Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Winkel, Diederich Nikolaus [Nicolaus]

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Winkel, Diederich Nikolaus [Nicolaus]

(b Lippstadt, 24 Aug 1777; d Amsterdam, 28 Sept 1826). German builder of mechanical organs, clock-maker and inventor. He was the son of a master watch- and clock-maker but was orphaned before he was three years old. He became a clock-maker, gaining the freedom of Lippstadt in 1816. In November 1814 he completed a musical time-indicator or metronome (see Metronome (i)) using a balanced, double-ended pendulum. The following year he showed this to J.N. Maelzel, who modified and patented it under his own name. Over the ensuing years the ownership of the concept was hotly disputed by the two men. Winkel’s original metronome survives in the Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. Having moved to Amsterdam in 1816, Winkel set about creating an Orchestrion organ to rival Maelzel’s Panharmonicon. Besides playing music in the ordinary manner, however, his would compose its own music. The outcome was the Componium which, it was claimed, could create an almost endless series of variations once presented with a theme. Winkel completed it on 14 December 1821 and exhibited it all over Europe for some years. In addition to its variations, it played music by Spohr, Mozart and Moscheles. Winkel also built a number of other mechanical organs of extremely high quality. At least four survive and each has a unique mechanism. One organ, for example, is weight-driven by a clockwork mechanism which has only one wheel; another has a system of ‘expression’ using direct wind pressure without reservoir (as used with the expression stop in a reed organ) in order to over- or under-blow the pipes. He also used a one-key stop changing system which latched and unlatched from a special pin in the surface of the organ barrel.



A.W.J.G. Ord-Hume: Barrel Organ: the Story of the Mechanical Organ and its Repair (London, 1978)

P.J. van Tiggelen: Componium: the Mechanical Musical Improvisor (Leuven, 1987)


Winkelmann [Winckelmann], Hermann

(b Brunswick, 8 March 1849; d Vienna, 18 Jan 1912). German tenor. The son of a piano maker, he studied singing in Paris and with Koch in Hanover before making his début in Il trovatore at Sondershausen in 1875. After appearances at Altenburg, Darmstadt and Leipzig, in 1878 he settled in Hamburg where he took part in the local premières of Das Rheingold (as Loge, 1878), Götterdämmerung (1879), Rubinstein’s Nero (1879) and Tristan und Isolde (1882). He sang in London in 1882 with the Hamburg company under Hans Richter at Drury Lane, his roles including Wagner’s Lohengrin, Tannhäuser and Tristan. Following Richter’s recommendation, Wagner chose Winkelmann to create the role of Parsifal at Bayreuth (26 July 1882). The next year he was engaged by the Vienna Hofoper, where he became the city’s first Tristan (on 4 October) and remained a favourite until his retirement in 1906. During this period he continued to sing at Bayreuth, and in 1884 appeared at the Wagner festivals given by Theodore Thomas in New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Cincinnati and Chicago. Apart from Wagner’s operas his repertory included Gluck’s Alceste and Armide, Fidelio, Auber’s La muette de Portici, Verdi’s Otello, Marschner’s Der Vampyr and, in 1897, Smetana’s Dalibor under Mahler’s direction.

Winkelmann was a leading figure in the first generation of Wagner singers, and was coached by the composer. Although he possessed the ample, sonorous voice of a true heroic tenor, his fluid lyrical delivery stood in marked contrast to the declamatory style of many Bayreuth performers during the era of Cosima Wagner’s hegemony. (ES; L. Riemans)

Winkler, Carl Gottfried Theodor [Hell, Theodor]

(b Waldenburg, 9 Feb 1775; d Dresden, 24 Sept 1856). German poet, impresario and journalist. The son of Gottfried Winkler (archdeacon at Waldenburg and from 1779 deacon at the Dresden Kreuzkirche), he displayed a versatility and diligence in Dresden as lawyer, author and critic, translator and editor, and musical and theatrical organizer. He was the mentor of Friedrich Kind's Liederkreis, assistant director of the court theatre and founder-editor of the Dresdner Abendzeitung. He was a friend of Weber and a trustee of his orphaned children. Although his translation of the libretto of Oberon is not of high quality, he wrote an excellent text for Die drei Pintos and was responsible for the first collection of Weber's writings (Hinterlassene Schriften von C.M. von Weber, Dresden, 1828). Winkler was also among the first Germans to recognize and appreciate the operas of Meyerbeer. He wrote under the pen name Theodor Hell.


Die drei Pintos, comic op, partly composed by Weber, 1820, completed by Mahler, Leipzig, 1888; Das Haus Anglade (play), partly incorporated in Weber's Preciosa, Berlin, 1821; Die beiden Galeerensklaven (play), music by F.A. Schubert

Trans. of J.R. Planché's Oberon, romantic op by Weber


F. Rassmann: Pantheon der Tonkünstler (Quedlinburg and Leipzig, 1831)

E. Eckardt: Chronik von Glauchau (Glauchau, 1882)

F. Nagler: Das klingende Land (Leipzig, 1936)

P. Raabe: Wege zu Weber (Regensburg, 1942)

H. Schnoor: Weber auf dem Welttheater: ein Freischützbuch (Dresden, 1942, 5/1985)

H. Schnoor: Weber: Gestalt und Schöpfung (Dresden, 1953)

K. Laux: Carl Maria von Weber (Leipzig, 1966, 2/1986)

J. Warrack: Carl Maria von Weber (London, 1968, 2/1976)

W. Hüttel: Musikgeschichte von Glauchau und Umgebung (Glauchau, 1995), 132f, 242f


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