(b Ilford, Essex, 29 Aug 1949). English composer, conductor and music educationist. He took both bachelor’s and master’s degrees in music at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, between 1967 and 1972 and gained the doctorate in composition (with Lumsdaine) at Durham University in 1975. In 1973 he had founded the 20th-century music ensemble Gemini, which he directed for the next eleven years. During his period of study, his compositions underwent a maturation towards increasing formal clarity and textural transparency; works from the mid-1970s onwards show the deepening impact on Wiegold of non-Western (especially Indian) musics and philosophies, which meshed with a pre-existing concern to emphasize a spiritual dimension in music.
In the late 1970s he developed a practical interest in organizing workshops where people of all degrees of musical experience (including none) could become creatively involved together in composition and performance. This led in the 1980s to a shift of focus towards his activity as artistic director of the Performance and Communications Skills department of the GSM (until 1996) and as director of training and performance projects with orchestras including the LSO and RPO.
Stage: Last Tango on the North Circular (chbr op, Wiegold), 1989
Vocal: Dove sta amore (L. Ferlinghetti), S, cl, tpt, db, 1971; Sing Lullaby (trad.), S, amp db, 1974; And he showed me a pure river of water of life (Bible: Revelation), S, 3 cl, perc, 1976; Prelude IV ‘Snow Melting’ (K. Gyodai), S, cl, vc, pf, 1979; Songs from Grimm (N. Otty), S, pf, 1983; Like a rope of a thousand fathoms (trad.), S, 2 cl, va, vc, db, 1989; Seas that have no beaches (M. Peake), S, ens, 1990; A soft wind stirs (R. Tagore), S, ens, 1992; Les roses (J. Shapcott), S, pf, 1998
Inst: The Dancing Day, brass qnt, 1973; Gemini, 2 cl, 2 perc, 1973; The flowers appear on the earth, fl, cl, va, vc, santur/gui, perc, 1978; Prelude I, fl, cl, va, vc, perc, 1978; Prelude III, wind qnt, 1979; Prelude II, pf, 1980; Prelude V ‘Aside’, str qt, 1981; The Persistence of Memory, chbr orch, 1990; Soft Shoe Shuffle, chbr ens, 1991; A Mirror to Khaladi, vn, vc, pf, synth, 1993; New York Suite, chbr ens, 1997; The Seventh Wave, vc, tape, 1997; Farewells take place in silence, 11 str, 1998
(b Oderzo, 24 Sept 1849; d Venice, 17 Feb 1920). Italian musicologist. While studying law and philosophy in Venice he was taught harmony and counterpoint by Tonassi and Maggi. He became one of the first active musicologists in Italy, serving as an assistant librarian of the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice and head of the Venetian chapter of the Associazione dei Musicologi Italiani, under whose auspices he began the catalogue of the Marciana’s extensive musical holdings (first section published 1915–16). His most important publication, I codici musicali contariniani del secolo XVII (1888), became fundamental to scholarship on Venetian seicento opera, subsequently developed in the studies of Kretzschmar (1892) and Goldschmidt (1893).
His particular interest in Francesco Cavalli, whose operas constitute the largest single section of the Contarini collection, yielded one of the first significant documentary monographs on that composer. As president of the concert society of the Liceo Musicale (later the Conservatorio Nazionale di Musica Benedetto Marcello) in Venice he organized one of the first concerts devoted exclusively to Cavalli’s music (1913). In I teatri musicali veneziani del Settecento: catalogo delle opere in musica (1897) he provided the first comprehensive survey of musical life in 18th-century Venice.
He wrote four librettos for the composer A. de Lorenzi-Fabris (Berta di Sopramontano, 1890; Gli adoratori del fuoco, 1891; Maometto II, 1892; Il re s’annoia, 1901), a volume of Versi per musica (1889) and several musical compositions, including Italia e Savoia, a hymn (1915), Vigilia nuziale for violin and piano (1917), Liriche for voice and piano, and some piano music; he also published several translations of English poetry, an essay on Byron and a guide to Titian’s paintings in Venice.
I codici musicali contariniani del secolo XVII nella R. Biblioteca di San Marco in Venezia (Venice, 1888/R)
I teatri musicali veneziani del Settecento: catalogo delle opere in musica rappresentate nel secolo XVIII in Venezia (Venice, 1897/R)
‘Francesco Cavalli (1602–1676) e la sua musica scenica’, Nuovo archivio veneto, new ser., xxviii (1914), 106–50; Eng. trans., abridged, MA, iv (1912–13), 1–19
R.Strohm: ‘Taddeo Wiel und die venezianische Opernbibliographie’, DJbM, xviii (1973–7), 101–14
Wieland, Christoph Martin
(b Oberholzheim, nr Biberach, 5 Sept 1733; d Weimar, 20 Jan 1813). German poet, dramatist and librettist. He studied law at Tübingen and then visited Zürich. After a period as a private tutor he returned home in 1760. His novel Geschichte des Agathon (1766–7), with its Greek background and striking psychological insight, won him a chair of philosophy at Erfurt, and in 1772 he moved to Weimar, to take up the post of tutor to the young dukes. He founded Der teutsche Merkur in 1773, in imitation of the Mercure de France, and took a lively interest in the movement to found a German national Singspiel; his essays in Der teutsche Merkur include ‘Briefe an einen Freund über das deutsche Singspiel Alceste’ (1773, no.1, and 1774, no.1), ‘Ueber einige ältere teutsche Singspiele’ (1773, no.4), and ‘Versuch über das teutsche Singspiel’ (1775, nos.3–4). In 1780 he published one of his most successful works, the verse epic Oberon; this oriental tale was later the basis for operas by Wranitzky (1789), Weber (1826) and others. Novels, philosophical writings, translations (including 23 of Shakespeare’s plays, 1762–6) and editorial work occupied him fully, and after a period of retirement (1797–1803) he returned to Weimar; after Schiller’s death (1805) he was considered the most prominent German writer apart from Goethe.
Wieland’s libretto for Schweitzer’s Alceste (performed at Weimar in 1773) earns an honourable place in the annals of German opera, though his other texts for Schweitzer, Aurora (Vorspiel, 1772), Die Wahl des Herkules (1773) and Rosamunde (1780) are of more limited importance, and some of his other texts for music or arrangements for Singspiele are of purely antiquarian value. Easily Wieland’s most influential work from a musical viewpoint is Dschinnistan oder Auserlesene Feen- und Geister-Mährchen (3 vols.; Winterthur, 1786–9); this work was edited by Wieland, its contents being partly new, partly translated and adapted, and stories from it gave birth to the Schikaneder-Mozart Die Zauberflöte, the Perinet-Müller Kaspar der Fagottist and several other operas and Singspiele.
E.Pasqué: ‘Alceste von Wieland und Schweitzer, die erste deutsche Oper der neuen Zeit’, Recensionen und Mittheilungen über Theater und Musik, vii (1861), 35
K.Goedeke and others: Grundriss zur Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung, v/1 (Dresden, 1891), 186–208d
A.Fuchs: ‘Wieland et l’aesthétique de l’opéra’, Revue de littérature comparée, x (1930), 608–33
C.Sommer: Christoph Martin Wieland (Stuttgart, 1971)
R.Würtz: ‘Anton Schweitzer and Christoph Martin Wieland: the Theory of the Eighteenth-Century Singspiel’, Crosscurrents and the Mainstream of Italian Serious Opera: London, ON, 1982 [SMC, vii (1982)], 148–54