske Øers Personhistorie," Personalhistorisk Tidsscrift, 7 Rk., 1 Bd. (1916), p. 264-65.

131 RA, V-gK, Nr. Landlister for St. Thomas, 1688-1710, [1691 List], no. 32. [check]

132 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Landliste over Eylandet St.Jan, Anno 1728, no. 13.

133 RA, V-gK, Direktionenes korrespondeance, Breve og dokumenter fra Vestindian, nr. 95, 28/5 1719-27/7 1724, 20 Juli 1722, Character paa Indvaaneer paa Eylandet St. Jan.

134 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Landliste over Eylandet St.Jan, Anno 1728, no. 13.

135 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ower St.Jans ..., Anno 1729 ..., no. 13.

136 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lans Liste for St. Jan pro Anno 1730 ..., no. 13.

137 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ... Anno 1731..., no.13.

138 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lans Liste for St. Jan pro Anno 1730 ..., no. 31.

139 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ... Anno 1731..., no. 30.

140 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lans Liste for St. Jan pro Anno 1730 ..., no. 39.

141 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ... Anno 1731..., no. 38.

142 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Landliste over Eylandet St.Jan, Anno 1728, no. 30.

143 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ower St. Jans ... Anno 1729 ..., no. 30.

144 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lans Liste for St. Jan pro Anno 1730 ..., no. 30.

145 RA, V-gK, Nr. 750, Lands Liste ... Anno 1731..., no. 29.

146 RA, VILA, St.Croix Head Tax Lists, Christiansted, 21 Hill Street.

147 Regerings Avis (10 August 1807).

148 RA, VILA, St.Croix Head Tax Lists, Christiansted, 21 Hill Street.

149 The Regional Archive for Zeeland, Denmark, St. Thomas Lutheran Church, Churchbook, 1671-1795, f. 68.

150 RA, VILA, St.Croix Head Tax Lists, Christiansted, 21 Hill Street.

151 RA, VILA, St.Croix Head Tax Lists, Christiansted, 21 Hill Street.

152 Danske Kancelii, West Indian Journal, 1741-1771, f. 462v-464v, no. 27, Johannes Beverhoudt's will, dated 9 April 1749.



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