Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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2. Works.

Although some of Wert's church music was published during his lifetime, much of it, being specially composed for the exclusive use of S Barbara, was not; to his contemporaries he was primarily known as a composer of madrigals and occasional pieces. Nevertheless, he wrote polyphony for S Barbara throughout his career, and a substantial corpus survives among the manuscripts from the basilica. Of his seven masses, only one, the Missa Dominicalis, was published during his lifetime. This appeared in a collection of six alternatim settings all based on the chant Kyrie orbis factor, and all by composers connected in some way or other with S Barbara and Mantua. Between them, these seven masses cover all the liturgical festal categories for which polyphonic masses are specified in the S Barbara Ceremoniale drawn up in 1583.

Of the various collections of hymns that were specially commissioned for S Barbara, Wert's magisterial cycle is the largest and most important. It consists of 127 pieces, none of which was published during the 16th century. In style, Wert's hymns resemble his other alternatim settings for the basilica; their extreme simplicity, evidently designed to allow the texts to be clearly heard, is reminiscent, in their combination of careful declamation, attention to text and restrained counterpoint, of the hymns and the Preces speciales of Jacobus de Kerle. Many of Wert's hymns were intended for performance on the feast days of saints who were prominent in the liturgy at S Barbara, and whose relics lay inside the Basilica (including St John the Baptist, St Sylvester, St Adrian and, of course, St Barbara herself); Marian feasts and the Finding and Exultation of the True Cross also receive special emphasis in Wert's hymn cycle.

Wert's motet settings, the most important and in some cases most widely circulated of his sacred music, were also the only part of this corpus to be printed in quantity in his lifetime. The Motectorum liber primus of 1566 contains 19 pieces, many of them settings of texts from the Roman liturgy. As with the Secondo libro de motetti (1581) and his third and final motet collection, the Modulationum cum sex vocibus liber primus of the same year, the majority of these are from Epistles, Gospels or Lectiones for major feasts. Taken in the main from New Testament sources, these extracts were traditionally read or intoned by the celebrant rather than sung in polyphony, as were devotional or psalm texts. This peculiarity may well be explained by the particular conventions of liturgical performance in S Barbara, where it is known that extra polyphonic items were often sung as substitutes for antiphons or other chants on major feast days. The motets apart, most of Wert's music for the basilica remained in manuscript as a private and reserved repertory specifically composed for a single privileged and élite institution. Partly proclaimed through the deployment of special texts (at least two of the hymns were written by Marc' Antoine Muret) and cantus firmi derived from the S Barbara liturgy, its distinctiveness was additionally underscored by being set in alternatim fashion.

Although Wert's task as maestro di cappella at S Barbara must have occupied a good deal of his time, he was largely known to the outside world as a composer of madrigals. The dedications of his published books shadow his biography: the early ones were addressed to Count Alfonso Gonzaga, Duke Ottavio Farnese, Consalvo Fernandes di Cordova (Governor of Milan), the Marchese di Pescara and Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga. Il quinto libro of 1571 is the only collection to be dedicated to a collective patron, in this case the members of the Accademia Filarmonica of Verona; and from the sixth book on, the dedicatees are mostly members of the Gonzaga family. Two books are addressed to Vincenzo Gonzaga, one to Vincenzo's wife Margherita Farnese, one to his mistress Agnese Argotta (who was much involved in the attempts to stage Il pastor fido in 1591–2), and one to his second wife Leonora de’ Medici. Indeed the idea that Wert, as the Gonzaga composer par excellence, had embarked on a plan to dedicate each of his madrigal books to a different member of the family, is explicitly stated in the dedicatory letter to L'undecimo libro. The only real exception to the pattern is L'ottavo libro, dedicated to Duke Alfonso II d'Este and filled with madrigals written for the celebrated Ferrarese concerto delle dame.

Wert's madrigals follow a discernible pattern of stylistic change, mirroring both the resources available and the differing tastes of his patrons, as well as his exposure to other musical influences. In their use of chromaticism, representational melodic figures and dark colouring the early books are strongly indebted to Rore, whom Wert knew personally. From Il quarto libro onwards these characteristics undergo a process of refinement, and are now combined with an increased use of pure homophony and an interest in textural contrast. Il sesto libro contains two long canzoni written in the declamatory style that writers since Einstein have identified as one of Wert's most important and original contributions to madrigalian language. The texts which Wert set in these books are characteristic of mid-century taste; Petrarch's verse is prominent, there is some Bembo as might be expected and, less predictably, a good deal of Tansillo.

The real change comes with Il settimo libro, a book which marks his increased involvement in the life of the Ferrarese court, and his new enthusiasm for epic verse and in particular for the works of Tasso and Guarini. This, and the two books that follow it, are filled with pieces in a more dramatic style, forged out of the language of strong contrast and theatrical melodic gesture. The pieces of the eighth book show the virtuoso upper lines and separation of upper and lower voices into separate blocks that would become the hallmark of madrigals written for the concerto delle dame, much copied by other composers working in the Mantuan–Ferrarese orbit during the 1580s and 90s, including Benedetto Pallavicino and Claudio Monteverdi. Wert's book of five-voice villanelle, his only collection of pieces in a lighter vein, is much less distinctive in style, being virtually indistinguishable from Marenzio's in the same genre. L'undecimo libro, the last of Wert's collections to appear during his own lifetime, contains a number of settings of passages from Il pastor fido; they obviously reflect the intense interest in this play at the Mantuan court in about 1591, but the temptation to identify the book’s eleven settings with music written for the Mantuan production must be resisted. Mannered, aristocratic and elegant, the poetry of Il pastor fido came to rival that of Tasso's Gerusalemme liberata as a source of madrigal texts. In this, as in so many other ways, Wert's madrigals are innovatory and prophetic, introducing elements of style and gesture that historians usually associate with later composers, and above all with Monteverdi who spent his earliest years at Mantua during Wert's final ones.

Wert, Giaches de


For works mentioned in Wert's letters which cannot be identified see Fenlon, Letters and Documents (1999).

all printed works except anthologies published in Venice

Edition: Giaches de Wert: Collected Works, ed. C. MacClintock and M. Bernstein, CMM, xxiv (1961–77) [W]




Wert, Giaches de: Works


Il primo libro de madrigali, 5vv (1558) [1558]

Il primo libro de madrigali, 4vv (1561) [1561a]

Madrigale del fiore, libro primo, 5vv (1561) [1561b]

Madrigale del fiore, libro secondo, 5vv (1561) [1561c]

Il terzo libro de madrigali, 5vv (1563) [1563]

Il secondo libro de madrigali, nuovamente con nuova giunta ristampati, 5vv (1564) [1564]

Il quarto libro de madrigali, 5vv (1567) [1567]

Il quinto libro de madrigali, 5vv (1571) [1571]

Il sesto libro de madrigali, 5vv (1577) [1577]

Il settimo libro de madrigali, 5vv (1581) [1581]

L'ottavo libro de madrigali, 5vv (1586) [1586]

Il nono libro de madrigali, 5vv (1588) [1588]

Il primo libro delle canzonette villanelle, 5vv (1589) [1589]

Il decimo libro de madrigali, 5vv (1591) [1591]

L'undecimo libro de madrigali, 5vv (1595) [1595]

Il duodecimo libro de madrigali, 4–7vv (1608) [1608]

Works in 155813, 156416, 157015, 15765 15825, 158310, 158312, 159011


A caso un giorno (L. Tansillo), 5vv, 1567; W iv, 65

Accend'i cori a l'arme, 6vv, 1561c; W ii, 60

Ah dolente partita (B. Guarini), 5vv, 1595; W xii, 1

Ahi come soffrirò, 5vv, 1595; W xii, 16

Ahi lass'ogn'hor veggio, 5vv, 1595; W xii, 32

Alto Signor, 6vv, 1558; W i, 95

Amor che sai in qual stat'io mi viva, 5vv, 1591; W x, 36

Amor io fallo (F. Petrarch), 5vv, 1561c; W ii, 48

Amorose viole, 5vv, 158312; W xiv, 82

Amor poiché non vuole (G. Parabosco), 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 27

Amor, se non consenti, 5vv, 1595; W xii, 48

Amor s'hai pur desio meco, 5vv, 1591; W x, 19

Ancor che l'alto mio nobil pensiero, 5vv, 1595; W xii, 19

Anima del cor mio, 5vv, 1595; W xii, 40

Aspro cor e selvaggio (Petrarch), 5vv, 1558; W i, 33

Avorio e gemma (L. Ariosto), 5vv, 1571; W v, 1

Ben sempre degg'io, 5vv, 1608; W xiv, 92

Cantai hor piango (Petrarch), 5vv, 1561c; W ii, 32

Cantate Ninfe homai, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 28

Cantiam del Mincio, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 1

Cara Germania mia, 8vv, 1567; W iv, 76

Cara la vita mia (= Quem admodum desiderat), 5vv, 1558; W i, 45

Cara nemica mia (Tansillo), 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 13

Che fai alma, 7vv, 1595; W xii, 51

Che giova posseder (P. Bembo), 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 1

Che bello Epithemia, 4vv, 156416, ed. S. Cisilino, Celebre raccolte musicali venete del Cinquecento, i (Padua, 1974); W xiv, 61

Che novo e vago sol (= Ut pavidus cervus), 7vv, 1571; W v, 90

Chi mi fura il ben mio, 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 37

Ch'io scriva di costei (Bembo), 8vv, 1558; W i, 103

Chi salirà per me madonn'in cielo (Ariosto), 4vv, 155813; W xv, 62

Come viver potrò, 7vv, 1563; W iii, 112

Con voi giocando amor (G.B. Pigna), 5vv, 1586; W viii, 62

Così di ben amar porto tormento (Petrarch), 5vv, 1571; W v, 4

Credi tu per fuggire, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 32

Cruda Amarilli (Guarini), 5vv, 1595; W xii, 43

Crudelissima doglia, 5vv, 1591; W x, 42

Cura che di timor (G. Della Casa), 5vv, 1558; W i, 27

Da humil verme tra l'herbe, 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 35

Datemi pace o duri miei pensieri (Petrarch), 5vv, 1591; W x, 10

Del vago Mincio sù l'adorne sponde, 5vv, 1591; W x, 21

De que sirve otos morenos, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 51

Dica chi vuol allegro, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 9

Di cerchio in cerchio, 5vv, 1567; W iv, 32

Di morte già sentia, 5vv, 1588; W ix, 42

Di pensier in pensier (Petrarch), 5vv, 1563; W iii, 12

Dolce e felice sogno, 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 54

Dolci furno d'amor gl'aurati strali, 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 42

Dolci spogli felic'e care tanto (Gualtieri), 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 45

Donna de la real stirpe, 5vv, 1567; W iv, 43

Donna io men vò, 5vv, 1567; W iv, 3

Donna se ben le chiome (T. Tasso), 5vv, 1581; W vii, 11

Donna tu sei si bella, 6vv, 1589; W xiv, 54

Dov'e donna il mio sole, 4vv, 1561a; W xiv, 52

Dunque basciar si bell'e dolce labbia (Ariosto), 4vv, 1561a

Dunque non vedi amor, 5vv, 1563; W iii, 5

Dunque potrà il più forte e stretto nodo, 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 10

D'un si bel foco (= Vadam et circuibo civitatem) (Tansillo), 5vv, 15765; W xiv, 68

Dura legge d'amor (Petrarch), 5vv, 1561c; W ii, 21

Ecco ch'un altra volta (Sannazaro), 5vv, 1558; W ix, 5

Ecco la mia vita, 7vv, 1608

Ecco le neve, 5vv, 1563; W iii, 8

Era dunque de' fati occhi miei cari (Tansillo), 5vv, 1577; W vi, 48

Era già quasi al duro passo, 6vv, 1563; W iii, 100

Era il bel viso suo (Ariosto), 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 41

Far potess'io vendetta (Petrarch), 5vv, 1561c; W ii, 15

Felice l'alma (Tansillo), 5vv, 1595; W xii, 34

Felice piume che cosi sovente, 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 16

Felicissima gioia, 5vv, 1591; W x, 44

Fiamma del ciel (Petrarch), 5vv, 1558; W i, 60

Forsennata gridava (Tasso), 5vv, 1586; W viii, 49

Fra l'altre belle, in Di diversi eccellentissimi authori in soggetto di nozze (Venice, 1590); lost, formerly in Heyer Collection, Cologne

Fra le dorate chiome, 5vv, 1586; W viii, 15

Già mi risi d'amor, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 39

Gite negl'antr'e, 5vv, 157015; W xiv, 64

Giunto a la tomba (Tasso), 5vv, 1581; W vii, 38

Giunto m'ha amor, 5vv, 1561c; W ii, 9

Gratie ch'a pochi (Petrarch), 6vv, 1581; W vii, 47

Ha ninfe adorn'e belle (Tasso), 6vv, 1588; W ix, 72

Hoggi un più vago sol, 6vv, 1608

Hor fuggi infedele, 5vv, 15825; W xiv, 73

Hor si rallegra (M. Manfredi), 5vv, 1588; W ix, 1

I desiai ben mio, 5vv, 1591; W x, 6

Il dolce sonno mi promise pace (Ariosto), 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 24

I me ne sto tal'hor, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 34

In qual parte risplend' hoggi'l mio sole, 7vv, 1591; W x, 31

In qual parte si ratto, 5vv, 1581; W vii, 64

Io mi vivea (Tansillo), 5vv, 1581; W vii, 26

Io non son però morto, 5vv, 1586; W viii, 1

Ite ardenti sospiri, 5vv, 1591; W x, 50

Ite pensieri miei ite sospiri, 5vv, 1571; W v, 39

I' vo piangendo i miei passati tempi (Petrarch), 5vv, 1561c; W ii, 38

J'ai trouvé ce matin, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 12

Lacci cathene e ceppi (Tansillo), 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 49

L'alba cui dolci et pargoletti amori, 5vv, 1564; W ii, 89

L'alto valor, 5vv, 1563; W iii, 72

L'anima mia ferita (F. Gonzaga), 5vv, 1588; W ix, 46

Lasso che mal accorto fui (Petrarch), 5vv, 1561c; W ii, 43

Lasso ch'io già, 5vv, 1563; W iii, 35

Lasso quand'io credea di viver sciolto, 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 32

La verginella è simile a la rosa (Ariosto), 5vv, 1558; W i, 115

Le strane voci i dolorosi accenti, 6vv, 1571; W v, 74

Lieto Phebo del mar, 5vv, 1571; W v, 45

Longo le rive (= In Dei thalamum, Vicino à un chiaro), 7vv, 159011; W xiv, 87

Luce de gl'occhi miei (G. Muzio), 6vv, 1577; W vi, 96

Luci a me dolci e care, 5vv, 1591; W x, 1

Ma di chi debbo lamentarmi hai lasso (Ariosto), 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 26

Madonna habbiate cura, 5vv, 1567; W iv, 40

Madonna poi ch'uccider mi volete, 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 60

Madonna quel bel sguardo, 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 22

Men densa pioggia, 5vv, 1558; W i, 88

Mesola il Pò (Tasso), 6vv, 1588; W ix, 66

M'ha punto amor, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 44

Mia benigna fortuna (Petrarch), 5vv, 1588; W ix, 36

Mi diede anima mia, 5vv, 1591; W x, 47

Mi parto hai sorte ria, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 18

Misera che farò, 5vv, 1581; W vii, 8

Misera me che deggio far lontana, 5vv, 1571; W v, 49

Misera non credea ch'agli occhi miei (Tasso), 5vv, 1586; W viii, 29

Misera quanto tempo indarn' ho speso, 5vv, 1591; W x, 33

Ne la stagion ch'el ciel rapido (Petrarch), 5vv, 1563: W iii, 76

Nel tempo che rinova i miei sospiri (Petrarch), 7vv, 1561c; W ii, 67

Ninfe leggiadre, 5vv, 158310 (authenticity doubtful; attrib. Pallavicino); W xiv, 77

Non è si denso velo (G.B. Pigna), 5vv, 1586; W viii, 33

Non fia vero giamai, 5vv, 1571; W v, 28

Non fù donna giamai, 5vv, 1567; W iv, 37

Non mi conosci tu, io ben conosco, 6vv, 1591; W x, 53

Non sospirar pastor (Tasso), 5vv, 1586; W viii, 51

Non tanto il bel pallazzo (Ariosto), 5vv, 1577; W vi, 40

Non ved'oggi il mio sole, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 4

Notti felice e care, 5vv, 1567; W iv, 19

Novo amor, nova fiamma (G.F. Gherardini), 5vv, 1563; W iii, 67

Nunca mucho costa poco, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 52

O cameretta che gia fost'un porto (Petrarch), 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 57

Occhi de l'alma mia, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 22

O come vaneggiate (Guarini), 5vv, 1588; W ix, 49

O fier'aspr'e selvaggie amorosetti augelli (A. Firenzuoa), 5vv, 1558; W i, 92

O gran discortesia, 6vv, 1589; W xiv, 56

Onde aviene cor mio (= Exultabit cor meum), 7vv, 1577; W iv, 101

O ne miei danni (Ariosto), 5vv, 1571; W v, 56

O più che 'l giorno (Ariosto), 5vv, 1563; W iii, 49

O primavera gioventù (Guarini), 5vv, 1595; W xii, 3

O qual gioia e contento dolcissimo mio cor, 5vv, 1591; W x, 25

O sonno, o della quet'humid'ombrosa notte (Della Casa), 5vv, 1558; W i, 20

Padre del ciel (Petrarch), 5vv, 1588; W ix, 29

Partisti hai dura sorte, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 20

Passa la nave mia (Petrarch), 5vv, 1558; W i, 15

Passer mai solitario (Petrarch), 5vv, 1558; W i, 49

Pensier ch'il cor (Ariosto), 5vv, 1558; W i, 81

Per mezz'i boschi inhospiti e selvaggi (Petrarch), 5vv, 1571; W v, 16

Pien d'un vago pensier (Petrarch), 5vv, 1558; W i, 55

Poichè dal mio bel sol, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 7

Poi che si fida scorta, 5vv, 1567; W iv, 27

Poichè vuole il ben mio, 5vv, 1595; W xii, 27

Qual di notte tal hor chiara facella (F. Asinari), 5vv, 1558; W i, 66

Qual dopo i giorni nubilosi, 5vv, 1561c; W ii, 1

Qual musico gentil (Tasso), 5vv, 1586; W viii, 36

Qual nemica fortuna (Affanni), 5vv, 1567; W iv, 48

Qual volta donna mi si rappresenta, 5vv, 1558; W i, 84

Quand'è il dì chiaro, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 42

Quand'io mi volg'in dietr'a mirar (Petrarch), 5vv, 1561c; W ii, 53

Quand'io veggio (Petrarch), 5vv, 1567; W iv, 22

Quando non più d'amor, 5vv, 1563; W iii, 95

Quante volte volgete, 5vv, 1591; W x, 28

Quei pianti quei sospiri, 5vv, 1567; W iv, 13

Quella donna real, 5vv, 1561b; W i, 1

Quel rossignol (Petrarch), 6vv, 1588; W ix, 53

Queste non son più lagrime (Ariosto), 6vv, 1571; W v, 84

Questi ch'inditio fan del mio tormento (Ariosto), 5vv, 1558; W i, 41

Questi odorati fiori, 5vv, 1586; W viii, 54

Questo vostro partire, 4vv, 1608

Qui dove nacque, 5vv, 1577; W vi, 44

Qui fu dove s'assise, 5vv, 1591; W x, 15

Rallegrati mio cor, 5vv, 1586; W viii, 4

S'al'hor che per pigliar, 5vv, 1558; W i, 12

Salve principe invitto, 5vv, 1563; W iii, 1

S'amor talhor prendesse, 4vv, 1608

Saro signor io sol (Tansillo), 5vv, 1571; W v, 10

Scherza nel canto (C. Rinaldi), 5vv, 1595; W xii, 21

Se ben io vo lontan, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 30

Se di quei dì (Tansillo), 6vv, 1577; W vi, 88

Se fra le rupi cave, 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 7

Se gli è pur ver che mia soave gioia, 5vv, 1563; W iii, 44

Se la mia vita da l'aspro (Petrarch), 5vv, 1567; W iv, 8

Se la mia vita trista, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 3

Se le stelle cascassero, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 14

Senza intervallo mai di notte, 6vv, 1563; W iii, 107

Se partendo da voi, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 16

Se quel dolor (Tansillo), 5vv, 1577; W vi, 68

Se tal erger al ciel, 5vv, 1577; W vi, 1

Si come ai freschi matutini rai, 5vv, 1586; W viii, 7

Si dolc'ombr'e soave arbor, 5vv, 1558; W i, 38

Si è debile il filo a cui s'attiene (Petrarch), 5vv, 1558; W i, 110

Si mi vince tal'hor l'aspro martire (V. Salvi), 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 65

S'io esca vivo de dubbiosi scogli (Petrarch), 4vv, 1561a; W xv, 30

Soccorrete ben mio per pietà, 5vv, 1591; W x, 39

Solo e pensoso (Petrarch), 5vv, 1581; W vii, 32

Son animali al mondo (Petrarch), 5vv, 1571; W v, 22

Sorgi et rischiara al tuo, 5vv, 1581; W vii, 1

Sovente all'hor (Tasso), 5vv, 1586; W viii, 22

Sovra un bel cristallino e puro rivo, 5vv, 1588; W ix, 21

Superbi colli (Castiglione), 5vv, 1561c; W ii, 27

Sy ie t'avoys donné m'amour, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 26

Tenti celar in vano, 4vv, 1608

Tirsi morir volea (Guarini), 7vv, 1581; W vii, 56

Tis pyri pyr, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 49

Tolse Barbara gentil (= Omnis gloria est) (Tasso), 5vv, 1577; W vi, 34

Trascende l'Alpi e torn'in Lombardia, 5vv, 1571; W v, 34

Tu canti e cant'anch'io, 5vv, 1591; W x, 3

Udite lagrimosi spirti (Guarini), 5vv, 1595; W xii, 24

Un bacio solo à tante pene (Guarini), 6vv, 1588; W ix, 62

Un jour ie me alloys, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 47

Usciva homai del molle e fresco grembo (Tasso), 5vv, 1586; W viii, 19

Vaga bellezza, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 24

Vaghi boschetti (Ariosto), 5vv, 1581; W vii, 22

Vago augellino (Petrarch), 5vv, 1588; W ix, 16

Valle che di lamenti miei (Petrarch), 5vv, 1588; W ix, 9

Valli nemiche al sol (Tansillo), 5vv, 1577; W vi, 28

Vani e sciocchi non (A. Di Costanzo), 5vv, 1581; W vii, 20

Vener ch'un giorno havea, 5vv, 1586; W viii, 58

Vezzosi augelli (Tasso), 5vv, 1586; W viii, 11

Vicino à un chiaro e cristallino fonte (M. Palma) (= Longo de rive, In Dei thalamum), 7vv, 1591; W x, 57

Vive doglioso, 5vv, 1581; W vii, 17

Voglia mi vien, 5vv, 1589; W xiv, 37

Voi ch'ascoltate in rime (Petrarch), 5vv, 1561c; W ii, 3

Voi nemico crudele, 5vv, 1595; W xii, 29

Voi volete ch'io muoia (G. Parabosco), 5vv, 1581; W vii, 43

Volgano i spirti divi, 5vv, 1563; W iii, 41

Vous qui voyes le pas, 5vv, 1571; W v, 52

Wert, Giaches de: Works


MS nos. prefaced by SB refer to I-Mc Fondo S Barbara and are undated except: SB 155, compiled 1613–25, dated 1625; SB 164, dated 1587; SB 167, dated 1590

Motectorum liber primus, 5vv (1566) [1566]

Il secondo libro de motetti, 5vv (1581) [1581a]

Modulationum liber primus, 6vv (1581) [1581b]

Works in 15634, 158324, 15887, 15921, 160411, 160914, 160915


Adesto dolori meo, 1566; W xi, 104

Adesto sancta Trinitas, 4vv, SB 168, 194

Ad regias Agni, 4vv, SB 168

Aequaeva ingenito, 4vv, SB 167, 194, 195

Aeterna Christi munera, 4vv, SB 167

Amen, amen dico vobis, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 53

Angelus Domini astitit, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 71

Apostolorum passio, 6vv, SB 167

Ascendente Jesu in naviculam, 6vv, 1581b; W xvi, 23

A solis ortus cardine, 4vv, SB 168, 194

Audi benigne conditor, 4vv, SB 168

Aurea luce et decore roseo, 4vv, SB 167

Aurea luce et decore roseo, 4vv, SB 167, 195

Aurora lucis rutilat, 4vv, SB 168

Ave maris stella, 4vv, SB 167, 194

Beata Barbara, 6vv, 1581b; W xvi, 69

Benedicite omnia opera Domini, 4vv, SB 144, 167

Benedicta sit sancta Trinitas, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 76

Cantate Domino canticum novum, 4vv, SB 144, 155

Celestes anime, 4vv, SB 167

Christe redemptor omnium, 4vv, SB 168, 194

Christe redemptor omnium … famolus, 4vv, SB 167

Christum resurgentem, 4vv, SB 168, 194

Christus natus est, 4vv, SB 168

Clama ne cesses, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 14

Clara Silvestri, 4vv, SB 155, 194, 195

Coeli enarrant gloriam Dei, 4vv, SB 144, 155

Contendite intrare, 6vv, 1581b; W xvi, 23

Crudeles herodes impie (= Hostis herodes impie), 4vv, SB 168

Cum intrasset Iesus, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 20

Deus deus meus ad te, 4vv, SB 144, 155

Deus iustus et salvans, 6vv, 1581b; W xvi, 1

Deus misereatur nostri, 4vv, SB 155

Deus noster refugium et virtus, 4vv, SB 144, 155

Deus tuorum militum, 4vv, SB 167

Diligite iustitiam, 4vv, 15634; ed. J. Rostagno and J. d'Alessi, Anthologia Sexta vocalis liturgica (Turin, n.d.)

Divitas et paupertatem, 6vv, 158324 (authenticity doubtful)

Doctor egregie Paule, 4vv, SB 167 (text from Aurora lucis rutilat)

Domine domine noster, 4vv, SB 144, 155

Domine, si tu es, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 38

Domine, tu es qui fecisti eius, 4vv; W xiii, 61

Dominus regnavit decorem, 4vv, SB 144, 155

Dominus regnavit exultet terra, 4vv, SB 144, 155

Ecce apparebit Dominus, 4vv, 158324 (also attrib. Vaet)

Ego autem in Domine sperabo, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 71

Egressus Iesus, 7vv, 1581b; W xvi, 88

Eructavit cor meum verbum bonum, 4vv, SB 144, 155

Et occuli tui lachrimis (authenticity doubtful); ed. in Sammlung älterer Musik aus dem 16. und 17. Jahrhundert Lieferungen 1–12 (Berlin, 1837)

Evangeliste maximus, 4vv, SB 168, 194

Exultabit, cor meum in Deo meo (= Onde aviene cor mio), 7vv, 160915

Exultet celebres, 4vv, SB 12, 146, 167

Fundamenta eius in montibus sanctis, 4vv, SB 144, 155

Gaudete in Domino, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 78

Hic nempe saxis, 4vv, SB 167 (setting = Nunc sancte nobis spiritus, SB 167)

Hoc enim sentite in vobis, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 10

Hoc est praeceptum meum, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 1

Hora est iam nos, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 19

Hostis herodes impie, 4vv, SB 168, 194 (text from A solis ortus cardine)

Iam Christus astra ascenderat, 4vv, SB 168, 194

Iam lucis orto sydere, 4vv, SB 167

Iam lucis orto sydere, 4vv, SB 168, 194

Ierusalem, Ierusalem, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 47

Iesu corona virginem, 5vv, SB 167

Iesu nostra redemptio, 4vv, SB 168, 194 (some verses = Te su nostra redemptio)

Iesu redemptor omnium (= Christe redemptor omnium), 4vv, SB 168

Iesu redemptor omnium, perpes corona praesulum, 5vv, SB 167

In creatum de creata natum, 4vv, SB 167

In Dei thalamum intrabo purus (= Longo le rive, Vicino à un chiaro), 7vv, 160915

In exitu Israel, falsobordone, 4vv, CMac; W xvii, 75

In hoc precandidi, 4vv, SB 168, 194

In patris vallida, 4vv, SB 167, 195

Intravit Iesus, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 84

Iste confessor Domini sacratus, 5vv, SB 167

Iubilate Deo omnis terra, 4vv, SB 144, 155

Laudate Dominum de coelis, 4vv, SB 144, 155

Laude mater pietatis, 4vv, SB 167

Laudate nomen eius in tympano, 3vv, USSR-KA (according to EitnerQ), doubtful

Lucis creator optime, 4vv, SB 168

Lumen tuus divinitus, 4vv, SB 168

Magnificat a septimi toni, 4vv, SB 60, 15887; W xvii, 62

Magnificat a septimi toni, 5vv, SB 60; W xvii, 68

Magnificat I, 4vv, I-CMac (attrib. Roe in IVd 10); W xvii, 52

Magnificat V, 4vv, CMac; W xvii, 55

Magnificat VII, 4vv, CMac; W xvii, 59

Mirus amor dei (= Aequava ingenito), 4vv, SB 167

Miserere mei Deus, falsobordone, 4vv, CMac; W xvii, 75

Missa defunctorum, 4vv, SB 164 (authenticity doubtful; elsewhere attrib. G. Gonzaga)

Missa dominicalis, 5vv, SB 192, 15921; W xvii, 1

Missa in duplicibus maoribus, 5vv, SB 142

Missa in duplicibus minoribus, 5vv, SB 145

Missa in feriis per annum: Die Martis, 5vv, SB 180

Missa in festis apostolorum, 5vv, SB 192

Missa in festis BVM, 5vv, SB 143

Missa in semiduplicibus minoribus, 5vv, SB 180

Missa ‘Transeunte Domino’, 5vv, MAad (dated 1616), UD(dated 1622); W xvii, 23

Multum repostis finibus, 4vv, SB 167

Nolite, esse prudentes, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 28

Noli timere, populus meus, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 5

Nos qui vivimus, 5vv, SB 168

Nunc sancte nobis spiritus, 4vv, SB 167 only (17 settings)

Nunc sancte nobis spiritus, 4vv, SB 168 only

Nunc sancte nobis spiritus, 4vv, SB 194 only (2 settings)

Nunc sancte nobis spiritus, 4vv, SB 167, 194

Nunc sancte nobis spiritus, 4vv, SB 168, 194 (5 settings)

Nunc sancte nobis spiritus, 4vv, SB 167, 168, 194

O altitudo divitiarum, 6vv, 1581b; W xvi, 14

Obsecro vos fratres, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 38

O crux ave, spes unica, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 167

O lux beata Trinitas, 4vv, SB 167

Omnia in vero iudicio, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 1

Omnis gloria est (= Tolse Barbara gentil), 5vv, 160914

O mors, quam amara est, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 59

O nimis felix meritque celsi (= Ut queant laxis), 4vv, SB 167

O sacrum convivium, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 94

Pange lingua gloriosi … certaminis, 4vv, SB 168

Pange lingua gloriosi … corporis (= Pange lingua gloriosi … certaminis), 4vv, SB 168

Pange lingua gloriosi … corporis, 4vv, SB 168

Paraclitus autem spiritus, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 97

Passio domini nostri Iesu Christi secundem Marcum, 2, 5vv, SB 164; W xvii, 86

Peccavi super numerum, 6vv, 1581b; W xvi, 42

Plenus suprema gratia, 4vv, SB 167

Ponatur lacrimis, 4vv, SB 168, 194

Providebam Dominum, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 29

Quem admodum desiderat (= Cara la vita mia), 5vv, 160411

Quiescat vox tua a ploratu, 6vv, 1581b; W xvi, 5

Qui vindicari vult, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 55

Rector potens verax Deus, 4vv, SB 167 only (8 settings)

Rector potens verax Deus, 4vv, SB 168 only (2 settings)

Rector potens verax Deus, 4vv, SB 168, 194 (4 settings; 1 = Te lucis ante terminum)

Reges Tharsis et Insulae, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 66

Rerum Deus tenax vigor, 4vv, SB 167 (2 settings)

Rerum Deus tenax vigor, 4vv, SB 167, 194

Rerum Deus tenax vigor, 4vv, SB 168, 194 (2 settings; 1 = Te lucis ante terminum)

Sancte triumphum virginis, 4vv, SB 17, 167

Sanctorum meritis, 4vv, SB 167, 195

Saule, Saule, 8vv, 1581b; W xvi, 97

Sermone blando, 4vv, SB 167 (text from Aurora lucis rutilat)

Signor pietà ti spinse, 5vv, 15861

Speremus meliora omnes, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 77

Tamquam ovis ad occisionem, 6vv, 1581b; W xvi, 61

Te Deum, 4vv, SB 180 (authenticity doubtful; attrib. G. Gonzaga in CMac, UD and MAad); W xvii, 76

Te Dominum amplectimur, 5vv, 16066

Te lucis ante terminum, 4vv, SB 167 only

Te lucis ante terminum, 4vv, SB 168 only (7 settings)

Te lucis ante terminum, 4vv, SB 167, 194 (10 settings)

Te lucis ante terminum, 4vv, SB 168, 194 (3 settings)

Te su nostra redemptio, 4vv, SB 168

Tibi Christe splendor Patris, 4vv, SB 167 (2 settings)

Transeunte Domino, 5vv, 1566; W xi, 44

Tristes erant apostoli, 4vv, SB 167 (text from Aurora lucis rutilat)

Urbs beata Hierusalem, 4vv, SB 167

Ut fidam sanctam, 4vv, SB 167

Ut pavidus cervus (= Che novo e vago sol), 7vv, 160915

Ut queant laxis, 4vv, SB 167, 194

Vadam et circuibo civitatem (= D'un si bel foco), 5vv, 160411

Veni Creator Spiritus, 4vv, SB 168, 194

Verbum supernum prodiens, 4vv, SB 146, 168

Virginis sancte, 4vv, SB 167

Virgo Maria hodie ad coelum, 6vv, 1581b; W xvi, 79

Voce Iesu, 4vv, SB 167

Vox clamantis in deserto, 6vv, 1581b; W xvi, 55

Vox in Rama audita est, 5vv, 1581a; W xiii, 81

Wert, Giaches de: Works


Fantasias, a 4, I-Rvat Chigi Q VIII 206

Wert, Giaches de






V. Davolio: Memorie storiche della Contea di Novellara (Milan, 1833/R)

A. Ramazzini: ‘I musici fiamminghi alla corte di Ferrara’, Archivio storico lombardo, vi (1879), 116–33

P. Canal: Della musica in Mantova (Venice, 1881/R)

S. Davari: La musica a Mantova (Mantua, 1884); ed. G. Ghirardini (Mantua, 1975)

F.X. Haberl: ‘Das Archiv der Gonzaga’, KJb, i (1886), 31–45

A. Solerti: Ferrara e la corte estense nella seconda metà del secolo decimosesto: i discorsi di Annibale Romei (Città di Castello, 1891, 2/1900)

A. Einstein: ‘Augenmusik im Madrigal’, ZIMG, xiv (1912–13), 8–21

A. Lazzari: Le ultime tre duchesse di Ferrara e la corte estense a' tempi di Torquato Tasso (Florence, 1913, 2/1952)

A. Einstein: ‘Anfänge des Vokalkonzerts’, AcM, iii (1931), 8–13

I. Bogaert: ‘Giaches de Wert, zijn betrekkingen met bekende tijdgenooten’, Vlaamsch jaarboek voor muziekgeschiedenis, ii–iii (1940–41), 61–74

A. Einstein: ‘Narrative Rhythm in the Madrigal’, MQ, xxix (1943), 475–84

A.M. Bautier-Regnier: ‘Jacques de Wert (1535–1596)’, RBM, iv (1950), 40–70

A. Hartmann: ‘Battista Guarini and Il pastor fido’, MQ, xxxix (1953), 414–25

C. MacClintock: The Five-Part Madrigals of Giaches de Wert (diss., Indiana U., 1955)

C. MacClintock: ‘Some Notes on the Secular Music of Giaches de Wert’, MD, x (1956), 106–41

D. Arnold: Monteverdi (London, 1963, 3/1990 by T. Carter)

M. Bernstein: The Sacred Vocal Music of Giaches de Wert (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1964)

C. MacClintock: Giaches de Wert (1535–1596): Life and Works, MSD, xvii (1966)

C. MacClintock: ‘New Light on Giaches de Wert’, Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: a Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese, ed. J. LaRue and others (New York, 1966/R), 595–602

C. MacClintock: ‘The “Giaches Fantasias” in MS Chigi Q VIII 206: a Problem in Identification’, JAMS, xix (1966), 370–82

D. Arnold: ‘Monteverdi: some Colleagues and Pupils’, The Monteverdi Companion, ed. D. Arnold and N. Fortune (London, 1968, 2/1985), 110–30

M. Bernstein: ‘The Hymns of Giaches de Wert’, Studies in Musicology: Essays … in Memory of Glen Haydon, ed. J.W. Pruett (Chapel Hill, NC, 1969), 190–210

C. MacClintock: ‘New Sources of Mantuan Music’, JAMS, xxii (1969), 508–11; xxiii (1970), 360–61

P.M. Tagmann: ‘La cappella dei maestri cantori della basilica palatina di Santa Barbara a Mantova (1565–1630)’, Civiltà mantovana, iv (1970), 376–400

D. Crawford: ‘The Francesco Sforza Manuscript at Casale Monferrato’, JAMS, xxiv (1971), 457–62

A. Newcomb: ‘Form and Fantasy in Wert's Instrumental Polyphony’, Studi musicali, vii (1978), 85–102

E. Durante and A. Martellotti: Cronistoria del concerto delle dame principalissime di Margherita Gonzaga d'Este (Florence, 1979)

J. Haar: ‘The “Madrigale Arioso”: a Mid-Century Development in the Cinquecento Madrigal’, Studi musicali, xii (1983), 203–19

G. Tomlinson: Monteverdi and the End of the Renaissance (Berkeley, 1987)

H.M. Brown: ‘Petrarch in Naples: Notes on the Formation of Giaches de Wert's Style’, Altro Polo: Essays on Italian Music in the Cinquecento, ed. R. Charteris (Sydney, 1990), 16–50

I. Fenlon: ‘Patronage, Music and Liturgy in Renaissance Mantua’, Plainsong in the Age of Polyphony, ed. T. Kelly (Cambridge, 1992), 209–35

S. Ciroldi: ‘Musica e mecenati alla corte dei Gonzaga di Novellara e Bagnolo nel ’500’, Documenta: Luoghi di studio e studio di luoghi: Bagnolo in Piano 1995

F. Ceccarelli: La città di Alcina: architettura e politica alle foci del Po nel tardi Cinquecento (Bologna, 1998)

I. Fenlon: ‘Giaches de Wert: The Early Years’, RBM, lii (1998), 337–97 [incl. Appx]

I. Fenlon: ‘Giaches de Wert at Novellara’, EMc, xxvii (1999), 25–40

I. Fenlon, ed.: Giaches de Wert: Letters and Documents (Paris, 1999)

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