Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Wihtol, Joseph. See Vītols, Jāzeps. Wijngaerde, Antonius van den

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Wihtol, Joseph.

See Vītols, Jāzeps.

Wijngaerde, Antonius van den.

See De Vinea, Antonius.

Wiklund, Adolf

(b Långserud, Värmland, 5 June 1879; d Stockholm, 3 April 1950). Swedish composer, pianist and conductor. He studied at the Stockholm Conservatory with Lindegren (composition) and Andersson (piano). A state scholarship enabled him to study in Paris (1903–4), where he was organist of the Swedish church, and a Jenny Lind Stipend took him to Germany for further education (1905–7). There he had lessons with Kwast in Berlin, conducted at Karlsruhe (1907) and served as coach at the Berlin Opera (1908). He made his début as a conductor at the Royal Theatre, Stockholm, in 1911, and was then conductor of the Royal Orchestra (1911–24) and the Concert Society Orchestra (1925–38); he also conducted in several European cities. As a pianist he played his own concertante pieces and appeared as an accompanist. In 1915 he was elected to the Swedish Academy of Music. He composed in a national Romantic style, at first influenced by Brahms and Stenhammar but later dominated by Impressionist features with a great feeling for melody and harmony. Among the best works of his small output are the two piano concertos (which are among the most important Swedish compositions in the genre), the symphonic poem Sommarnatt och soluppgång, the Symphony and the Violin Sonata.


(selective list)

Orch: Konsertstycke, pf, orch, 1902; Concert Ov., 1903; 2 pf concs., e, op.10, 1906, rev. 1935, b, op.17, 1917; Sommarnatt och soluppgång, sym. poem, 1918; Sym., op.20, 1923; Symfonisk prolog, 1934; suites and other pieces for full/chbr/str orch

Other works: Sonata, a, vn, pf, 1906; small pf pieces, songs


Wikmanson [Wikman], Johan

(b Stockholm, 28 Dec 1753; d Stockholm, 10 Jan 1800). Swedish composer and organist. The son of an impoverished dyer, he studied thoroughbass and the keyboard with H.P. Johnsen. In 1770 he was sent by his parents to Copenhagen to learn mathematics and instrument making. He returned to Stockholm in 1772 and entered the civil service as an accountant in the royal lottery. During the 1780s he studied composition with Abbé Vogler and with his friend J.M. Kraus; in 1788 he was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Music, Stockholm, where he became the director of education (1796) and a teacher of harmony and theory (1797). As the organist at the Dutch Reformed Church (1772–81) and at the Storkyrka (from 1781), where he helped to rebuild the organ during the 1790s, he became one of the most important organists in Sweden. He also played a number of other instruments and was particularly proficient on the cello.

Wikmanson translated theoretical works by Tartini (from the French), and by Vogler, for whom he was also a linguistic adviser. His works resemble Kraus's in their sense of form and technical mastery; his Häckningen, written for the Palmstedt literary circle, is a charming Rococo piano cantata in Kraus's manner. The three surviving string quartets, based on Haydn's style but with idiomatic harmony and counterpoint, were posthumously published by his friend G.A. Silverstolpe with a dedication to Haydn, who praised them highly. His piano music was influenced by C.P.E. Bach, Haydn and probably Johann Schobert, and includes a Sonata in C with a brief, humorous movement entitled ‘Hönshuset’ (‘Henhouse’), and a cycle of miscellaneous pieces entitled Fragmenter för min lilla flicka, composed for his daughter. Wikmanson was also a significant Swedish lied composer, and set over 30 poems during the 1790s.


MSS mainly in S-Sk, Skma


Sacrificial Chorus, to Äfventyraren [The Adventurer] (Spl, J.M. Lannerstierna), Stockholm, 1791, S-Skma, St

Finale to Eremiten [The Hermit] (Spl, G. Eurén after A. von Kotzebue), Stockholm, 1798, St

Chorus, Syskon af vänskapens heliga röst, D

Concert aria, Han försvann, hvilka drömmar sväfva, E

Häckningen (cant., C.M. Bellman), 1v, pf, 1792, Sk, pubd in Carl Michael Bellmans skrifter, xi (Stockholm, 1964)

Songs for male qt, lost

Lieder: Sammelsurium af wisor och små sångstycken, 28 songs (Bellman, A. Bertin, G.A. Bürger, M. Claudius, A.M. Lenngren), 1789–90; 3 songs pubd in Skaldestycken satte i musik (Stockholm, 1795); 1 song, Det bör ej någon plåga ge, Skma


Orch: Minuetto allegretto, E, 1796, ed. in The Symphony 1720–1840, ser. F, iii (New York, 1983)

Chbr: str qt, A, c1782, S-Skma (facs. in Autographus musicus, xxiv (Stockholm, 1984)), ed. in MMS, x (1981); 3 str qts, d, e, B, op.1 (Stockholm, 1801), ed. in MMS, vi (1970); str qt, B [only va pt extant]; str, qt, inc., lost; 3 sonatas, cittern, b; 2 sonatas, cittern, lost; 2 solos, vc, lost

Kbd: Sonata, b, ed. K. Brodin in Svensk klassik musik, ii–iii (1932); Sonata, C, 1 movt in Musikaliskt tidsfördrif, xxxv (1823); Divertissement på Södersfors, D, 1784, ed. K. Valentin, Svensk sång (Stockholm, 1901); Fragmenter för min lilla flicka, 2 pts; Theme and 7 variations, D; Andante, c, LI; other small pieces, lost


G.A. Silverstolpe: Åminnelsetal öfver Johan Wikmanson (Stockholm, 1801)

C.-G. Stellan Mörner: Johan Wikmanson und die Brüder Silverstolpe (Stolkholm, 1952) [with list of works and bibliography]

C.-G. Stellan Mörner: ‘Litet Mozart-, Haydn-, och Wikmansoniana’, STMf, xxxvii (1955), 161–4

H. Eppstein: ‘Om Wikmansons stråkkvartetter’, STMf, liii (1971), 5–21

H. Eppstein and B. Hammar: ‘Om Johan Wikmansons återfundna stråkkvartet i A-dur’, STMf, lxvi (1984), 51–6

L. Jonsson and A. Johnson: Musiken i Sverige, ii: Frihetstid och Gustaviansk tid, 1720–1810 (Stockholm, 1993)


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