(bSalzburg, 14 Oct 1959). Austrian composer. He studied at the Salzburg Mozarteum (1974–80) with Helmut Eder, among others, and at the Vienna Musikhochschule, where his teachers included Erich Urbanner; he also studied musicology, philosophy and psychology at the universities of Vienna and Salzburg (doctorate 1986). He has worked as a freelance recording director and programme planner for Austrian Radio (ÖRF) and taught at the universities of Salzburg and Innsbruck. In 1987 he began an intensive involvement with live electronic and computer music. He has lectured at the Darmstadt summer courses (1992–4) and at IRCAM in Paris (1995–6). His honours include a prize in the Vienna Konzerthausgesellschaft composition competition (1987) and commissions from IRCAM, the Donaueschingen Festival, the Salzburg Festival, Wien modern, and other institutions, festivals and ensembles.
Winkler's compositional technique is based on theories of complex dynamic systems and the spatial projection of sound. His ‘growth projects’ take the form of complexes of compositions, crossing boundaries between individual works and employing multimedia (video, choreography, lighting, etc). Beginning in 1994, he began to create interactive works for computer and live performers. By tracing contradiction on all levels of musical reality he has aimed to create art neither isolated from, nor entirely absorbed by, the problems of contemporary society.
Bewegungsetüden, solo inst, 1973–4, rev. 1991; Al-kimiya, str qt, 1986; Kassandra-Frag. (C. Wolf), A, ob, vc, 3 perc, timp, 1987–8; … in den Tag … (E.W. Skwara), S, fl, 1988; Grauzone (P. Huchel, D. Alighieri and others), 2vv, 7 choruses, 4 perc, ens, live elecs, 1990; Das Grosse Tor, orch, sound environment, 1992; Ort I–XXXIII, elecs, 1992–3; Schutzräume, fl, cl, sax, vn, va, vc, db, 1994; Koma, str qt, live eles, 1995–6; Vestige, interactive installation, 1997–
LZMÖ [incl. further bibliography]
S.Pflicht: Gerhard Winkler: ein Komponisten Porträt (Lochham, 1986)
C.Scheib: ‘Gerhard E. Winkler: nicht vollendbare Projekte: die Kraft des Widerstands im konzentriert Leisen’, Wien modern … ein internationales Festival mit Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts, Vienna, 27 Oct–9 Dec 1990 (Vienna, 1990), 107–116
(b Gerstewitz, nr Weissenfels, 18 March 1946). German organist and composer. He studied at the Halle college of church music, the Leipzig Musikhochschule, the Prague Academy of Arts and privately in Berlin with Paul-Heinz Dittrich (from 1970). He also participated in organ masterclasses with Gerd Zacher, Guy Bovet and Jean Guillou. From 1970 to 1982 he served as organist of St Jakob, Köthen, where he was appointed director of sacred music in 1980. In 1983 he became organist of the Kreuzkirche, Dresden. His recital programmes have often featured his own works and compositions especially written for him. Among his honours are the Boswil prize (1977) and the Dresden art prize (1994).
Winkler does not separate his role as an organist from his role as a composer. His chorale settings and particularly his organ improvisations express his enthusiasm for new realms of sound. Finely differentiated tone colours and powerful contrasts are characteristic of his style. In the sphere of church music, his modernity has been controversial. Many of his works are influenced by serial and aleatory models that were severely criticized in the DDR. His output also includes electronic compositions.
Dramatic: Komposition einer Orgel (film score), 1984
Vocal: Auf den Tod eines Kindes (D. Enrigth), motet, chorus, 1968; Entbrannter Stern (cant., J. Keats), T, cl, vc, pf, 1970; Trakl-Zyklus (G. Trakl), 1v, pf, 1982–98, unfinished; Der du bist drei in Ewigkeit, 4–12vv, 1988; Ps xc, 1995; Agnus Dei, 14vv, 1996; 3 Motetten im Gedenken un Heinrich Schütz (Geistliche Chormusik, 1648) S, 7 Tr, 3 choruses, 1998
Orch: Vermessenheit I, 1973
Chbr and solo inst: Chènevière, va, 1976 Hymnus-Cadenzen, hn, org, 1976; Str Trio, 1977–8; Solo für Gruppen, wind qnt, pf, 1978; Flaute, fl, 1979–80; Str Qt, 1987–8; DAGE: gefangen im Käfig von vier Saiten, vn, 1988; Kammermusik I, 7 insts, 1993–4; Pour U.[-II-] A., vc, 1994; Lamento pour Bela, ob, t sax, va, org 1995; Adieu et retour, va, 1996
Kbd (org, unless otherwise stated): Orgelblatt no.1, 1975; Provisoria, 1976; December 1952, 1976–97; [after Earle Brown]; Klaviervariationen über ein Thema von Béla Bartók, pf, c1976; Du grosser Schmerzensmann, 1984–7; Alles gewürfelt, pf, c1988, collab. W. Heisig, C. Münch, A. Schlünz, S. Freikin; For John Cage, 1992; Ostersequenzen, 1992; Timbres, durées et couleurs des années, oder Die Schatten der Jahre und die Farben des Seins, 1996; resonanzen, pf, 1999; chorale preludes; other org works
Principal recording companies: Berlin Classics, Eterna
Winkler, Peter K(enton)
(b Los Angeles, 26 Jan 1943). American composer. After studying with Seymour Shifrin at the University of California, Berkeley (BA 1964), he attended Princeton University (MFA 1968), where his teachers were Babbitt and Kim. From 1968 to 1971 he was a Junior Fellow at Harvard; he then joined the faculty of SUNY, Stony Brook. In 1976 he won a League of Composers-ISCM prize for Humoresque and in 1978 received a MacDowell Colony Fellowship. He has also been active as a musical director for theatrical productions.
Winkler's compositions are either formal and cultivated or popular and vernacular, with each style influencing the other. A strong sense of rhythm pervades his work (one important exception being the experimental String Quartet, 1967). Conspicuous also are a controlled sense of humour, as in Piano Rags (1971) and No Condition is Permanent (1980–89), and dramatic gestures, as in the final movement of the Symphony (1976–8) and Recitativo e terzetto (1980). Dramatic considerations become more prominent in Winkler's later works such as Clarinet Bouquet, used by the Joan Lomardi dance company for Mnemosyne, 1981–2, and Out! (1996–7), commissioned by the Connecticut Gay Men's Chorus, as well as in his incidental music. As a writer and theorist, Winkler has concentrated on the analysis of popular music.
Stage: Out! (music theatre, 2, W. Clark), 1996–7; incid. music for plays, radio, and television
Orch: Praise of Silence, STB, tape, orch, 1969; Sym., 1976–8
Chbr and solo inst: Str Qt, 1967; Humoresque, pf, 1968–70; Pf Rags, 1971; Recitativo e terzetto, ob, cl, bn, 1980; Cl Bouquet, cl, pf, db, 1980; No Condition is Permanent, fl, cl, vn, vc, pf, perc, 1980–89; Yaa Amponsah: Fantasy on a Ghanaian Popular Song, vn, pf, 1988; Gospel Hymn, vn, pf, 1990; Waterborne, vn, tape, 1991; Saboreando el gusto cubano, vn, pf, tape, 1994; 9 Waltzes, pf trio, 1997
Vocal: Sing Out the Old, Sing In the New (W. Clark), TTBB, tuba, vn obbl, 1992; One Light (W. Clark), TTBB, pf, perc, 1994; over 25 songs
‘Toward a Theory of Popular Harmony’, In Theory Only, iv/2 (1978), 3–26
‘Randy Newman's Americana’, Popular Music, vii (1987), 1–26