Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Widowe, Robert. See Wydow, Robert. Wiechowicz, Stanisław

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Widowe, Robert.

See Wydow, Robert.

Wiechowicz, Stanisław

(b Kroczyce in Miechów district, 27 Nov 1893; d Kraków, 12 May 1963). Polish composer, conductor and critic. He studied successively at the Conservatory of the Kraków Music Society, the Dalcroze Institute at Hellerau near Dresden, the St Petersburg Conservatory and the Paris Schola Cantorum. In 1931 he took examinations as an external candidate in composition at the Warsaw Conservatory. From 1921 he taught in Poznań, first at the Academy, then, from 1923, at the Conservatory. From 1921 to 1939 he was also active as a choral conductor, working in particular with the Koło Śpiewackie Polskie (singing society) and the Chopin and Moniuszko choirs. From 1945 he was a professor at the State Higher School of Music in Kraków.

During the inter-war period he was chief editor of Przegląd muzyczny and music reviewer for the Kurier poznański and Muzyka polska. From 1946 he edited the series Polska Literatura Chóralna published by the Polish Music Publishers (PWM). He was a founding member, and vice-chairman, of the Society of Young Polish Musicians in Paris (1926), and artistic director of both the Wielkopolski Związek Kół Śpiewaczych (the singing society of Greater Poland) (1929) and the Union of Polish Vocal and Instrumental Ensembles (1947; from 1961 he was an honorary director). In 1926 he conducted the Polish première of Honegger’s Le roi David and in 1933 the world première of Maliszewski’s Requiem. Among the awards he received were the State Prize (1939, 1950 and 1962), the prize of the Union of Polish Composers (1953) and the music prize of Polish Radio (1962); in 1959 he was made a Commander of the Rebirth of Poland.

Wiechowicz’s works stem from a national tradition, and he was inspired by social issues to compose in a communicative and direct manner. The most significant of his works are those for chorus, which brought to Polish music new compositional techniques found in the instrumental repertory. Characteristic of his choral writing are the dialogues between vocal registers and variability of voice structures. The melodic style of his songs owes much to Polish folk music, elements of which he either imitated or took directly from folk sources. One of his best choral works is the Kantata żniwna (‘Harvest cantata’), which received a medal at the Polish Krajonym Konkursie Olimpijskim (National Olympic Competition) in 1948. Other important works are the Kantata romantyczna (‘Romantic cantata’), a piece full of lyrical atmosphere and strong drama, and List do Marc Chagalla (‘Letter to Marc Chagall’), which is dedicated to the victims of the Holocaust, and is the only work by Wiechowicz devoid of folk elements. His greatest achievement, however, is Gołębica (‘The Dove’, 1959–63), a work of mystical character and cast in a freely atonal idiom, with an emphasis on melodic recitative. Of his orchestral works, Chmiel (‘Hops’), a wedding dance, was awarded a gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1937, and Koncert staromiejski (‘Old-Town Concerto’, 1954) is among the best examples of the trend in Polish music of the period towards neo-classicism.


(selective list)

Acc. choral: Dzień słowiański [The Slavonic Day] (cant., E. Zegadłowicz), chorus, brass, 1928; Suita pastoralna [Pastoral Suite] (T. Czyżewski and others), male spkr, chorus, orch, 1929, unfinished; Kantata romantyczna [Romantic Cant.] (A. Mickiewicz), S, chorus, orch, 1934, rev. 1955; Pragną oczki [My Eyes’ Desire] (trad.), chorus, 2 pf, 1943; Na glinianym wazoniku [On a Little Clay Pot] (J. Porazińska), chorus, 2 pf, 1946, orchd 1947; A czemużeś nie przyjechał [Why did you not come?] (rustic scene, trad.), chorus, orch, 1948; Kujawiak, G (trad.), chorus, orch, 1952; Pado dysc [The Rain Falls] (trad.), chorus, orch, 1953; Gołębica [The Dove] (cant., S. Wyspiański), S, chorus, orch, 1959–63; List do Marc Chagalla [Letter to Marc Chagall] (dramatic rhapsody, J. Ficowski), male spkr, female spkr, 2 solo vv, chorus, orch, 1961

Unacc. choral: Kolędziołki beskidzkie [Songs from the Beskid Mountains] (Zegadłowicz], female chorus, 1925, rev. 1953; Słowo o Jakubie Szeli [A Word about Jakub Szela] (B. Jasieński), 1927; Oj, ty, wolo [You Will!] (Jasieński), 1928; Mruczkowe bajki [Tales of the Purring Cat] (variations, Porazińska), 1934; Kantata żniwna [Harvest Cant.] (trad.), 1940–47; Kujawiak–ballada (trad.), 1944; Passacaglia i fuga (trad.), 1960; c150 choral songs

Other works: Chmiel [Hops], sym. scherzo, orch, 1927, rev. 1949; 2 Mazurkas, vn, pf, 1942; Kasia, folk suite, 2 cl, str, 1946; Koncert staromiejski [Old-Town Conc.], str, 1954; Szyszki [Pine Cones], sym. rondo, orch, 1954; 28 songs


Principal publisher: PWM


B. Rutkowski: ‘Stanisław Wiechowicz’, Muzyka polska, vi (1939), 65–7

S. Wiechowicz: Podstawowe uwagi dla dyrygentów chórowych [Basic considerations for choral conductors] (Kraków, 1951)

A. Mrygoń: Stanisław Wiechowicz, 2 vols. (Kraków, 1982–9)


Wiechteler [Wiechterl] von Greiffenthal, Matthias Siegmund.

See Biechteler von Greiffenthal, Matthias Siegmund.


German family of musicians.

(1) (Johann Gottlob) Friedrich Wieck

(2) Clara (Josephine) Wieck

(3) (Friedrich) Alwin (Feodor) Wieck

(4) (Johanna) Marie Wieck



(1) (Johann Gottlob) Friedrich Wieck

(b Pretzsch, nr Torgau, 18 Aug 1785; d Loschwitz, nr Dresden, 6 Oct 1873). Music teacher and writer on music. He attended the Torgau Gymnasium from 1800 to 1804, and had piano lessons with J.P. Milchmeyer. Despite his profound interest in music, he began a four-year course of theological study in Wittenberg, then worked as a private tutor in Thuringia and Saxony. His teaching activities gave him an insight into contemporary questions of education and upbringing, and he also encountered the works of such educationists as J.H. Campe and A.H. Niemeyer. Wieck's Wöchentliche Bermerkungen über den Schüler Emil von Metzradt, an essay written in 1809 in Pielitz near Bautzen, was the outcome of this early work as a teacher. Turning more intensively to music, not least as a result of his collaboration with the piano teacher Adolph Bargiel, he settled in Leipzig in 1813 or 1814 as a piano teacher. His house soon became a meeting-place for musicians and artists. With his first wife Mariane Tromlitz Wieck opened a business selling instruments and a music lending library. He continued running the library until 1835 and selling instruments until he left Leipzig in 1840. By this time his second wife Clementine Fechner was assisting him in his business ventures; Wieck had been divorced in 1824, and had married again in 1828. During his years in Leipzig he lavished particular care on the musical education and career of his daughter Clara. In 1840, the year of Clara's marriage to Schumann, Wieck left Leipzig and moved to Dresden, where he was much in demand as a teacher. He held regular private concerts at the house in Loschwitz where he spent the summers, teaching a large number of pupils. Through his acquaintance with G.W. Teschner and Johannes Mieksch, he also began to teach Italian vocal technique. Although Wieck devoted himself almost exclusively to music teaching, he occasionally helped his nephew Wilhelm Wieck, a Dresden instrument maker, with the sale of his pianos. He also published works on music and wrote music criticism.

Wieck devoted special attention to elementary piano teaching. Building on the system of J.B. Logier, he combined technical practice with the teaching of theory. On this basis, he developed a system in which the pupil initially, and for quite a long time, played small pieces without musical notation. During this phase the pupil's touch was trained without impairment to his pleasure in music or his musical spontaneity. Influenced by the English school of Field, among others, Wieck aimed for a singing, expressive tone. He preferred grand pianos made in the Viennese style because of their bright sound and ability to express nuance. His teaching was also based on the close connection between instrumental and vocal training. Wieck's large circle of pupils included his two daughters Clara and Marie, as well as musicians who stayed with him for only a short time, suh as Schumann, Gustav Merkel, Isidor Seiss and Friedrich Reichel. Wieck summed up his methods in his book Klavier und Gesang (Leipzig, 1853, enlarged 3/1878; Eng. trans., 2/1875). He also wrote for the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, Cäcilia and Signale für die Musikalische Welt under the pseudonym DAS (‘Der alte Schulmeister’). In his last years of life he put together a collection of humorous aphorisms entitled Musikalische Bauernsprüche (Dresden, 1871, 2/1878). Wieck also composed a number of songs, as well as studies and other educational pieces for the piano.


(2) Clara (Josephine) Wieck

(b Leipzig, 13 Sept 1819; d Frankfurt, 20 May 1896). Pianist, composer and teacher, daughter of (1) Friedrich Wieck. See Schumann, Clara.


(3) (Friedrich) Alwin (Feodor) Wieck

(b Leipzig, 27 Aug 1821; d Dresden, 21 Oct 1885). Violinist and piano teacher, son of (1) Friedrich Wieck. His father taught him the piano, and he studied the violin with Ferdinand David. In 1843 he left Dresden to become an orchestral player in Reval (now Tallinn), and from 1849 he played in the orchestra of the Italian opera in St Petersburg. He returned to Dresden in 1859 to teach piano by his father's system. While he was in St Petersburg he wrote Methode zur gründlichen Unterweisung im Pianofortespiel nach Friedrich Wieck’s vieljährigem und erprobtem Verfahren, with a Russian translation (MS in D-Zsch). He also published Materialen zu Friedrich Wieck’s Pianoforte-Methodik (Berlin, 1875) and Vademecum perpetuum für den ersten Pianoforte-Unterricht nach Friedrich Wieck’s Methode (Leipzig, c1880).


(4) (Johanna) Marie Wieck

(b Leipzig, 17 Jan 1832; d Dresden, 2 Nov 1916). Pianist and teacher, daughter of (1) Friedrich Wieck. She learned the piano from her father. After her first public appearances in 1843–4, she began studying the piano intensively and undertook further concert tours in Germany and elsewhere in Europe. In 1857 she was appointed court and chamber virtuoso to Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern. She lived chiefly in Dresden, where she gave piano lessons, often with her father, and held soirées. After Friedrich Wieck's death she continued teaching by his method and published several of his educational works, including Pianoforte Studien von Friedrich Wieck (Leipzig, c1875) and Friedrich Wiecks Singübungen (Leipzig, c1877). She also composed short piano pieces, a fantasy on Scandinavian folksongs for piano and cello or viola, and several songs.


A. Meichsner: Friedrich Wieck und seine beiden Töchter Clara Schumann, geb. Wieck, und Marie Wieck (Leipzig, 1875)

A. Fay: Music-Study in Germany (Chicago, 1880/R)

A. Kohut: Friedrich Wieck: ein Lebens- und Künstlerbild (Dresden, 1888)

V. Joss: Friedrich Wieck und sein Verhältnis zu Robert Schumann (Leipzig, 1900)

V. Joss: Der Musikpädagoge Friedrich Wieck und seine Familie (Dresden, 1902)

M. Wieck: Aus dem Kreise Wieck-Schumann (Dresden, 1912, 2/1914)

J. Mahr: ‘Friedrich Wieck: Ausbildungsmethoden eines “alten Musikmachers”’, NZM, Jg.128 (1967), 371–9

K. Walch-Schumann, ed.: Friedrich Wieck: Briefe aus den Jahren 1830–1838 (Cologne, 1968)

R. Fuhrmann: ‘Die Musikpädagogik von Friedrich Wieck: eine nachträgliche Würdigung zum zweihundertsten Geburtstag’, Üben & Musizieren, iii/5 (1986), 464–5, 467–71

T. Genneper: Als Patient bei Samuel Hahnemann: die Behandlung Friedrich Wiecks in den Jahren 1815/1816 (Heidelberg, 1991)

C. Köckritz: ‘Ausgewählte Aspekte der Klavierausbildung Friedrich Wiecks’, Schumann Studien, vi (1997), 41–54

C. Köckritz: Friedrich Wieck: ein Musikpädagoge im 19. Jahrhundert (diss., Dresden U., forthcoming)

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