Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Windsheim Fragment

(D-Bsb theol.q.290). See Sources of keyboard music to 1660, §2(iii).

Windsperger, Lothar

(b Ampfing, Upper Bavaria, 22 Oct 1885; d Frankfurt, 30 May 1935). German composer and editor. The son of a school teacher and organist, he attended the Munich Academy of Music where he studied with Rudolf Louis, Joseph Rheinberger and others. From 1913 he was an editor and adviser with Schott of Mainz, for whom he compiled Das Buch der Motive (Maine, 1921), which became a standard source for identifying Wagner’s leitmotifs. After military service, he taught theory and piano in Wiesbaden; two years before his death he was appointed director of the Mainz Music School. His music is in the late-Romantic tradition. In addition to orchestral works in conventional genres, he wrote two grandiloquent sacred works: the Missa symphonica (1926) and the Requiem (1929). His small piano pieces (op.37) adopt certain modern trends, inviting comparison with Bartók’s Mikrokosmos.


(selective list)

Orch: Konzert-Ouvertüre, G, op.17, c1918; Sym., a, op.22 (1920); Pf Conc., f, op.30, 1925; Vorspiel zu einem Drama, op.29, 1925; Vn Conc., op.39, 1928; Lützow-Ouvertüre, 1933

Vocal: Missa symphonica, op.36, solo vv, chorus, orch, org (1926); Requiem, op.47, solo vv, chorus, orch, org (1929); c40 songs, unacc. choruses

Chbr and solo inst: Lumen amoris, op.4, pf; Sonata, c, op.6, pf; 2: Sonatas, op.11, 1; f, vn, org; 2, E, vc, org; Sonata, D, and Little Concert Suite, op.15, vc, pf; Pf Trio, b, op.18 (1920); Str Qt, g, op.21, 1920; Sonata, d, op.26, vn, pf; Sonata, C, op.28, pf; Turm-, Wald- und Abendsmusik, op.31, 4 hn; other sonatas, small pieces

Edn: R. Schumann: Skizzenbuch zu dem Album für die Jugend, op.68 (Mainz, 1924)

Principal publisher: Schott


MGG1 (A. Würz)

L. Windsperger: Das Buch der Motive aus sämtlischen Opern und Musikdramen Richard Wagner’s (Mainz, c1921)

K. Laux: ‘Lothar Windsperger’, Der Weihergarten, iii–iv (1934)



(Fr. porte vent; Ger. Windkanal).

A large wooden or metal tube for conveying the wind of an organ from the bellows to the Wind-chest. In medieval organs the one central wind-trunk was called fistula maxima.


An ambiguous term which, taken literally, may refer to any passage conveying air in a musical instrument. There are, however, two recognized special connotations.

(1) In a wooden flue-pipe of an organ the windway is the passage between the opening of the pipe foot and the flue, which is the slot between the face of the block and the inner side of the cap or lower lip (fig.1a). The form of the windway determines the size and shape of the air jet impinging on the upper lip, and through the formation of edge-tones energizes the air column. The throat is that part of the windway hollowed out of the block; its conformation influences the timbre of the pipe. In metal pipes the flue is formed between the edge of the languid and the lower lip derived from the wall of the pipe foot (fig.1b).

(2) The windway of a recorder is itself the flue and is a simple passage formed by working a flat on the plug of the instrument and a corresponding groove in the head (fig.1c). In certain sophisticated flageolets the windway is sometimes enlarged above the flue proper forming a receptacle for a piece of sponge to absorb the moisture of the breath.


Wineberger [Winneberger], Paul Anton

(b Mergentheim, 7 Oct 1758; d Hamburg, 8 Feb 1822). German cellist and composer. He began his musical career at the age of nine as an alto in the Mergentheim Hofkapelle, and five years later he was appointed organist at the Dominican church. After studying theology at the universities in Würzburg and Heidelberg, 1775–8, he moved to Mannheim, where he taught at the Jesuit seminary and served as church organist; he studied composition with G.J. Vogler and Ignaz Holzbauer and violin with Georg Zarth and Ignaz Fränzl, who encouraged him to switch from the violin to the cello.

In 1780 Wineberger joined the Hofkapelle of Prince (Fürst) Kraft Ernst von Oettingen-Wallerstein, and five years later he was appointed principal cellist and first Konzertmeister. During the 1780s and 90s he produced a steady stream of music for court ensembles at Wallerstein: his earliest dated composition is a symphonie concertante for two horns and orchestra in E major, composed in January 1782 for Franz Zwierzina and Joseph Nagel, two Bohemian virtuosos who had just joined the Kapelle, and he wrote 20 wind partitas for the Wallerstein Harmonie, which was also under his direction (Musikalische Realzeitung, 13 Aug 1788). Wineberger served as cello teacher to the prince's younger brother, Franz Ludwig, and it is likely that the second cello part that replaces the viola in several of his string quartets (lost) was intended for his aristocratic pupil. In 1798 Wineberger moved to Hamburg, where he found employment with several orchestras but devoted his energies increasingly to teaching. He suffered from poor health in his final years. Although Wineberger's compositions are uneven in quality, the best of them are distinguished by thematic economy, melodic chromaticism, formal experimentation, skilful orchestration and a competent control of counterpoint.



MSS in D-HR(see Haberkamp) unless otherwise stated

Der Sieg des Licth (orat, D.E. Beyschlag), 1794

An das biedere Hamburg (New Year cant.), 1802

Die Alpenhütte (op, 1, A. von Kotzebue), perf. Hamburg, 1814

Other vocal: 2 masses, g, 1785, d, 1789; Mass, A, 1792, BAR; Requiem, c, 1791; Ave Maria, BAR; songs, 1v, pf, some pubd


Thematic index of symphonies and symphonies concertantes in The Symphony 1720–1840, ser. C, vi (New York, 1981)

Orch: 5 syms., incl. ‘La chasse’, BAR; 5 syms., 1 ed. in The Symphony 1720–1840, ser. C, vi (New York, 1981); 2 vc concs., both (Mainz, 1797); ob conc., also Rtt; 2 cl concs., Rtt; 2 symphonies concertantes, 1 for 2 cl, Rtt, 1 for 2 hn

Chbr: 3 str qts, op.1 (Offenbach, 1800), no.2 ed. in Little; 3 sonates, pf, fl/vn and vc ad lib, op.7 (Hamburg, before 1816); 12 str qts, CZ-K

Other inst: 20 partitas, wind insts; Serenata, wind insts; pf pieces, DO; other pf works, some for 4 hands, pubd Hamburg






D. Trummer: ‘Paul Wineberger: eine biographische Skizze’, Abend-Zeitung [Dresden] (17–18 April 1822)

L. Schiedermair: ‘Die Blütezeit der Öttingen-Wallerstein'schen Hofkapelle’, SIMG, ix (1907–8), 83–130

E. Forbes, ed.: Thayer’s Life of Beethoven (Princeton, NJ, 1964, 2/1967), 104

J. Piersol: The Oettingen-Wallerstein Hofkapelle and Its Wind Music (diss., U. of Iowa, 1972)

G. Haberkamp, ed.: Thematischer Katalog der Musikhandschriften der Fürstlich Oettingen-Wallerstein'schen Bibliothek Schloss Harburg (Munich, 1976)

F. Little: The String Quartet at the Oettingen-Wallerstein Court Ignaz von Beecke and his Contemporaries (New York, 1989)


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