Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Wayditch, Gabriel von

(b Budapest, 28 Dec 1888; d New York, 28 July 1969). Hungarian composer, naturalized American. In Budapest he attended the National Hungarian Royal Academy of Music, studying composition with Hans Koessler and the piano with Emil Sauer. He later conducted at the Royal Orpheum Theatre. In 1911 he emigrated to the USA and found work in New York as a theatre conductor, while composing operas in almost complete isolation. The only opera staged in his lifetime was Horus, conducted by Fritz Mahler (Gustav's nephew) at the Philadelphia Academy of Music (5 January 1939). After World War II, Wayditch was the pianist with the Morningside Trio which made regular radio broadcasts in New York.

Arguably the most prolific opera composer of the 20th century, Wayditch's output can best be described as ‘maximalist’. Each opera requires an orchestra of 110, and many also require frequent elaborate scene changes. While the early operas are post-Romantic, the later ones are often extremely dissonant, yet never completely without tonal reference. The librettos, in Hungarian, are intricate historical myths and frequently use Old Hungarian to give a heightened sense of distance, particularly since most of the operas take place in exotic lands, in ancient times, or on other planets. His last opera, The Heretics, lasts eight and a half hours and is claimed as the longest opera ever written. Interest in Wayditch has grown since his death. Besides performances by the Budapest PO and San Diego SO, two of his stage works, The Caliph's Magician and Jesus before Herod, have been commercially recorded for VAI Audio.


Ops (librettos by Wayditch): Opium Dreams, 1910–14; The Caliph's Magician (Shu and Sha), 1917; Jesus before Herod, 1918; Land of Death (Sahara), 1920; Maria Testver, 1925; The Venus Dwellers, 1925; Horus, 1931, Philadelphia, Academy of Music, 5 Jan 1939; Mary Magdalene, 1934; Buddha, 1935; Nereida, 1940; Anthony of Padua, 1942; The Catacombs, 1945; Fisherman's Dreams, 1948; The Heretics, 1948–69

Other works: Ballet Music from Horus, orch; Dance, fl, 2 vn, vc, pf [from Jesus before Herod]; Lullaby, fl, 2 vn, vc, pf [arr. of aria from Maria Testver]; Opium Dreams, suites, orch; Prayer, SATB; Reminiscences from Opium Dreams, pf solo; Hudson River, song, 1v, pf; Bedbug Serenade, 1v, pf

MSS in Von Wayditch Music Foundation, Baldwin, NY


Wayenberg, Daniel (Ernest Joseph Carel)

(b Paris, 11 Oct 1929). Dutch pianist and composer. He studied the piano for many years with Marguerite Long in Paris but in composition he is self-taught. His first appearances were made between 1939 and 1946 at concerts held, due to war conditions, in private houses in France and the Netherlands. His public début was in Paris in 1949 as winner of the Grand Prix de la Ville de Paris in the Concours Long-Thibaud. The same year he gave the opening recital of the Chopin centenary festival held in Florence. In 1950 he was in a serious plane crash near Lyons but in spite of other injuries his hands were unhurt and he played at the Besançon Festival in 1951. He made his début in the USA in 1953 at Carnegie Hall playing Rachmaninoff’s Concerto no.2 under Mitropoulos. This was followed by tours in America in 1954 and 1955 when he also played in Indonesia. He has subsequently appeared all over western and eastern Europe including Russia. A number of his recordings have been awarded prizes. His repertory is catholic and ranges from Haydn to the sonatas of Jolivet (which he has recorded) and Stockhausen’s Klavierstücke. He is also a noted teacher at the Rotterdam Conservatory. Wayenberg’s compositions include the ballet Solstice (1955, Paris), a concerto for five wind instruments and piano, a symphony Capella commissioned by the Netherlands government and a concerto for three pianos (1975).



An English term in use around 1600. ‘Wayes’ is the title normally given to a series of short contrapuntal compositions in two or three parts (often in canon) on a cantus firmus, apparently intended for practice in polyphonic writing. Examples of its use are in John Farmer’s Divers and Sundrie Waies of Two Parts in One, to the Number of Fortie, uppon One Playn Song (1591); William Bathe’s A Briefe Introduction to the Skill of Song … in Which Work is Set Downe X. Sundry Wayes of 2. Parts in One upon the Plaine Song (1600); Forty Wayes of 2. Parts in One (on Miserere) by Thomas Woodson in GB-Lbl Add.29996, ff.184v–9 (only 20 given); Pretty Wayes: for Young Beginners to Looke on in the same manuscript, ff.192v–193, 195v–196 (16 anonymous compositions on the plainchant ‘Iam lucis orto sidere’); Thomas Robinson's ‘Twenty Waies upon the Bels’, the second of two lute duets that open his Schoole of Musicke (1603).

Thomas Morley used the word frequently while discussing the composition of contrapuntal music upon a cantus firmus in part two of A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke (1597). The meaning is sometimes non-technical, as when Pupil asks ‘I pray you then show me some waies of taking a discord well’, to which Master replies ‘Here be all the wayes which this plainsong will allow …’. The following passage implies perhaps a more precise meaning: ‘And these few waies [musical examples] which you have already seen shall be sufficient at this time for your present instruction in two parts in one upon a plainsong’. Morley also refers to the ‘forty waies’ of Byrd and Ferrabosco on the plainchant Miserere which were entered in the Stationers’ Register in 1603 under the title Medulla Musicke (no copy now extant, if indeed it was ever printed), and to George Waterhouse’s ‘thousand waies’ which are canons on the same plainchant in GB-Cu Dd.iv.60. Thomas Tomkins used the term for successive variations in his copy of a keyboard piece by Byrd based on the hexachord (MB, xxviii, 1971, 2/1976, textual commentary on no.58).


H.M. Miller: ‘Pretty Wayes: for Young Beginners to Looke on’, MQ, xxxiii (1947), 543–56

H.M. Miller: ‘Forty Wayes of 2 Pts. in One of Tho[mas] Woodson’, JAMS, viii (1955), 14–21


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