Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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6. Motets.

Willaert’s greatest and most enduring compositions are his motets. Out of a provisional total of 175, 79 are for four voices, 51 for five, 38 for six and five for seven or eight voices. The motets enjoyed wide circulation during his lifetime in manuscripts, printed anthologies and a series of influential publications issued by Scotto and Gardano from 1539 on. These publications, which include two books of motets for four voices (1539, repr. 1545), one book for five voices (1539, repr. 1550) and one for six voices (1542), were among the first printed books to focus on the music of a single composer, attesting to the high regard in which Willaert was held at the time.

Like most of his contemporaries, Willaert used a wider variety of motet texts than most composers of the previous generation. Beside psalm, responsory and antiphon texts, he set sequences, hymns, gospels, psalms, lessons and sections of the Proper of the Mass as well as non-psalmodic passages from the Bible. In addition, there are five motets with secular Latin texts, which honour the Sforza family (Inclite Sfortiadum and Victor io, salve) and Cardinal Ippolito de’ Medici (Adriacos numero) among others.

Willaert’s earliest motets, which number around a dozen and are mostly for four voices, appear in Italian manuscripts and printed anthologies from the second and third decades of the century. Representative works include the ingenious canonic motet Christi Virgo and the through-composed, pervasively imitative Saluto te sancta virgo, both in the Medici Codex (I-Fl 666, 1518) among other sources. Although many of these early works are thought to have been written for his Ferrarese patron Cardinal Ippolito I d’Este, they display the clear influence of Willaert’s teacher Mouton, a Frenchman, in their use of continuously imitative counterpoint organized into high and low voice-pairs, their melismatic, at times haphazard text declamation, and their additive formal plans consisting of interconnected polyphonic sections each presenting a single phrase of text.

Willaert’s mature motet style is evident in the new works published from 1539 onwards, which were among his most popular compositions and enjoyed wide circulation in European prints and manuscripts. The four-voice Magnum haereditatis mysterium typifies their style, with its textural integration of all voices, flexible shifts between imitative and free counterpoint, and careful, prevailingly syllabic text declamation. Motets of this period also deploy a wide variety of interesting constructive devices including chant paraphrase, large sectional repetitions, intricate canonic structures, cantus-firmus tenors, recurring ostinatos and soggetti cavati. Popular among instrumentalists on lute and keyboard, these motets were frequently arranged for performance and publication.

During the 1540s and 50s individual motets continued to appear in printed anthologies throughout Europe; however, it is those in the monumental Musica nova (1559) that best epitomize Willaert’s late style. Among the most celebrated publications of the 16th century, this large collection of motets and madrigals was discussed in well over a hundred extant documents from the period, including letters, theoretical writings, legal papers, repertorial inventories and payment records. Of special interest is the dedication by Francesco dalla Viola, Willaert’s Ferrarese editor, which asserts that the music had lain ‘concealed and buried’ for many years. Curiosity about this enigmatic dedication, the remarkable preservation of so many relevant documents, the significance of the title ‘New Music’, and the idiosyncratic style of the music itself have generated an unusual amount of research on the collection, primarily focussed on its fascinating publication history and on the Petrarchan madrigals that follow the motets in Gardano’s print (fig.2).

Most of Musica nova is devoted to Willaert’s 27 long and serious motets, some of which had been composed nearly two decades earlier. Featured in the collection is an unusual group of sacred texts, including nine which had been previously set by Josquin, a cycle of seven antiphons from the feast of the Circumcision, and numerous Marian hymns, sequences and antiphons, as well as penitential texts from the Old Testament (Psalms, Jeremiah and Daniel), two of which (Audite insulae and Avertatur obsecro) were substantially rewritten so as to refer to contemporaneous political events. Equally unusual is the musical style of the motets themselves, which exhibit impeccable text declamation, low tessitura and thick voicings (the majority for six or seven voices), and extraordinarily continuous counterpoint built on declamatory rhythmic motifs that are distributed equally among all the voices. In evidence, too, are many of the same constructive devices that appear in earlier works: in particular, complex canons involving up to four voices and a preference for melodic ideas borrowed from plainchant.

Willaert, Adrian

7. Secular vocal works.

Willaert began composing chansons during his studies with Mouton in Paris. His early chansons, which circulated in manuscript chanson-books as well as in printed anthologies, tend to be constructed in one of two ways. The majority are in the style of the ‘three-voice popular arrangement’ that was cultivated at the French royal court of Louis XII. Here, a pre-existing secular tune borrowed from the theatre or folksong repertories of the previous century was stated one phrase at a time in the tenor voice while being simultaneously imitated and ornamented by the outer voices (e.g. Qui la dira). A second compositional approach, characteristic of the printed anthology Motetti novi e chanzoni franciose a quatro sopra doi (RISM 15203), involved paraphrasing a pre-existing monophonic tune in four canonic voices (e.g. Mon mary m’a diffamee).

Even after moving to Italy around 1515, Willaert continued writing chansons for his Italian patrons, especially the Ferrarese Cardinal Ippolito I d’Este, at whose lavish court French musical styles and genres were cultivated. Later, when he was maestro di capella in Venice, new chansons continued to be published in anthologies. The largest group, 20 three-voice chansons, appeared in the Venetian print La courone et fleur des chansons a troys (RISM 15361). Thought to have been written over several decades, these chansons display a variety of styles. Some are three-voice popular arrangements of the sort Willaert had written as a young man in Paris. Others, especially those whose texts have been linked to events at the Ferrarese court of Duchess Renée de France, may date from the early 1530s and have many hallmarks of the composer’s mature contrapuntal style, including a heightened sensitivity to the text, angular melodic ideas with much syncopation and other rhythmic displacement, more dramatic changes of texture, contrasting tonal regions that are articulated by cadences at the end of formal units, and frequent sectional repetitions (e.g. J’ay veu le regnart et le loup et le lievre).

Near the end of Willaert’s life, the Parisian firm of Le Roy & Ballard published retrospective editions of most of his chansons. The Cincquiesme livre de chansons (1560, 2/1578) reissued the three-voice works from La courone et fleur, and Livre de meslanges contenant six vingtz chansons (1560, 2/1572) included 25 chansons for five and six voices, most of which had circulated in manuscripts or in printed anthologies of the 1540s. The majority of these many-voiced chansons, like those for fewer voices, use borrowed melodic material – either a pre-existing melody from the French monophonic repertory or polyphonic passages by other composers, particularly Josquin. In the freely composed chansons, on the other hand, two- or three-voice canons are common. Of special note are the multiple settings Willaert made of certain texts, which he frequently set for three voices and again for five or six.

Despite being amply represented in Italian anthologies of the mid-16th century, Willaert’s chansons did not find favour with the leading Parisian publisher, Pierre Attaingnant. Nor were they especially popular among instrumental arrangers of the period; unlike his motets, which were arranged with considerable regularity, only a handful of chansons appeared in the keyboard and lute collections that proliferated after 1550.

It is unclear precisely when Willaert began composing madrigals. His earliest essays were published in anthologies from the mid-1530s and early 1540s and therefore postdate his move to Venice, a city not known as a centre of madrigal production at the time. In fact, they display the direct influence of Verdelot, who had worked in this genre while residing in Florence in the 1520s and some of whose madrigals Willaert intabulated for voice and lute (1536). Early works like Madonna, il bel desire (1534) display what has been called ‘the classic Florentine madrigal style’, a chanson-like idiom perfected by Verdelot and Arcadelt by the 1530s. Its identifying features include a prominent and tuneful upper voice and a formal plan following the versification of the text. This style is characterized by predominantly syllabic declamation, regular phrasing with a cadence marking the end of each verse, and prevailingly homorhythmic textures, which often incorporate dance-like passages in triple time. Willaert’s preferred text-form was the poetic madrigal or a hybrid of the madrigal with the ballata or canzone, both of which have prominent formal reprises. Several texts honour famous personages of the day, including Qual dolcezza giamai, which pays tribute to the celebrated soprano Polissena Pecorina (who later owned the manuscript of Musica nova), and Rompi de l’empio cor, which was written by the Republican martyr Filippo Strozzi during his imprisonment in Florence on charges of sedition against the Medicean state.

Around 1540 a new style began to emerge in Willaert’s madrigals, especially those included in publications of his pupil Cipriano de Rore. This style reached its apex with the 25 madrigals of Musica nova, most of which were composed around 1540. Scored for from four to seven voices, these weighty madrigals share many stylistic characteristics with the serious motets that precede them in the publication. Setting (with one exception) complete sonnets from Petrarch’s Canzoniere, these madrigals enjoyed great fame and influence at mid-century, primarily because of the skill with which the meaning, syntax and sonorous beauty of the poetry were conveyed. Many scholars believe that Willaert’s choice of these Tuscan poems and his innovative musical settings of them paralleled, and may have emerged from, a contemporaneous preoccupation on the part of prominent literati in north Italy, in particular the Venetian poet Pietro Bembo, with classic writings of the trecento and their exemplary role in the development of the Italian language. Willaert’s sensitive and expressive treatment of Petrarch’s sonnets is evident throughout Musica nova. On the one hand, he carefully created large-scale musical structures that would match the form of each sonnet by presenting its first eight verses in the prima parte and the closing sestet in the seconda parte. Individual contrapuntal sections, on the other hand, were constructed so as to draw attention to striking poetic images, important phrases or self-sufficient syntactic units, which might not coincide with the poetic versification (e.g. Giunto m’ha amor). The impeccable declamation in earlier madrigals is made even more audible now by the coincident articulation in multiple voices of important or stressed syllables of text. Furthermore, by manipulating subtle but kaleidoscopic shifts of rhythm, texture and vocal colour, Willaert brought out the sonorous nuances of individual phrases, words and syllables.

From a modern perspective, however, the most notable feature of these late madrigals is their unusually dense and continuous contrapuntal idiom, which largely eschews imitative textures, clear cadential articulations, distinctive rhythmic patterns and tuneful melodic ideas (soggetti), which are no longer restricted to their conventional positions in the soprano and tenor parts but now roam freely and unpredictably among diverse vocal combinations. The result is an elusive contrapuntal idiom that has elicited a wide variety of critical responses from 20th-century performers and audiences alike, some of whom have found the madrigals unattractive and impenetrable even as others applaud their sensitive and expressive treatment of Petrarch’s elusive poetry.

Willaert played a central role in the popularization at mid-century of the Neapolitan dialect song called the canzona villanesca (see Villanella, §6). This new genre, thought to reflect an urban tradition of popular song in southern Italy, entered north-Italian musical circles in the early 1540s through Venetian publications of the three-voice villanesche of the Neapolitan composer Gian Domenico da Nola. Attracted by these colloquial songs of pastoral life, Willaert soon made his own madrigalesque arrangements, which were quickly published by the firm of Scotto, beginning in 1545. Carefully retaining the identifying features of his rustic models – the popular melodies, dialectical texts, irregular rhythms and homorhythmic textures – Willaert increased the number of voices from three to four, transferred the traditional melody from the highest to the tenor voice, enlivened the counterpoint and reworked the harmonies, and expanded the vocal range downward. His arrangements are thought to have been performed alongside more serious madrigals at sophisticated courts and academies in northern Italy and the Veneto, where they won unusual popularity and were reprinted no less than five times in the decades that followed. By 1560 canzone such as Willaert’s Zoia zentil, on a text by the Paduan playwright and poet Ruzante, had become hit tunes across Italy and had spawned a wave of similar compositions by lesser-known composers as well as established figures like Baldassare Donato, Perissone Cambio and Orlande de Lassus. Willaert’s canzone remained popular well into the 1570s, especially in the form of lute intabulations, which enjoyed wide circulation in manuscript and print.

Willaert, Adrian

8. Instrumental works.

Although Willaert is best known as a composer of vocal music, he played a key role in the development of the imitative instrumental ricercare at mid-century. In 1540 he began publishing ricercares, mostly for three voices, in collections of music by other composers. Many of these publications also contain motet or motet-like vocal compositions, lending support to the hypothesis that the new imitative style of his ricercares has an affinity with vocal genres, and the motet in particular.

Willaert’s ricercares are highly contrapuntal settings for three or four voices of a limited number of melodic ideas subjected to progressive variation. Probably intended for private performance by students or amateurs, these works are best suited to ensembles of strings or recorders, though they were advertised as equally suitable for voices. Indeed, manuscript scores and transcriptions of similar works suggest that the ensemble ricercare was often played on keyboard or plucked instruments and that it may also have served didactic purposes.

Willaert’s earliest ricercares appeared in another Venetian print entitled Musica nova (RISM 154022) along with works by Julio Segni and Girolamo Parabosco (both of whom were affiliated with S Marco), Girolamo Cavazzoni, Nicolaus Benoist and Guilielmo Golin. Unlike earlier examples of the genre for keyboard or plucked-string instruments, which tend to be sectional pieces dominated by improvisatory or idiomatic instrumental writing, Willaert’s four-voice compositions feature a seamlessly imitative, contrapuntal style that was to become the norm for ensemble ricercares throughout the second half of the century. Four more, entitled ‘Re’, ‘Mi’, ‘Fa’ and ‘Sol’, appeared in Gardano’s Motetta trium vocum (RISM 15436), this time with companion motets by Morales, Costanzo Festa and Jacquet of Mantua. Significantly shorter than the pieces in Musica nova, these three-voice ricercares are notable for their thematic unity, highly continuous counterpoint and infrequent homorhythm.

A further eight ricercares were issued by Scotto in his Fantesie, et recerchari a tre vocicomposte da M. Giuliano Tiburtino da Tievoli (RISM 154934). This publication was dominated by the aristocratic papal musician Tiburtino, with whom Willaert may have worked at the Este court in Ferrara. Willaert’s contributions, which may have been written as much as two decades earlier for instrumentalists at the Este court, are notable for their thematic interrelationships, their wide textural variety and the sectional repetitions with which several conclude. All of Willaert’s pieces were reprinted two years later, with two additional ricercares, in Gardano’s Fantasie, recercari contrapunti (RISM 155116, repr. 155925/R, 15938), together with compositions by Cipriano de Rore and Antonino Barges (both pupils of Willaert) and Girolamo Cavazzoni, whose father Marco Antonio was executor of Willaert’s will of 1552.

Willaert, Adrian

9. Legacy.

Willaert’s historical importance was assured by the large and diverse body of music he left to posterity, by his powerful influence on younger Italian composers (especially those fortunate enough to work with him in Venice during his lengthy tenure at S Marco) and, perhaps most significantly, by his influence on music theory of the late 16th century. From 1533 until well into the 17th century, Willaert’s name appeared on lists of the era's pre-eminent composers, compiled by such writers as Giovanni Maria Lanfranco (Scintille di musica, 1533), Adrianus Petit Coclico (Compendium musices, 1552), Hermann Finck (Prattica di musica, 1592), Cosimo Bartoli (Ragionamenti accademici, 1567), Gaspar Stoquerus (De musica verbali, c1570), Lodovico Zacconi (Prattica di musica, 1592) and Giulio Caesare Monteverdi (Dichiaratione, 1607), among others.

It is Gioseffo Zarlino, however, who deserves the most credit for having passed on the teachings of Willaert to future generations of musicians. In Le istitutioni harmoniche (1558) Zarlino successfully integrated long-standing precepts of music theory with Willaert’s refined compositional methods and in the process inaugurated a new theoretical tradition that survives well into the 17th century. Zarlino used Willaert’s compositions to explain topics ranging from the deployment of specialized contrapuntal devices (e.g. canon, invertible part-writing, cantus-firmus paraphrase, fugue etc.) to his own idiosyncratic theories of polyphonic modality. More generally, he praised Willaert’s music for its skilful text declamation, its expressive harmonic variety, its apt use of major and minor triads, its melodic inventiveness and beauty and its tasteful application of chromatic inflection.

Because so many of Zarlino’s ideas made their way into the music treatises of later writers in Italy, France and northern Europe, Willaert’s reputation as the leading composer of his generation was assured even as his music fell out of favour and nearly dropped out of sight. It is only in the 20th century that his compositions have been revived and reintroduced to the musical public, primarily because of their relevance to Zarlino’s treatise, which remains one of the most insightful, comprehensive and well-illustrated explications of late Renaissance polyphonic style. During the 1950s and 60s renewed scholarly interest arose for theoretical issues that had been examined by 16th-century writers like Zarlino and that also bore on the compositional concerns of the early 20th century: for example, the revival of sophisticated contrapuntal devices, criteria by which the harmonic and melodic coherence of a polyphonic work might be evaluated, the expressive use of pan-chromaticism and new types of chords, and experimentation with unusual systems of tuning. Modern curiosity about these and other topics attracted attention to Le istitutioni harmoniche and through it to Willaert’s music.

More recently, as scholars have focussed attention on archival and bibliographical studies, a great deal of new information has been gathered about Willaert’s life and places of employment, the manuscripts and publications in which his music appears (especially Musica nova), and his multifaceted relationships with publishers and patrons. In addition, researchers have sought to establish a broader literary, liturgical and political context for both his sacred and secular compositions. Although this has led to widespread and continued historical interest in his music, individual pieces have had a difficult time entering the musical mainstream. With the exception of a handful of especially tuneful chansons, madrigals and motets, few compositions have gained favour with modern performers or listeners, raising perplexing questions about the aesthetic quality of his music that still await satisfactory answers.

Willaert, Adrian


selective list of sources

Editions: Adriani Willaert Opera omnia, ed. H. Zenck and others, CMM, iii/1– (Rome, 1950–) [Z]Adrian Willaert and his Circle: Canzone villanesche alla napolitana and villotte, ed. D.G. Cardamone, RRMR, xxx (1978) [C]J.B. Weidensaul: The Polyphonic Hymns of Adrian Willaert (diss., Rutgers U., 1978) [W]Adrian Willaert: Five Double Canons, ed. B. Thomas (London, 1986) [T]Adrian Willaert: The Complete Five- and Six-Voice Chansons, ed. J.A. Bernstein, SCC, xxiii (1992) [B]Fantasie recercari contrapunti, ed. R. Judd (New York and London, 1994) [J]




miscellaneous liturgical music




other italian genres



doubtful and misattributed works

Willaert, Adrian: Works


Liber quinque missarum (Venice, 1536) [1536a], Z ix


Missa ‘Benedicta es’, 5vv, attrib. Willaert in D-Sl 46, NL-SH 72A (facs. and ed. in UVNM, xxxv, 1915); attrib. Hesdin in I-MOe α.N.1.2, Rvat C.S.19, TVd 1; anon. in A-Wn 15950, D-Mbs Mus.Ms.260 (Pleni sunt celi and Ag II only), I-Bc Q24, REsp s.s., NL-SH 75, P-Cug M.2 (Ky, Gl, Cr only) (on Josquin’s, Mouton’s and Prioris’s motets)

Missa ‘Christus resurgens’, 4vv, 1536a, Z ix (on motet by Mouton or Richafort)

Missa ‘Gaude Barbara’, 4vv, 1536a, attrib. Divitis in F-CA 3; Z ix (on Mouton’s motet)

Missa ‘Laudate Deum’, 4vv, 1536a, attrib. Divitis in CA 3; Z ix (on Mouton’s motet)

Missa ‘Mente tota’, 6vv, D-Mbs 42, I-Rvat C.S.16,TVd 1 (on Josquin’s motet)

Missa ‘Mittit ad virginem’, 6vv, MOe α.N.1.1 (on his own motet)

Missa [mi ut mi sol], 5 vv, NL-SH 72A (cantus firmus setting, possibly soggetto cavato)

Missa ‘Osculetur me’, 4vv, 1536a, Z ix (on Gascongne’s motet)

Missa ‘Queramus cum pastoribus’ (i), 4vv, 1536a, Z ix (on Mouton’s motet)

Missa ‘Quaeramus cum pastoribus’ (ii), 4vv, F-CA 3, Z ix (on Mouton’s motet)

Kyrie, 4vv, Pn Rés.Vma.15 (c.f. Ky ‘Cunctipotens genitor’; in score)

Willaert, Adrian: Works


Hymnorum musica (Venice, 154211, 2/15503), Z vii: Ad cenam Agni providi, 5vv; Ad cenam Agni providi, 5vv; Adesto Sancta Trinitas, 6vv; Aurea luce et decore roseo, 5vv; Aures ad nostras deitatis, 5vv; Ave maris stella, 6vv; Christe, Redemptor omnium, 6vv; Conditor alme siderum, 5vv; Decus morum, dux minorum, 6vv; Exsultet coelum laudibus, 5vv; Fons pietatis culmina, 6vv; Hostis Herodes impie, 5vv; Iste confessor Domini, 5vv; Jesu corona virginum, 5vv; Lucis Creator optime, 5vv; Magne pater Augustine, 6vv; O iubar, nostrae specimen, 6vv; Pange lingua gloriosi, 6vv; Proles de coelo prodiit, 5vv; Tibi, Christe, splendor, 4vv; Ut queant laxis, 5vv; Veni Creator Spiritus, 5vv; Vexilla Regis, 5vv; Vexilla Regis, 6vv

I sacri e santi salmi che si cantano a Vespro e Compieta … 4vv (Venice, 1555, repr. 1565, enlarged 2/1571), W: Ad preces nostras, 4vv; Ave maris stella, 4vv; Christe redemptor omnium, 4vv; Magne pater Augustine, 4vv; Te lucis ante terminum, 4vv

Ad cenam Agni providi, 4vv, I-TVd 13, W; Festum nunc celebre, 5vv, TVd 13, W; Laetetur mens fidelium, 5vv, Bsp A.XXXXV, anon., attrib. Willaert in RMS, iv (1986), ed. F. Tirro, Giovanni Spataro’s Choirbooks in the Archive of San Petronio in Bologna (diss., U. of Chicago, 1974); Maria mater domini, 5vv, TVd 13, W; Sanctorum meritis, 5vv, TVd 13, W

Willaert, Adrian: Works


Di Adriano et di Jachet: I salmi … a uno et a duoi chori (Venice, 15501), Z vii: Confitebor tibi … in consilio (Ps cx), 8vv; Credidi propter quod locutus sum (Ps cxv), 8vv; De profundis (Ps cxxix), 8vv; Domine probasti me (Ps cxxxviii), 8vv; In convertendo (Ps cxxv), 8vv; Lauda Jerusalem Dominum (Ps cxlvii), 8vv; Laudate pueri Dominum (Ps cxii), 8vv; Memento Domine David (Ps cxxxi), 8vv with Jacquet of Mantua: Beatus vir qui timet Dominum (Ps cxi), 4–5vv; Dixit Dominus (Ps cix), 4–5vv; In exitu Israel (Ps cxiii), 4vv; Laetatus sum (Ps cxxi), 4vv; Laudate Dominum omnes gentes (Ps cxvi), 4–5vv; Nisi Dominus (Ps cxxvi), 4–5vv

I sacri e santi salmi …, 4vv (1555, repr. 1565, enlarged 2/1571): Beatus vir qui timet Dominum (Ps cxi); Confitebor tibi … in consilio (Ps cx); Cum invocarem (Ps iv); De profundis (Ps cxxix); Dixit Dominus (Ps cix); Ecce nunc benedicite (Ps cxxxiii); In te Domine speravi … et eripe me (Ps lxx); Laetatus sum (Ps cxxxiii); Lauda Jerusalem Dominum (Ps cxlvii); Laudate pueri Dominum (Ps cxii); Memento Domine David (Ps cxxxi); Qui habitat in adiutorio Altissimi (Ps xc)

Lauda anima mea Dominum (Ps cxlv), 8vv, I-TVd 11b; Laudate Dominum quoniam bonus est psalmus (Ps cxlvi), 8vv, TVd 11b; both attrib. Willaert in Carver (1988)

Willaert, Adrian: Works

miscellaneous liturgical music

I sacri e santi salmi …, 4vv (1555, repr. 1565, enlarged 2/1571*): Magnificat; Magnificat secti toni; Nunc dimittis* ants: Benedicamus in laude Jesu*; Hodie Christus natus est; Miserere mihi, Domine; Regina celi*; Salva nos Domine; Tecum principium resp: In manus tuas* vcles: Benedicamus Domino*; Jube Domine benedicere

Magnificat del secondo tono, lost, mentioned in SpataroC

Willaert, Adrian: Works


Motecta … liber primus, 4vv (Venice, 1539, enlarged 2/1545) [Z i]

Mottetti … libro secondo, 4vv (Venice, 1539, enlarged as Motecta … liber secundus, 2/1545) [Z ii]

Motecta … liber primus, 5vv (Venice, 1539, 2/1550) [Z iii]

Motecta … liber primus, 6vv (Venice, 154210) [Z iv]

Musica nova (Venice, 1559) [Z v]


Adriacos numero, 5vv, Z iii; Ad te Domine preces nostras, 4vv, Z i; Ad tua confugio supplex, 4vv, 15385; Alma Redemptoris mater, 6vv, Z v; Angelus Domini descendit, 4vv, Z i; Antoni pastor inclyte, 4vv, Z i; Armorum fortissime ductor Sebastiane, 4vv, Z ii; Aspice Domine quia facta, 6vv, Z v; Auditae insulae, 6vv, Z v; Aule lucide, 4vv, I-MOe C313; Ave dulcissime Domine, 4vv, Z i; Ave et gaude, 5vv, Bc Q27; Ave Maria, ancilla (2p. Ave Mariafons), 5vv, Z iii; Ave Maria, gratia plena, 4vv, Z i; Ave Maria, gratia plena, 4vv, 153210 (2p. of Pater noster); Ave Maria, gratia plena, 6vv, Z iv; Ave maris stella, 5vv, Z iii; Ave regina coelorum (2p. Gaude [virgo] gloriosa), 4vv, Z i; Ave regina coelorum, 4vv, Z ii; Avertatur obsecro Domine, 6vv, Z v; Ave virginum gemma Sancta Catharina, 4vv, Z ii; Ave virgo sponsa, 6vv, Z iv

Beata viscera, 6vv, Z iv; Beati pauperes, 5vv, Z v; Beatus Bernardus, 5vv, TVd 29, lost; Beatus Bernardus (2p. Factus est quasi), 6vv, 154422; Beatus Joannes Apostolus, 4vv, Z ii; Beatus Laurentius, 6vv, Z iv; Beatus Stephanus, 4vv, Z ii; Benedicta es, coelorum regina, 4vv, Z i; Benedicta es, coelorum regina, 7vv, Z v; Benedictus Redemptor, 5vv, ed. in Cw, lix (1957); Cantate Domino canticum vocum, 4 vv, Bc Q20; Christi mater sancte Chiliane, 5vv, TVd 29, lost; Christi virgo (2p. Quoniam peccatorum mole), 4vv, ed. in MRM, iv (1968); Christus resurgens, 5vv, Z iii; Clare sanctorum, 5vv, 15446; Confitebor tibi, 4vv, Z v; Congratulamini mihi omnes (2p. Beatam me dicent), 4vv, Z ii; Congratulamini mihi omnes (2p. Et dum flerem), 5vv, Z iii; Congratulamini mihi omnes (2p. Recedentibus discipulis), 4vv, Z i; Creator omnium, 5vv, MOe C313; Creator omnium, 6vv, MOe C314

Da pacem, Domine, 4vv, 15539; Dic nobis, 4vv, MOe C313; Dilexi, quoniam, 4vv, Z v; Domine Jesu Christe, 5vv, Z iii; Domine Jesu Christe (2p. O bone Jesu), 6vv, Z iv; Domine Jesu Christe, fili Dei, 4vv, Z i; Domine Jesu Christe memento, 4vv, Z ii; Domine, quid multiplicati, 4vv, Z v; Domine quis habitabit, 4vv, 15203; Dominus regit me, 4vv, Z i; Dulces exuviae, 3vv, 15206; Dulces exuviae, 4vv, Z ii; Ecce Dominus veniet, 5vv, 15329; Ecce lignum crucis, 5vv, Z iii; Enixa est puerpera, 6vv, 15407, Rvat C.S.46; Flete oculi, rorate genas, 4vv, Z ii; Gaudeamus omnes, 5vv, TVd 29, lost

Hac clara die (2p. Cui contra Maria), 4vv, 153410; Haec est domus Domini, 6vv, Z v; Haud aliter pugnans fulgebat, 5vv, Z iii; Hodie Christus natus est, 5vv, MOe C313; Homo quidam fecit coenam, 4vv, Z i; Huc me sidereo, 6vv, Z v; Inclite dux salve victor, 5vv, Z iii; Inclite Sfortiadum, 5vv, Z iii; In diebus illis (2p. Et stans retro), 6vv, Z iv; In diebus illis (2p. Susanna aliquando, 3p. Deus qui), 5vv, 15371; In excelso throno vidi sedere, 6vv, Z iv; Infelix ego, 6vv, c15569; Infirmitatem nostram, 5vv, NL-Lml 864; In illo tempore stabant, 4vv, Z ii; Intercessio quaesumus, 4vv, Z ii; Inter natos, 4vv, T; In tua patientia, 4vv, Z i; Inviolata, integra (2p. Nostra ut pura pectora), 4vv, Z i; Inviolata, integra (2p. Tua per precata), 7vv, Z v; Joannes Apostolus (2p. Ecclesiam tuam), 4vv, Z i

Laetare sancta mater ecclesia, 5vv, Z iii; Lamentabatur Jacob, 4vv, D-Rp 211–15; Laus tibi, sacra rubens, 5vv, ed. in Cw, lix (1957); Locuti sunt adversum me, 5vv, Z iii; Magne martyr Adriane, 4vv, Z i; Magnum haereditatis mysterium, 4vv, Z ii; Mane prima sabbati, 5vv, I-MOe C313; Mirabile mysterium, 4vv, Z i; Miserere nostri Deus, 5vv, Z v; Mittit ad virginem, 6vv, Z v; Natale Sancte Euphemiae, 4vv, Z i; Nazaraeus vocabitur, 4vv, Z i; Ne projicias nos, Domine, 5vv, Z iii; Nigra sum, 4vv, c15301; Nil postquam sacrum, 6vv, lost, mentioned in Zarlino, Istitutioni (3/1573/R), 325; Nunc pio corde, 4vv, MOe C313

O admirabile commercium, 5vv, Z v; O beatum pontificem … O Martine, 6vv, Z iv; Obsecro Domine, 6vv, Z iv; O crux splendidior, 5vv, Z iii; O doctor optime, 5vv, TVd 29, lost; O Domine Jesu Christe, adoro, 4vv, Z i; O gemma clarissima, Catherina, 4vv, Z i; O gloriosa domina, 6vv, Z iv; O magnum mysterium, 4vv, Z i; Omnia quae fecisti, 5vv, Z v; Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, 4vv, Z i; O proles Hispaniae, 6vv, MOe C314; O salutaris hostia, 6vv, Z iv; O socii durate, 6vv, Z xiv; O sodales sancti Vindemialis et Florentii, 5vv, TVd 29, lost; O stupor et gaudium … tu Francisce, 5vv, Rv S.Borr.E.II.55–60; O Thoma, laus et gloria, 4vv, Z i

Parens tonantis maximi, 4vv, Z ii; Patefactae sunt januae, 4vv, Z i; Pater noster, 6vv, Z iv; Pater noster (2p. Ave Maria), 4vv, Z ii; Pater, peccavi (2p. Quanti mercenarii), 4vv, 15538; Pater, peccavi, 6vv, Z v; Peccata mea, 6vv, Z v; Peccavi supra numerum, 5vv, Z iii; Plange quasi virgo, 4vv, GB-Lcm 2037; Praeter rerum seriem, 7vv, Z v; Precatus est Moyses, 5vv, Z iii; Prolongati sunt, 5vv, Z iii; Quasi unus de paradisi, 4vv, Z i; Quem terra, pontus, aethera, 4vv, Z ii; Quia devotis laudibus, 4vv, I-Bc Q19; Quid non ebrietas, 2 or 4vv, 4vv setting ed. in Lowinsky (1956); Qui habitat in adjutorio, 4vv, Z ii; Recordare Domine, 4vv, Z v; Regina celi letare, 3vv, J; Regina coeli laetare, 4vv, Z ii; Regina coeli laetare, 4vv, ed. in MRM, iv (1968); Regina coeli laetare, 5vv, Z iii; Regina coeli laetare (2p. Resurrexit), 6vv, MOe C314

Sacerdotum diadema, 5vv, Z iii; Sacro fonte regenerata, 5vv, ed. in Cw, lix (1957); Saluto te sancta virgo, 4vv, Z i; Salva nos ab excidio, 5vv, Z iii; Salve, crux sancta, 4vv, Z i; Salve sancta parens, 6vv, Z v; Sancta et immaculata, 4vv, 15203, ed. in Lowinsky (1982); Sancta Maria regina (2p. Opia domina), 5vv, 153410; Sancte Francisce, 6vv, D-W 293; Sancte Paule apostole, 4vv, Z i; Simile est regnum, 5vv, I-Rv S.Borr.E.II.55–60; Si rore Aonio, 5vv, Z iii; Spiritus meus attenuabitur, 5vv, Z ii; Stans autem Jesus, 4vv, ed. in SCMot, ix (1998); Strinxerunt corporis membra, 4vv, Z ii; Sub tuum praesidium, 5vv, Z v; Surgit Christus cum trophaeo, 4vv, Z ii; Sustinuimus pacem et non venit, 5vv, Z v

Te Deum patrem, 7vv, Z v; Tota pulchra es, 4vv, Z i; Tristis est anima, 4vv, GB-Lcm 2037; Usquequo Domine, 4vv, Z ii; Valde honorandus est beatus Joannes, 4vv, Z ii; Venator lepores, 6vv, Z iv; Veni Redemptor, 5vv, I-MOe C313; Veni Sancte Spiritus (2p. O lux beatissima), 6vv, Z v; Veni Sancte Spiritus (2p. Sine tuo nomine), 4vv, Z ii; Verbum bonum (2p. Ave solem genuisti), 6vv, Z iv; Verbum iniquum, 5vv, Z iii; Verbum supernum/O salutaris hostia, 7vv, Z v; Victimae paschali laudes, 4vv, Z ii; Victimae paschali laudes, 6vv, Z v; Victor io, salve, 5vv, Z iii; Videns dominus, 4vv, Z i; Virgo gloriosa Christi, 4vv, ed. in MRM, iv (1968); Vocem jocunditatis, 6vv, Z iv

Willaert, Adrian: Works


La courone et fleur des chansons a troys (Venice, 15361), ed. L.F. Bernstein (New York, 1984) [1536b]


A la fontaine du pres Margot, 6vv, B; A l’aventure, l’entrepris, 4vv, c15289, ed. A. Seay, Thirty Chansons for Three and Four Voices from Attaingnant’s Collections (New Haven, CT, 1960); Aller m’y faut sur la verdure, 5vv, JB; Allons, allons gay, 3vv, 1536b; Arousez vo Violette, 6vv, atrrib. Willaert in 158831, attrib. Gombert in G. dalla Casa, Il vero modo di diminuir (1584), ed. B. Thomas, Girolamo dalla Casa and Giovanni Bassano: Divisions on Chansons, iii (London, 1986), suppl.: Adrian Willaert: Two Chansons; A tu point veu la viscontine, 3vv, 1536b; A vous me rends, 4vv, 15358; Baisés moy tant, 3vv, 1536b p.75; Baisés moy tant, 3vv, 1536b p.125; Baisés moy tant, 5vv, B; C’est boccane, 4vv, 15358; C’est donc pour moy que ansins, 3vv, ed. in RRMR, xxxvi (1982)

De retourner mon amy, 6vv, B; Dessus nostre treille de may, 3vv, 1536b; Dessus le marché d’Arras, 4vv, c15289, ed. in CMM, xx (1961); Douleur me bat, 6vv, B; En douleur et tristesse, 6vv, B; Faulte d’argent, 6vv, B; Fors seulement la mort, 5vv, B; Hé Dieu Helayne, 3vv, 1536b; Helas ma mere, 5vv, B; Irons nous tous jours coucher, 4vv, 15203

Jan, Jan quant tu t’en iras, 3vv, 1536b; J’ayme bien mon amy, 4vv, 15203, T p.6; J’ayme bien mon amy, 4vv, 15203, T p.8; J’ayme par amours, 3vv, 1536b; J’ay veu le regnart, 3vv, 1536b; J’ay veu le regnart, 4vv, F-Pn n.a.fr.4599 (A only); Je l’ay aymee bien sept ans, 5vv, B; Je ne sçauroys chanter ne rire, 3vv, 1536b; Je ne sçauroys chanter ne rire, 5vv, B; Jouissance vous donneray, 5vv, B

La jeusne dame va au molin, 3vv, 1536b; La rousé du moys de may, 3vv, 1536b; Le dur traveil ou mon coeur, 4vv, 154412; Mon cueur, mon corps, mon ame, 4vv, c15289; Mon cueur, mon corps, mon ame, 6vv, B; Mon mary ma diffamee, 4vv, 15203, T; Mon petit coeur n’est pas a moy, 4vv, 15203, T; Mon petit cueur tu n’es plus, 6vv, Pn Rés.Vma.851; Mort ou mercy en languissant, 5vv, B; Or suis-je bien, 3vv, 1536b; Or suis-je bien, 6vv, B

Perot viendras tu aux nopces, 3vv, 1536b; Petite camusette, 4vv, 15203; Petite camusette, 6vv, B; Pis ne me peult venir, 5vv, Pn Rés.Vma.851; Plaisir n’ay plus mais vis, 4vv, c15359; Puis donc que ma maitresse, 6vv, B; Puis que j’ai perdu ma maitresse, 5vv, B; Quant j’estoye a marier, 4vv, 15358; Quant le joly robinet eut tricoté, 3vv, 1536b; Qui a beaux nez, 6vv (2p. of Faulte d’argent); Qui est celuy qui a dit mal, 3vv, 1536b; Qui la dira la peine de mon coeur, 3vv, 1536b; Qui la dira la peine de mon coeur, 5vv, B; Qui veult aymer, 3vv, 1536b; Qui veut aymer, 6vv, B

Sire don dieu tant ils sont aises, 3vv, 1536b; Sire don dieu tant ils sont aises, 5vv, B; Sonnez my donc quand vous irez, 5vv, B; Sur le joly jonc, 3vv, ed. F. Dobbins, Oxford Book of French Chansons (Oxford, 1987); Sy je ne voy m’amie, 3vv, ed. in RRMR, xxxvi (1982); Voulez ouir chansonnette, 5vv, B; Vous aurez tout ce qui est mien, 5vv, B; Vous marchez du bout du pié, 3vv, 1536b; Vous ne l’aurez pas, 6vv, B

Willaert, Adrian: Works


Musica nova (Venice, 1559) [Z xiii]

Madrigali, 4vv (Venice, 1563) [Z xiv]


Amor da che tu vuoi, 5vv, Z xiv; Amor, Fortuna, 4vv, Z xiii; Amor mi fa morire, 4vv, Z xiv; Aspro core, 6vv, Z xiii; Cantai, hor piango, 6vv, Z xiii; Che fai alma, che pensi?, 7vv, Z xiii; Chi volesse saper, 4vv, Z xiv; Con doglia e con pietà, 4vv, Z xiv; Cosi vincete in terra, 4vv, Z xiv

Dove sei tu, mio caro, 5vv, Z xiv; Et se per gelosia, 2vv, Z xiv; Già mi godea felice, 4vv, Z xiv; Giunto m’ha Amor, 5vv, Z xiii; Grat’e benigna donna, 4vv, Z xiv; I begli occhi, 5vv, Z xiii; Ingrata è la mia donna, 5vv, Z xiv; In qual parte del ciel, 6vv, Z xiii; Io amai sempre, 4vv, Z xiii; Io mi rivolgo, 5vv, Z xiii; I piansi, hor canto, 6vv, Z xiii; I vidi in terra, 6vv, Z xiii

Lasso, ch’i ardo, 4vv, Z xiii; L’aura mia sacra, 5vv, Z xiii; Liete e pensose, 7vv, Z xiii; Madonna, il bel desire, 4vv, Z xiv; Madonna, s’io v’amai, 5vv, Z xiv; Mentre al bel letto, 5vv, Z xiv; Mentre che ’l cor, 5vv, Z xiii

Ne l’amar’e fredd’onde, 5vv, Z xiv; Occhi piangete, 7vv, Z xiii; O invidia, 5vv, Z xiii; Onde tolse Amor, 5vv, Z xiii; Ove ch’i posi, 6vv, Z xiii; Passa la nave, 6vv, Z xiii; Pianget’egri mortali, 5vv, Z xiv; Pien d’un vago pensier, 6vv, Z xiii; Più volte già, 5vv, Z xiii

Qual anima ignorante, 4vv, Z xiv; Qual anima ignorante, 5vv, Z xiv; Qual dolcezza giami, 5vv, Z xiv; Qual più diversa e nova cosa, 4vv, Z xiv; Qual vista sarà mai, 5vv, Z xiv; Quando fra l’altre donne, 5vv, Z xiii; Quando gionse per gli occhi, 4vv, Z xiv; Quando i begli occhi, 4vv, Z xiv; Quando nascesti, Amor, 7vv, Z xiii; Quante volte diss’io, 4vv, Z xiv; Quanto più m’arde, 5vv, Z xiv; Quest’anima gentil, 4vv, Z xiii; Rompi de l’empio core, 6vv, Z xiv

Sciocco fu’l tuo desire, 5vv, Z xiv; Se la gratia divina, 5vv, Z xiv; Se ’l veder voi, 3vv, J, Z xiv; Signora, dolce io te vorrei, 4vv, Z xiv; Son già molt’anni, 5vv, Z xiv; Tant’alto sei signor, 5vv, Z xiv

Willaert, Adrian: Works

other italian genres

canzone villanesche except as marked; all in Z xiv

Canzone villanesche all napolitana … con la Canzona di Ruzante … primo libro, 4vv (Venice, 154520, 2/154811)


A quand’a quand’haveva una vicina, 4vv, C; Cingari simo venit’a giocare, 4vv, C; Dulce padrun, 5vv, greghesca, companion to Daniel Grisonio, Vu ha ben casun; E se per gelosia, 2vv; Madonn’io non lo so perchè lo fai, 4vv, C; Madonna mia famme bon’offerta, 4vv, C; O bene mio fam’uno favore, 4vv, C; O dolce vita mia che t’haggio fatto, 4vv, C; Occhio non fu giamai, 4vv, C; Quando di rose d’oro vien, 4vv, C; Sempre mi ride sta donna da bene, 4vv, C; Sospiri miei d’oime dogliorirosi, 4vv, C; Un giorno me pregò una vedovella, 4vv, C; Vecchie letrose non valete niente, 4vv, C; Zoia zentil che per secreta via (‘Canzona di Ruzante’), 4vv, C

Willaert, Adrian: Works


4 ricercares a 4, 154022, c155024, ed. in MRM, i (1964)

4 ricercares a 3 (‘Re’, ‘Mi’, ‘Fa’, ‘Sol’), 15436, J

10 ricercares a 3, 154934, 155116/R, J

Willaert, Adrian: Works


Involatura de li madrigali di Verdelotto (Venice, 1536/R), ed. in Renaissance Music Prints, iii (London, 1980): 22 madrigals by Verdelot, arr. Willaert for 1v, lute

Willaert, Adrian: Works

doubtful and misattributed works

Ave maris stella, 4vv, W, anon. in I-PCd xvi.2.20, unlikely on stylistic grounds

Cum invocarem (Ps iv), 8vv, ed. in Carver (1980), attrib. Willaert in 15641; Ecce nunc benedicite (Ps cxxxiii), 8vv, ed. in Carver (1980), attrib. Willaert in 15641; In te Domine speravi … et eripe me (Ps lxx), 8vv, ed. in Carver (1980), attrib. Willaert in 15641; Laudate Dominum omnes gentes (Ps cxvi), 8vv, attrib. Willaert in TVd 11b; Qui habitat in adiutorio Altissimi (Ps xc), 8vv, ed. in Carver (1980), attrib. Willaert in 15641; all questioned in Carver (1988)

Magnificat, 8vv, attrib. Willaert in 15641, attrib. Ruffino in Carver (1988); Magnificat quarti toni, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in NL-L 1442, elsewhere (with different verses 4, 8, 10) attrib. Mouton, ed. in CMM, xliii/5 (forthcoming)

Beata Dei Genitrix, 4vv, Z i, attrib. Willaert in 1539a, attrib. Conseil in 153910, but by J. Lhéritier; Deus in nomine tuo (2p. Ecce enim Deus), 5vv, ed. in CMM, xlviii/2, attrib Willaert in 15329 by Lhéritier; Emendemus in melius, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in I-BGc 1209D, unlikely on stylistic grounds; Exaudi Deus meus, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in 15457, unlikely on stylistic grounds; Nil stolidus differt, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in 15457, unlikely on stylistic grounds; O beata infantia, 6vv, attrib. Willaert in Rv S.Borr.E.II.55–60, by Richafort; Rex autem David, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in CH–SGs 463, unlikely on stylistic grounds; Salva nos, Domine, 6vv, Z iv, attrib. Willaert in 1542, attrib. Josquin in I-Bc R142, but by Mouton (Brown, 1986); Sane me, Domine, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in 15671, unlikely on stylistic grounds; Victimae paschali laudes, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in 154915, unlikely on stylistic grounds; Visita, quaesumus, 4vv, ed. in SCMot, xiv, attrib. Willaert in 15385, by Jacquet of Mantua

La rousée de moy de may, 5vv, attrib. Willaert in D-Mbs Mus.1508, attrib. Benedictus in 15407, but by Mouton; Le grand desir, 3vv, attrib. Willaert in 156911, by Mouton; N’est ce point un grand de plaisir (= Mein hertz und gmüt), 5vv, ed. in EdM, lxiii (1997), attrib. Willaert in 155629, Tenorlied, questioned in B

Amor tu sai pur fare, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in 1563, by Arcadelt; Lagrime meste, 4vv, Z xiv, attrib. Willaert in 1563, by L. Barré; Madonna mia gentile, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in 1563, by Arcadelt; Madonna, ohime, per qual cagion, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in 1563, by Arcadelt; Non più ciance madonna, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in 1563, by Arcadelt; Oimè ’l bel viso, 4vv, Z xiv, attrib. Willaert in 1563, by L. Barré; Se la dura durezza, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in 1563, by Arcadelt; Voi sapete ch’io v’am’anzi, 4vv, attrib. Willaert in 1563, by Arcadelt

Le vecchie per invidia, 4vv, C, Z xiv, attrib. Willaert in 154811, by Corteccia; Se pur ti guardo, 4vv, Z xiv, attrib. Willaert in PL-GD 4003, attrib. ‘incerto autore’ in c155019 and many other sources, attrib. B. Donato in 15895, not by Willaert or Donato

Willaert, Adrian






Vander StraetenMPB, i (1867), vi (1882)

J. de Meyere: Flandricarum rerum tomi x (Antwerp, 1531; new edn Bruges, 1842)

G. Zarlino: Le istitutioni harmoniche (Venice, 1558/R, 3/1573/R; Eng. trans. of pt iii, 1968/R as The Art of Counterpoint; Eng. trans. of pt iv, 1983, as On the Modes)

G. Stoquerus: De musica verbali libri duo (MS, c1570, ed. in GLMT, v, 1988)

G. Zarlino: Dimostrationi harmoniche (Venice, 1571/R, 2/1573)

O. Tigrini: Il compendio della musica (Venice, 1588/R)

G. Zarlino: Sopplimenti musicali (Venice, 1588/R)

G.M. Artusi: Seconda parte dell’arte del contraponto, nel quale si tratta dell’utile et uso delle dissonanze (Venice, 1589)

F. Sweertius: Athenae belgicae (Antwerp, 1628)

E. Gregoir: Adrien Willaert (Brussels, 1869)

F.X. Haberl: ‘Messen Adrian Willaert’s’, MMg, iii (1871), 81–9

R. Eitner: ‘Adrian Willaert’, MMg, xix (1887), 81–92

T. Kroyer: Die Anfänge der Chromatik im italienischen Madrigal des XVI. Jahrhunderts (Leipzig, 1902/R)

A. Averkamp: ‘Adrian Willaert’, TVNM, x/1 (1915), 13–29

H. Zenck: ‘Zarlino’s “Istitutioni harmoniche” als Quelle zur Musikanschauung der italienischen Renaissance’, ZMw, xii (1929–30), 540–78

G. Benvenuti: Andrea e Giovanni Gabrieli e la musica strumentale in San Marco, IMi, i–ii (1931–2)

E. Hertzmann: Adrian Willaert in der weltlichen Vokalmusik seiner Zeit (Leipzig, 1931/R)

R.B. Lenaerts: ‘De zestimmige mis “Mente tota” van A. Willaert’, Musica sacra [Bruges], xlii (1935), 153–65

R. Lenaerts: ‘Notes sur Adrien Willaert maître de chapelle de Saint Marc à Venise de 1527 à 1562’, Bulletin de l’Institut historique belge de Rome, xv (1935), 107–17

R.B. Lenaerts: ‘La chapelle de Saint-Marc à Venise sous Adriaen Willaert (1527–1562)’, Bulletin de l’Institut historique belge de Rome, xix (1938), 205–55

J.S. Levitan: ‘Adrian Willaert’s Famous Duo Quidnam ebrietas’, TVNM, xv/3 (1938), 166–92; xv/4 (1939), 193–233

W. Weyler: ‘Documenten betreffende de muziekkapel aan het hof van Ferrara’, Vlaamsch jaarboek voor muziekgeschiedenis, i (1939), 81–113

K. Jeppesen: ‘Eine musiktheoretische Korrespondenz des früheren Cinquecento’, AcM, xiii (1941), 3–39

G. Sutherland: Studies in the Development of the Keyboard and Ensemble Ricercare from Willaert to Frescobaldi (diss., Harvard U., 1942)

A. Carapetyan: The ‘Musica nova’ of Adriano Willaert (diss., Harvard U., 1945)

R.B. Lenaerts: ‘Voor de biographie van Adrian Willaert’, Hommage à Charles van den Borren, ed. S. Clercx and A. vander Linden (Antwerp, 1945), 205–15

A. Carapetyan: ‘The Musica Nova of Adrian Willaert’, JRBM, i (1946–7), 200–21

H. Zenck: ‘Adrian Willaerts “Salmi spezzati” (1950)’, Mf, ii (1949), 97–107

E.E. Lowinsky: ‘A Newly Discovered Sixteenth-Century Motet Manuscript at the Biblioteca Vallicelliana in Rome’, JAMS, iii (1950), 173–232

M. Antonowytsch: Die Motette Benedicta es von Josquin des Prez und die Messen super Benedicta von Willaert, Palestrina, de la Hêle und de Monte (Utrecht, 1951)

G. d’Alessi: ‘Precursors of Adriano Willaert in the Practice of Coro Spezzato’, JAMS, v (1952), 187–210

G. d’Alessi: La cappella musicale del duomo di Treviso (1300–1633) (Vedelago, 1954)

R.M. Murphy: Fantasia and Ricercare in the Sixteenth Century (diss., Yale U., 1954)

G. Pistarino: ‘Ritratto di Adriano Willaert’, RMI, lvi (1954), 117–24

E.E. Lowinsky: ‘Adrian Willaert’s Chromatic “Duo” Re-Examined’, TVNM, xviii/1 (1956), 1–36

H. Zenck: ‘Über Willaerts Motetten’, Numerus und Affectus, ed. W. Gerstenberg (Kassel, 1959), 55–66

H. Beck: ‘Adrian Willaerts Messen’, AMw, xvii (1960), 215–42

H.C. Slim: The Keyboard Ricercar and Fantasia in Italy, ca. 1500–1550 (diss., Harvard U., 1960)

H. Beck: ‘Adrian Willaerts Motette Mittet ad Virginem und seine gleichnämige Parodiemesse’, AMw, xviii (1961), 195–204

E.E. Lowinsky: ‘A Treatise on Text Underlay by a German Disciple of Francisco de Salinas’, Festschrift Heinrich Besseler, ed. E. Klemm (Leipzig, 1961), 231–51

H. Beck: ‘Adrian Willaerts fünfstimmige Missa Sine Nomine aus Hertogenbosch, Ms. 72A’, KJb, xlvii (1963), 53–73

H.M. Brown: Music in the French Secular Theater, 1400–1550 (Cambridge, MA, 1963)

Chanson and Madrigal, 1480–1530: Cambridge, MA, 1961, ed. J. Haar (Cambridge, MA, 1964) [incl. H.M. Brown: ‘The Genesis of a Style: the Parisian Chanson, 1500–1530’, 1–50; W.H. Rubsamen: ‘From Frottola to Madrigal’, 51–87; D. Heartz: ‘Les goûts réunis, or The Worlds of the Madrigal and the Chanson Confronted’, 88–138]

C.W. Chapman: Andrea Antico (diss., Harvard U., 1964)

H.C. Slim: Introduction to Musica nova, MRM, i (1964)

E.E. Lowinsky: ‘Problems in Adrian Willaert’s Iconography’, Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: a Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese, ed. J. LaRue and others (New York, 1966/R), 576–94

L. Zolnay: ‘Data of the Musical Life of Buda in the Late Middle Ages’, SM, ix (1967), 99–113

H. Beck: Die venezianischer Musikerschule im 16. Jahrhundert (Wilhelmshaven, 1968)

L. Lockwood: ‘A Sample Problem of Musica Ficta: Willaert’s Pater noster’, Studies in Music History: Essays for Oliver Strunk, ed. H. Powers (Princeton, NJ, 1968), 161–82

E.E. Lowinsky: ‘Echoes of Adrian Willaert’s Chromatic “Duo” in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Compositions’, ibid., 183–238

E.E. Lowinsky: The Medici Codex of 1518, i: Historical Introduction and Commentary, MRM, iii (1968)

J. Haar: ‘A Diatonic Duo by Willaert’, TVNM, xxi/2 (1969), 68–80

A. Dunning: Die Staatsmotette, 1480–1555 (Utrecht, 1970)

D. Kämper: Studien zur instrumentalen Ensemblemusik des 16. Jahrhunderts in Italien, AnMc, no.10 (1970)

M.A. Swenson: The Four-Part Italian Ensemble Ricercar from 1540 to 1619 (diss., Indiana U., 1970)

J. Haar: ‘Zarlino's Definition of Fugue and Imitation’, JAMS, xxiv (1971), 226–54

L. Lockwood: ‘Josquin at Ferrara: New Documents and Letters’, Josquin des Prez: New York 1971, 103–37

J.A. Long: The Motets, Psalms, and Hymns of Adrian Willaert (diss., Columbia U., 1971)

H.C. Slim: A Gift of Madrigals and Motets, i: Description and Analysis (Chicago, 1972)

L.F. Bernstein: ‘La courone et fleur des chansons a troys: a Mirror of the French Chanson in Italy in the Years between Ottaviano Petrucci and Antonio Gardano’, JAMS, xxvi (1973), 1–68

H. Meier: ‘Zur Chronologie der Musica Nova Adrian Willaerts’, AnMc, xii (1973), 71–96

A. Newcomb: ‘Editions of Willaert's Musica Nova: New Evidence, New Speculations’, JAMS, xxvi (1973), 132–45

A.F. Carver: ‘The Psalms of Willaert and his North Italian Contemporaries’, AcM, xlvii (1975), 270–83

J.G. Constant: Sixteenth-Century Manuscripts of Polyphony at the Cathedral of Padua (diss., U. of Michigan, 1975)

D. Crawford: Sixteenth Century Choirbooks in the Archivio Capitolare at Casale Monferrato, RMS, ii (1975)

D. Nutter: The Italian Polyphonic Dialogue of the Sixteenth Century (diss., U. of Nottingham, 1978)

J.B. Weidensaul: The Polyphonic Hymns of Adrian Willaert (diss., Rutgers U., 1978)

M.S. Lewis: Antonio Gardane and his Publications of Sacred Music, 1538–55 (diss., Brandeis U., 1979)

H.M. Brown: ‘Words and Music: Willaert, the Chanson, and the Madrigal about 1540’, Florence and Venice: Comparisons and Relations: 1976–7, Florence ii, 217–66

A.F. Carver: The Development of Sacred Polychoral Music to 1580 (diss., U. of Birmingham, 1980)

D. Bryant: ‘The Cori Spezzati of St Mark's: Myth and Reality’, EMH, i (1981), 165–86

D.G. Cardamone: The Canzone Villanesca alla Napolitana and Related Forms, 1537–1570 (Ann Arbor, MI, 1981)

J. Haar: ‘The Early Madrigal: a Re-Appraisal of its Sources and its Character’, Music in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. I. Fenlon (Cambridge, 1981), 163–92

M.S. Lewis: ‘Antonio Gardane’s Early Connections with the Willaert Circle’, ibid., 209–26

R.J. Agee: The Privilege and Venetian Music Printing in the Sixteenth Century (diss., Princeton U., 1982)

E.E. Lowinsky: ‘Music in Titian's Bacchanal of the Andrians’, Titian: his World and his Legacy, ed. D. Rosand (New York, 1982), 191–282

R.J. Agee: ‘Ruberto Strozzi and the Early Madrigal’, JAMS, xxxvi (1983), 1–17

R.J. Agee: ‘The Venetian Privilege and Music-Printing in the Sixteenth Century’, EMH, iii (1983), 1–42

P. Macey: ‘Savonarola and the Sixteenth-Century Motet’, JAMS, xxxvi (1983), 422–52

L.F. Bernstein: La couronne et fleur des chansons à troys (New York, 1984)

N. Pirrotta: ‘Willaert and the Canzone Villanesca’, Music and Culture in Italy from the Middle Ages to the Baroque, trans. V. Bartolozzi (Cambridge, MA, 1984), 175–97

I. Bossuyt: Adriaan Willaert, ca.1490–1562 (Leuven, 1985)

R.J. Agee: ‘Filippo Strozzi and the Early Madrigal’, JAMS, xxxviii (1985), 227–37

H. Beck: ‘Grundlagen des Venezianischen Stils bei Adrian Willaert und Ciprian de Rore’, Renaissance-muziek, 1400–1600: donum natalicum René Bernard Lenaerts, ed. J. Robijns and others (Leuven, 1985), 39–50

D. Butchart: ‘“La Pecorina” at Mantua, Musica Nova at Florence’, EMc, xiii (1985), 358–66

L. Lockwood: ‘Adrian Willaert and Cardinal Ippolito I d'Este’, EMH, v (1985), 85–112

M. Tarrini: ‘Una gara musicale a Genova nel 1555’, NA, new ser., iii (1985), 159–70

H.M. Brown: ‘Notes towards a Definition of Personal Style: Conflicting Attributions and the Six-Part Motets of Josquin and Mouton’, Josquin Symposium: Utrecht 1986, 185–207

J. Haar: Essays on Italian Poetry and Music in the Renaissance, 1350–1600 (Berkeley, 1986)

D. Harrán: Word-Tone Relations in Musical Thought from Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century, MSD, xl (1986)

G.M. Ongaro: The Chapel of St Mark's at the Time of Adrian Willaert (1527–1562) (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1986)

B.J. Blackburn: Music for Treviso Cathedral in the Late Sixteenth Century (London, 1987)

A.F. Carver: Cori spezzati: the Development of Sacred Polychoral Music to the Time of Schütz (Cambridge, 1988)

I. Fenlon and J. Haar: The Italian Madrigal in the Early Sixteenth Century (Cambridge, 1988)

M.S. Lewis: Antonio Gardano, Venetian Music Printer, 1538–1569, i: 1538–1549 (New York, 1988)

G.M. Ongaro: ‘Willaert, Gritti, e Luppato’, Studi musicali, xvii (1988), 55–70

G.M. Ongaro: ‘Sixteenth-Century Patronage at St Mark's, Venice’, EMH, viii (1988), 81–115

R.J. Agee and J.A. Owens: ‘La stampa della Musica nova di Willaert’, RIM, xxiv (1989), 219–305

H.M. Brown: ‘Bossinensis, Willaert and Verdelot: Pitch and the Conventions of Transcribing Music for Lute and Voice in Italy in the Early Sixteenth Century’, RdM, lxxv (1989), 25–46

M. Feldman: ‘The Composer as Exegete: Interpretations of Petrarchan Syntax in the Venetian Madrigal’, Studi musicali, xviii (1989), 203–38

E.E. Lowinsky: Music in the Culture of the Renaissance, ed. B.J. Blackburn (Chicago, 1989)

M.Y. Fromson: ‘Cadential Structure in the Mid-Sixteenth Century’, Theory and Practice, xvi (1991), 179–213

J.M. Miller: Word-Sound and Musical Texture in the Mid-Sixteenth-Century Venetian Madrigal (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1991)

F. Dobbins: Music in Renaissance Lyons (Oxford, 1992)

M.Y. Fromson: ‘Zarlino's Modal Analysis of Willaert's Avertatur obsecro’, Analisi musicale II: Trent 1991, 237–48

D. Keyser: ‘The Character of Exploration: Adrian Willaert's Quid non ebrietas’, Musical Repercussions of 1492, ed. C.E. Robertson (Washington DC, 1992), 185–207

A. Smith: ‘Willaert's Motets and Mode’, Basler Jb für historische Musikpraxis, xvi (1992), 117–65

B.V. Rivera: ‘Finding the Soggetto in Willaert's Free Imitative Counterpoint’, Music Theory and the Exploration of the Past: Essays in Honor of Patricia Carpenter, ed. C. Hatch and D.W. Bernstein (Chicago, 1993), 73–102

I. Fenlon: ‘St Mark's before Willaert’, EMc, xxi (1993), 547–63

M. Bent: ‘Accidentals, Counterpoint and Notation in Aaron’s Aggiunta to the Toscanello in musica’, JM, xii (1994), 306–44

R. Freedman: ‘Claude Le Jeune, Willaert and the Art of Musical Translation’, EMH, xiii (1994), 123–70

M.Y. Fromson: ‘Themes of Exile in Willaert's Musica Nova’, JAMS, xlvii (1994), 442–87

M. Feldman: City Culture and the Madrigal at Venice (Berkeley, 1995)

I. Bossuyt: ‘O socii durate: a Musical Correspondence from the Time of Philip II’, EMc, xxvi (1998), 432–44

D. Kidger: The Masses of Adrian Willaert (diss., Harvard U., forthcoming)

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