A device for measuring wind pressure, usually that of organs, at the pipe chest, in the trunks, etc. According to German authors (Werckmeister, Adlung, Töpfer) a gauge was first invented by Christian Förner in 1667, but he may only have been publicizing a perfected example. The device had a single column of water which was raised a measurable extent when placed above any air vent (e.g. a pipe-hole in the chest). Töpfer (Die Orgelbaukunst, 1833) improved its reliability by giving it a double column. The water-manometer (E.J. Hopkins's ‘anemometer’) has an S-shaped transparent tube placed on its side; in a bend of this the water rests until moved by the pressurized air admitted at one end of the tube. The pressure of air is measured as the difference between the lower and upper surfaces of water in the bent tube. Thus ‘2½'' wind’ (i.e. about 6 cm) indicates that the surface pushed by the air fell 11/4'', the other surface beyond the bend raised 11/4'' (3 cm).
Windha, I Nyoman
(b Kutri, nr Singapadu, Bali, 1954). Balinese composer and performer. With Ketut Gdé Asnawa he was the chief innovator and exponent of new Balinese gamelan composition in the 1980s and 90s. Windha studied at the government music high school then at the Indonesian Academy for the Performing Arts in Surakarta, joining its faculty in 1985. At first known as a charismatic and skilled performer on the ugal, he began composing in 1983. His early music extended and enriched the instrumental tabuh kreasi form, which had been codified a generation earlier by his mentor Beratha. With a distinctive melodic gift and the ability to compose complex music extremely fluidly, he enjoyed what for Bali was unprecedented fame as a composer. The performance of many of his works at the annual Festival Gong gamelan competitions gave him a level of exposure that ensured his music was in demand throughout Indonesia and in international gamelan organizations. Windha also composed for dance in the experimental kontemporer genre, for Javanese gamelan, and for many unconventional instrumental combinations. He also worked as a teacher and composer for gamelan groups in Germany and the USA.
For gong kebyar gamelan: Sinom Lawe, with v, 1983; Gita Winangun, with voice, 1986; Wahyu Giri Suara, 1987; Cendra Wasih, with dance, 1987; Kembang Pencak, with dance, 1987; Gerehing Kawulu, 1988; Prawireng Stri, with dance, 1988; Kembang Adnyani, 1989; Puspanjali, with dance, 1989; Jagat Anyar, 1990; Jagra Parwata, 1991; Gora Merdawa, 1991; Gadung Kasturi, 1993; Gita Giri Jaya, with voice, 1994; Gerincing Wesi, 1995; Sri Kembang, 1996; Candra Baskara, 1998; Kali Sengara, with voice, 1999
For other ens: Sangkep, 1983; Kindama, 1985; Palapa I, 1986; Palapa II, 1988; Bali Age 1988; Balingkang, 1989; Kekembangan, sax qt, Balinese gamelan, 1990, collab. E. Ziporyn; Derap Tersada Nusantara, 1991
Music of the Gamelan Gong Kebyar, ii: Works of Nyoman Windha, Vital Records CD402 (1996)
Wind hole [bore].
Wind machine [aeoliphone].
A friction idiophone. It is used on the stage and elsewhere to produce the sound of the wind. It consists of either a barrel framework covered with silk or coarse canvas which rubs against the slats as the barrel is rotated, or an electric fan in which the blades are replaced by lengths of cane. In each case a rise and fall in volume and pitch is gained by a rise and fall in the speed of rotation, and in the case of the barrel by a tightening and loosening of the fabric. The same subtleties of sound are not available with an electric wind machine, which has the further disadvantage of producing a low-pitched but discernible hum when the machine is turned on but not in use: the hum may be audible when the orchestra is playing pianissimo.
A wind machine is occasionally requested in orchestral scores, for example Strauss’s Don Quixote (1896–7), Ravel’s Daphnis et Chloé (1909–12; as ‘eoliphone’), Milhaud’s Les choëphores (1915), Schoenberg’s Die Jakobsleiter (1917–22), and Vaughan Williams’s Sinfonia antartica (1949–52), in which there is an instruction that the instrument be ‘out of sight’.
JAMES BLADES/JAMES HOLLAND
A composition for five wind instruments. Although there are many exceptions the usual combination, which became established around 1800, is flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and horn. This grouping evolved from the imperial Harmoniemusik as used at the Vienna court of Joseph II from 1782 (two oboes, two clarinets, two horns and two bassoons). The new quintet combination with its solo voices took advantage of the technical improvements being made to wind instruments during this period, and allowed some of the principles of Haydn's writing for string quartet to be transferred to chamber music for wind instruments. Antonio Rosetti (c1750–1792), Nikolaus Schmidt and G.M. Cambini (1764–1825) were among the first to compose for the new combination, but the wind quintet became a firmly established musical genre only with Antoine Reicha's 24 quintets written from 1811 (six each in opp.88, 91, 99, 100) and Franz Danzi's nine quintets written in 1820–24 (three each in opp.56, 67, 68). For the rest of the 19th century, with the exception of Georges Onslow's three quintets op.81 (1852), there was less interest in the wind quintet. However, with Paul Hindemith (Kleine Kammermusik for five wind instruments op.24 no.2, 1922), Carl Nielsen (op.43, 1922) and Arnold Schoenberg (op.26, 1923–4), the tonal and contrapuntal possibilities of writing for wind were rediscovered. Other leading composers of the 20th century who wrote for wind quintet were Jacques Ibert, Florent Schmitt, Jean Françaix, Darius Milhaud, Eugène Bozza, Samuel Barber, Henk Badings, Malcolm Arnold, Karlheinz Stockhausen and György Ligeti. Since the 1950s the increase in wind playing in schools and by amateurs has led to the composition of pedagogic wind chamber music for all kinds of wind ensembles including quintets.
S.Baron and others: ‘The Woodwind Quintet: a Symposium’, Woodwind Magazine, vi (1954), 4
U.Sirker: Die Entwicklung des Bläserquintetts in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts (Regensburg, 1968)
M.Hosek: Das Bläserquintett (Grünwald, 1979)
W.Suppan: ‘Die Harmoniemusik’, Musica privata: Festschrift zum 65. Geburtstag von Walter Salmen ed. M. Fink, R. Gstrein and G. Mössner (Innsbruck, 1991) 151–66
A.Marold: Spiel in kleinen Gruppen (Tutzing, 1999)