Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Wegelius, Martin

(b Helsinki, 10 Nov 1846; d Helsinki, 22 March 1906). Finnish educationist and composer. He studied music first in Helsinki with Gabriel Linsén, Emil Zechin and Richard Faltin, then in Vienna (1870–71) with Rudolf Bibl, in Leipzig (1871–3) with Richter, Reinecke and Jadassohn and in Munich (1877–8) with Rheinberger. In the early part of his career he was active in Helsinki as a pianist and critic, and from 1878 to 1879 he was conductor of the Finnish Opera. His chief significance, however, derives from his pioneering role in Finnish music education: he founded a number of important institutions, most notably the Helsinki Music Institute (now the Sibelius Academy) in 1882, which he directed until his death, planning its curriculum, choosing its staff of distinguished teachers (including Busoni) from the whole of Europe and writing many of the theory textbooks (some of which are still used in revised form). He was diligent in keeping abreast with pedagogical developments on the Continent. Among his many pupils were such leading Finnish composers as Sibelius, Melartin, Kuula and Palmgren. Besides orchestral and chamber music he wrote many vocal works in a characteristically lyrical style. He became a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music in 1904.


Lärobok i allmän musiklära och analys [Textbook of general music theory and analysis] (Helsinki, 1888–9)

Hufvuddragen af den västerländska musikens historia [Outlines of the history of Western music] (Helsinki, 1891–3)

Kurs i homofons sats [Course in homophonic composition] (Helsinki, 1897–1905)


O. Andersson, ed.: Martin Wegelius: Konstnärsbrev (Helsinki, 1918–19) [Letters]

K. Flodin: Martin Wegelius (Helsinki, 1922)

A. Karvonen: ‘Martin Wegelius’, Suomen säveltäjiä [Finnish composers], i, ed. S. Ranta (Helsinki, 1945, rev. 2/1965–6 by E. Marvia), 169

M. Huttunen: Modernin Musiikinhistoriankirjoituksen synty Suomessa [The beginnings of modern music history writing in Finland] (Helsinki, 1993)

J. Linjama: ‘Brouwer, Sibelius, Wegelius and Cultural Identity’, Finnish Music Quarterly, x/3 (1994), 25–8


Wegener, Emmy (Frensel)

(b Amsterdam, 14 June 1901; d Laren, 11 Jan 1973). Dutch composer, daughter of Bertha Frensel Wegener-Koopman. She studied the violin with Felice Togni at the Amsterdam Conservatory, graduating in 1925. She then studied composition for three years with Sem Dresden and clarinet with Willem Brohm. She developed multiple sclerosis in the early 1930s, at which point she stopped composing and turned to writing poetry. Both Rosy Wertheim and Anna Mesritz van Velthuysen set her poems to music. She wrote in a dissonant, linearly conceived neo-classical style, and favoured short pieces.


(selective list)

Choral unacc.: Ik zag Cecilia komen, Gekwetst ben ik van binnen, 1928

Orch: 2 Orkeststukken, 1927; Suite, 1929; Rapsodie, pf, orch

Chbr and solo inst: Suite, str trio, 1925; Vn Sonata, 1925; Oboe Suite, ob, pf, 1926; Sextet, ww, pf, 1927; Sonata in One Mvt, vc, pf, 1927; Menuetto, ob, pf, 1929; Str Qt, 1929; 2 stukken, pf, 1929; 3 stukken, va, pf, 1929

Principal publisher: Donemus


W. Pijper: ‘Uit Genève’, De Muziek, iii (1928–9), 368


Wegkmann, Matthias.

See Weckmann, Matthias.

Wegman, Rob C(ornelis)

(b Emmen, Netherlands, 26 Jan 1961). Dutch musicologist. He studied at the University of Amsterdam with Chris Maas and Frits Noske (1979–86) and the University of Manchester with David Fallows (1988–9). He took the doctorate at the University of Amsterdam in 1993 with a dissertation on the life and masses of Obrecht. He was a research fellow at Oxford University from 1991 to 1995 and became assistant professor at Princeton University in 1995.

Wegman’s research focusses on many aspects of 15th-century polyphony. It includes studies on the development of the polyphonic mass, tempo and mensuration, the genesis of sources and the aesthetic opinions of the period, research on the attribution and genesis of works and archive research relating to musicians, compositions and performing practice. His work shows a deep knowledge and understanding of these areas, and an ability to combine them in a fruitful way. His dissertation provides new biographical information, particularly on Obrecht’s youth, and describes the chronology and development of his masses.


‘New Data Concerning the Origins and Chronology of Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Manuscript 5557’, TVNM, xxxvi (1986), 5–25

‘An Anonymous Twin of Johannes Ockeghem’s Missa Quinti toni in San Pietro B80’, TVNM, xxxvii (1987), 25–48

ed., with E. Vetter: Liber Amicorum Chris Maas: Essays in Musicology in Honour of Chris Maas (Amsterdam, 1987) [incl. ‘The Twelfth Gathering of Brussels, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Manuscript 5557: a New Dufay Concordance’, 15–25]

‘Busnoys’s Anthoni usque limina and the Order of Saint-Antoine-en-Barbefosse in Hainaut’, Studi musicali, xvii (1988), 15–31

‘Another “Imitation” of Busnoys’s Missa L’homme armé – and some Observations on Imitatio in Renaissance Music’, JRMA, cxiv (1989), 189–202

‘Concerning Tempo in the English Polyphonic Mass, c.1420–70’, AcM, lxi (1989), 40–65

‘Music and Musicians at the Guild of Our Lady at Bergen op Zoom, c.1470–1510’, EMH, ix (1989), 175–249

‘The Anonymous Mass D’ung aultre amer: a Late Fifteenth-Century Experiment’, MQ, lxxiv (1990), 566–94

‘Another Mass by Busnois?’, ML, lxxi (1990), 1–19

‘Guillaume Faugues and the Anonymous Masses Au chant de lalouete and Vinnus Vina’, TVNM, xli (1991), 27–64

‘Petrus de Domarto’s Missa Spiritus almus and the Early History of the Four-Voice Mass in the Fifteenth Century’, EMH, x (1991), 235–303

‘Musica Ficta’, Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music, ed. T. Knighton and D. Fallows (London, 1992), 265–74

‘New Light on Secular Polyphony at the Court of Holland in the Early Fifteenth Century: the Amsterdam Fragments’, JRMA, cxvii (1992), 181–207

‘What is Acceleratio mensurae?’, ML, lxxiii (1992), 515–24

Obrecht in Missa: a Study of the Life and Mass Music of Jacob Obrecht (1457/8–1505) (diss., U. of Amsterdam, 1993); Oxford, 1994, as Born for the Muses: the Life and Masses of Jacob Obrecht

‘For Whom the Bell Tolls: Reading and Hearing Busnoys’s Anthoni usque limina’, Hearing the Motet: St Louis 1994, 122–41

‘Miserere supplicanti Dufay: the Creation and Transmission of Guillaume Dufay’s Missa Ave regina coelorum’, JM, xiii (1995), 18–54

‘Sense and Sensibility in Late-Medieval Music: Thoughts on Aesthetics and “Authenticity”’, EMc, xxiii (1995), 298–312

‘From Maker to Composer: Improvisation and Musical Authorship in the Low Countries, 1450–1500’, JAMS, xlix (1996), 409–79

‘Mensural Intertextuality in the Sacred Music of Antoine Busnoys’, Antoine Busnoys: Notre Dame, IN, 1992 (forthcoming)

‘Agricola, Bordon, and Obrecht at Ghent: Discoveries and Revisions’, RBM, li (1997), 23–62

ed.: Music As Heard: Listeners and Listening in Late-Medieval and Early Modern Europe (1300–1600): Princeton, NJ, 1997 [MQ, lxxxii/3–4 (1998); incl. ‘“Das musikalische Hören” in the Middle Ages and Renaissance: Perspectives from Pre-War Germany’, 434–54]

‘Historical Musicology: is it Still Possible?’, A Critical Introduction to the Cultural Study of Music, ed. R. Middleton, M. Clayton and T. Herbert (forthcoming)

‘Who was Josquin?’, The Josquin Companion, ed. R. Sherr (forthcoming)


Choirbook of the Burgundian Court Chapel: Brussel, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, MS.5557 (Peer, 1989)


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