Wertheim, Rosy [Rosalie] (Marie)
(b Amsterdam, 19 Feb 1888; d Laren, 27 May 1949). Dutch composer. After gaining a piano teaching certificate in 1912 from the Koninklijke Nederlandse Toonkunstenaars Vereniging, she studied composition with Bernard Zweers and Sem Dresden. She also taught the piano and solfège at the Amsterdam Muzieklyceum. Deeply concerned about the social circumstances of the working classes, she gave piano lessons to poor children, conducted a children’s chorus in a working-class neighbourhood and financially supported a number of families. She also conducted the Jewish women’s chorus of the Religieus Socialistisch Verbond in Amsterdam. During World War I her song Neutraal was popular. She began her career writing mainly songs and choral works and after encountering the works of Debussy, Ravel and Stravinsky her music became increasingly Impressionistic. In 1929 she moved to Paris, where she studied with Louis Aubert. Until 1935 her home in Paris was a meeting-place for many composers, including Elsa Barraine, Arthur Honegger, Jacques Ibert, André Jolivet and Messiaen. After spending a year in Vienna, where she studied counterpoint with Karl Weigl, she went to the USA, where some of her works were performed by the Composers’ Forum Laboratory in New York. In 1937 she returned to Amsterdam but was forced to go into hiding during World War II because of her Jewish origins. Much of her chamber music is cheerful and neo-classical, and can be playful, as in ‘Cortège de marionettes’ from the Trois morceaux.
Orch: 2 lieder (A. Ritter), A/Mez, orch; Ov., orch, 1918–19; Divertimento, chbr orch, 1934; De middeleeuwen (G. Kamphuis), S, A, chbr orch, 1935–6; Conc., pf, orch, 1940
Chbr: 10 variations sur un thème de César Franck, pf, 1918; Str Qt, 1932; Divertimento, chbr orch, 1934; 3 morceaux, fl, pf, 1939; Suite, fl, cl, bn
Vocal: Neutraal (F. Pauwels), v, pf, 1914; Luid het uit (G.W. Lovendaal), children’s chorus, 1914; Le tsigane dans la lune (J. Lahor), S, vn, pf, 1916; 2 Lieder (A. Ritter), A/Mez, pf; D’où viens-tu, bergère?, S, chorus; La chanson déchirante, Mez, fl, pf, 1926; Hymne (Thomas à Kempis), v, vn, org, 1929; Het narrenschip, v, pf, 1937; Trois Chansons (Li Tái Po), S, fl, pf, 1939
Principal publishers: G. Alsbach, Broekmans en van Poppel, Donemus
K. de Ridder: ‘Rosy Wertheim’, De vrouw en haar huis, no.7 (1948), 252–4 [interview]
R. v. O.: ‘Rosy Wertheim 60 jaar’, De groene (14 Feb 1948)
‘Rosy Wertheim’, Mens en melodie, iv (1949), 219–20
Wertzeburc, Conrat von.
See Konrad von Würzburg.
See Musa, Anthonius.
Wesendonck [Wesendonk; née Luckemeyer], Mathilde [Agnes]
(b Elberfeld, 23 Dec 1828; d Traunblick, nr Altmünster, 31 Aug 1902). German poet. Mathilde and Otto Wesendonck (a wealthy silk merchant) married in 1848 and settled in Zürich in 1851, where they became acquainted with Wagner the following year. The Wesendoncks placed at Wagner’s disposal the little house he named the Asyl, adjoining their villa in the Zürich suburb of Enge; Otto proved to be one of Wagner’s most generous patrons. Mathilde enjoyed an intimate relationship with Wagner, which was probably not consummated, but which in part inspired – and was dramatized in – Tristan und Isolde. She was also the author and dedicatee of the Wesendonck Lieder. The relationship ended in 1858 with Wagner’s enforced removal from the Asyl. Mathilde’s subsequent prose and poetic works include the five-act drama Gudrun (1868), the five-act tragedy Edith oder die Schlacht bei Hastings (1872) and the dramatic poem Odysseus (1878). The Wesendoncks spelt their name thus; it was not until after 1900 that their son reverted to what was probably the original spelling of the Dutch-derived name, Wesendonk.
W. Golther, ed.: Richard Wagner an Mathilde Wesendonk: Tagebuchblätter und Briefe 1853–1871 (Berlin, 1904, many later edns; Eng. trans., 1905/R)
E.H. Müller von Asow, ed.: Johannes Brahms und Mathilde Wesendonck: ein Briefwechsel (Vienna, 1943)
J. Bergfeld: Otto und Mathilde Wesendonks Bedeutung für das Leben und Schaffen Richard Wagners (Bayreuth, 1968)
English family. The relationship of the musical Wesleys to the great 18th-century religious leaders of the same name is most easily shown by a family tree (fig.1). Despite the statements of many writers, there is no evidence to connect this family with that of garret wesley Mornington.
(1) John Wesley
(2) Charles Wesley (i)
(3) Charles Wesley (ii)
(4) Samuel Wesley
(5) Samuel Sebastian Wesley
NICHOLAS TEMPERLEY (1–3), PHILIP OLLESON (4; work-list with STANLEY C. PELKEY II), NICHOLAS TEMPERLEY/PETER HORTON (5)
(1) John Wesley
(b Epworth, Lincs., 17 June 1703; d London,2 March 1791). Clergyman, the founder of Methodism; his views on music were of great importance in English and American musical history.
He was the 15th child of Samuel Wesley (1662–1735), an Anglican clergyman of nonconformist forebears, and Susanna née Annesley (1669–1742), a woman of remarkable learning, was educated at home by his mother and then at Charterhouse and Oxford, and was ordained a clergyman of the Church of England. The Methodist movement began in the religious group he founded at Oxford in 1729. During his missionary voyage to Georgia in 1735–8 and subsequently in London he was much influenced by the Moravians, and his first Collection of Psalms and Hymns (Charlestown, 1737) contained five translations of German hymns. In 1739 he secured the Foundery at Moorfields which was to remain the headquarters of the London society, and in 1742 he issued the Foundery Tune Book which contained the first collection of Methodist church music. Later he produced Select Hymns with Tunes Annext (1761), the tunes of which were issued separately as Sacred Melody (1765); Sacred Harmonyfollowed in 1781 (revised c1790), to go with his Collection of Hymns for the Use of the People Called Methodists (1780, ed. Hildebrandt and Beckerledge). Much of Wesley’s life was spent in incessant travelling, to preach in churches, in meeting-houses and in the open air, and to supervise and inspire the growing numbers of his followers. In face of rising opposition from the Church, he nonetheless maintained his Anglicanism to the last: from many points of view he was a high churchman. His ideas were influential not only on the Wesleyan Methodists, but on the other dissenting bodies and on the Church of England as well. Indeed he was as much the originator of the Evangelical party in the Church of England as of the sect that bears his name. But he eventually parted ways with the majority of them on a theological issue: he was Arminian, they were Calvinist.
Wesley’s opinions about music are to be found scattered in his Journal, essays, letters and prefaces; in the minutes of the Methodist conferences; and in the selections of tunes which he compiled or approved for Methodist use. He believed in the great power of music over men’s hearts and wanted to harness this power for good. Though he himself could on occasion be profoundly moved by purely instrumental music, his Arminian theology led him to take the view that church music must be joined to words, and those words must come from the hearts of the worshippers. He had no puritanical dislike of elaborate music, or of organs: indeed his personal ‘conversion’ on 24 May 1738 came to him while listening to an anthem at St Paul’s Cathedral. But he could not tolerate voluntaries. If a choir sang, they must sing words with a clear meaning and appeal, and so that all could hear them. If the congregation sang, they must sing heartily, standing up, not too slowly, and without vain repetition. At the Bristol Conference of 1768 he attacked ‘complex tunes which it is impossible to sing with devotion’, long hallelujahs, and ‘the repeating the same word so often (but especially while another repeats different words – the horrid abuse which runs through the modern church-music) as it shocks common sense, so it necessarily brings in dead formality and has no more of religion in it than a Lancashire hornpipe’. The type of tune described has often been called ‘Methodist’, but actually the ‘repeating’ and ‘fuging’ tunes were developed in the Anglican parish churches at about the time Wesley began his movement.
The novelty in the Wesleyan tunes was their secularity. Wesley saw no objection to adapting popular or operatic songs to religious words (‘plunder the carnal lover’, as his brother put it), and the new tunes in the Methodist collections were uninhibited in their adoption of the fashionable galant style of the day. It was this that shocked the more conservative element in the Church. But it was hugely effective with the people at large, showing them that religion need not be formal, dreary and old-fashioned. By 1757 Wesley was able to boast of the great superiority of Methodist singing:
Their solemn addresses to God are not interrupted either by the formal drawl of a parish clerk, the screaming of boys who bawl out what they neither feel nor understand, or the unseasonable and unmeaning impertinence of a voluntary on the organ. When it is seasonable to sing praise to God, they do it with the spirit and the understanding also … all standing before God, and praising him lustily, and with a good courage.
Until the Church put its house in order, the music of the Methodists was a powerful draw. Dr Vincent in 1787 considered that ‘for one who has been drawn away from the Established Church by preaching, ten have been induced by music’. In the USA the Methodists’ tunes contained the seeds of the popular religious music so important in the 19th-century evangelical movements.
EDITIONS WITH MUSIC
A Collection of Tunes, Set to Music as they are Commonly Sung at the Foundery (London, 1742)
Select Hymns with Tunes Annext (London, 1761); 2nd edn, with tune suppl. separately titled Sacred Melody (1765)
Sacred Harmony, or A Choice Collection of Psalms and Hymns (London, 1781/R)
The Power of Music (1779); repr. in The Methodist Hymn Book (1933)
Preface to Sacred Harmony (London, 1780)
W. Vincent: Considerations on Parochial Music (London, 1787)
L. Tyerman: The Life and Times of John Wesley (New York, 1872)
R. Green: The Works of John and Charles Wesley: a Bibliography (London, 1896, 2/1906)
N. Curnock, ed.: The Journal of John Wesley (London, 1909–16)
J.T. Lightwood: Methodist Music in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1927)
J. Telford, ed.: Letters of John Wesley (London, 1931)
R.M. Stevenson: Patterns of Protestant Church Music (Durham, NC, 1953)
R.L. Harmon: Susanna, Mother of the Wesleys (London, 1968)
E. Routley: The Musical Wesleys (London, 1968), 15–27
N.F. Adams: The Musical Sources for John Wesley's Tune Books (Ann Arbor, 1974)
F. Hildebrandt and O.A. Beckerledge, eds.: A Collection of Hymns for the Use of the People Called Methodists, The Works of John Wesley, vii (Oxford, 1983), 738–91
H.D. Rack: Reasonable Enthusiast: John Wesley and the Rise of Methodism (Philadelphia, 1989)
C.R. Young: Music of the Heart: John and Charles Wesley on Music and Musicians (Carol Stream, IL, 1995)
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