Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Winterfeld, Carl Georg Vivigens von

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Winterfeld, Carl Georg Vivigens von

(b Berlin, 28 Jan 1784; d Berlin, 19 Feb 1852). German musicologist. He studied law at the University of Halle and was appointed a judge in Breslau in 1816. He returned to Berlin in 1832, and was made an honorary member of the Prussian Academy of the Arts in 1839. He was a corresponding member of the Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Toonkunst and one of the founders of the Bach-Gesellschaft.

During a journey he made to Italy in 1812, of which he kept a diary, Winterfeld transcribed compositions of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries; the collection he left is now in the Staatsbibliothekzu Berlin. His work Johannes Gabrieli und sein Zeitalter (1834) is not only a biography of the composer but also a history of music of the city of Venice. In his study of Lutheran church music he regarded the song settings of Johannes Eccard as the most valuable works in that field, as they conform to the chorale; the works of Schütz and Bach, in his view, maintain their position as sacred music, though not as music for the church.


Johannes Pierluigi von Palestrina (Breslau, 1832)

Johannes Gabrieli und sein Zeitalter (Berlin, 1834/R)

Dr. Martin Luthers deutsche geistliche Lieder (Leipzig, 1840/R)

Der evangelische Kirchengesang und sein Verhältniss zur Kunst des Tonsatzes (Leipzig, 1843–7/R)

Zur Geschichte heiliger Tonkunst (Leipzig, 1850–52/R)



J.T. Mosewius: Obituary, Neue Berliner Musikzeitung, vi (1852)

A. Prüfer, ed.: Briefwechsel zwischen Carl von Winterfeld und Eduard Krüger (Leipzig, 1898)

B. Stockmann: Carl von Winterfeld (diss., U. of Kiel, 1958)

H. Wajemann: ‘Caecilianische Bestrebungen auf evangelischer Seite’, Der Caecilianismus: Anfänge, Grundlagen, Wirkungen: Eichstatt 1985, 229–77


Winterhalter, Hugo

(b Wilkes-Barre, PA, 15 Aug 1910; d Greenwich, CT, 17 Sept 1973). American arranger, conductor and composer. He started playing the violin at the age of six, later studied reed instruments, and was playing professionally by the time he was in high school. He taught music and led the school orchestra while a student at St Mary’s College in Emmitsburg, Maryland, and graduated from the New England Conservatory. After teaching music in high school he began to play the saxophone in club bands in New York; during the 1930s and 40s he played with various dance orchestras, including those of Larry Clinton, Raymond Scott, the Dorsey brothers, Count Basie, Vaughn Monroe and Benny Goodman. Winterhalter turned to arranging in 1944, and eventually arranged music for many of these bands, and also for such singers as Billy Eckstine, Kate Smith, Dinah Shore, Eddie Fisher, Kay Starr, Perry Como, Doris Day, Frank Sinatra, the Ames Brothers and Mario Lanza. In 1948 he joined MGM as music director, and held similar positions at Columbia (1949–50), RCA Victor (1950–63) and Kapp. While with RCA he was a key studio arranger and conductor; his large, lush string orchestra backed many popular singers, and 11 of the recordings he made became gold records. Winterhalter was also a composer, and wrote such hits as How do I love thee? (1951), Hesitation (1952), and Melody of Spain (1962); his biggest hit was his arrangement of Eddie Heywood’s instrumental piece Canadian Sunset (1956), which sold 1,500,000 copies during the 1950s. He appeared as a conductor with the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra, the Milwaukee SO and the National SO in Washington, DC.


Winter-Hjelm, Otto

(b Christiania [now Oslo], 8 Oct 1837; d Christiania, 3 May 1931). Norwegian composer and writer on music. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory (1857–8) and was later a pupil of Kullak and Wüerst in Berlin. From 1863 to 1871 he was director of the Philharmonic Society and in 1864, with Grieg, he founded the first Norwegian music academy, which opened in 1867. He was also organist at the Trefoldighetskirke, Christiania (1874–1921), and music critic for Aftenposten (1887–1913). He wrote two symphonies (1861, 1862) and much vocal music, especially male-voice choruses, as well as chamber music and piano and organ pieces. (H.-M. Weydahl: ‘Otto Winter-Hjelm’, Norsk musikktidskrift, xi (1974), 155–60)

Winternitz, Emanuel

(b Vienna, 4 Aug 1898; d New York, 22 Aug 1983). American musicologist of Austrian birth. He gained an LlD at the University of Vienna in 1922 and taught philosophy of law at the University of Hamburg. After studies in music and musical instruments with various teachers he emigrated in 1939 to the USA, where he was first a lecturer at the Fogg Museum of Harvard University (1938–41) and then lecturer and keeper of the collection of musical instruments at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (1941–9). In 1949 he became curator of musical instruments as the Metropolitan Museum made the collection an official department of the museum. He held this post until his retirement in 1973. He was also a lecturer at Columbia University (1947–8) and was a visiting professor at Yale, Rutgers, CUNY and the State University of New York at Binghamton.

As a specialist in musical instruments, Winternitz explored several areas of his field including the history of instruments, instruments as works of art, musical iconography and musical archaeology of the Renaissance. His Musical Instruments of the Western World (1966) is a splendid collection of photographs with descriptive comments and an introductory essay placing the instruments in their social and artistic context. His monograph on Gaudenzio Ferrari shows what contributions iconography can make to historical musicology, in this case to the question of the origins of the violin. At the Metropolitan Museum Winternitz aimed to bring the instruments in the collection to playing condition, believing that they would not survive if they were not played. He was responsible for the reorganization of the Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments of All Nations.


‘Bagpipes and Hurdy-Gurdies in their Social Setting’, Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, new ser., ii (1943), 56–83

‘Archeologia musicale del rinascimento nel Parnaso di Raffaello’, Rendiconti della Pontificia accademia romana di archeologia, xxvii (1951–4), 359–88

‘Instruments de musique étranges chez Filippino Lippi, Piero di Cosimo et Lorenzo Costa’, Les fêtes de la Renaissance, i: Royaumont 1955, 379–95

Musical Autographs from Monteverdi to Hindemith (Princeton, 1955/R)

‘Bagpipes for the Lord’, Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, new ser., xvi (1958), 276–86

‘Gnagflow Trazom: an Essay on Mozart’s Script, Pastimes and Nonsense Letters’, JAMS, xi (1958), 200–16

Keyboard Instruments in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, 1961)

‘The Survival of the Kithara and the Evolution of the Cittern: a Study in Morphology’, HMYB, xi (1961), 209–14

‘The Visual Arts as a Source for the Historian of Music’, IMSCR VIII: New York 1961, 109–20

‘On Angel Concerts in the 15th Century: a Critical Approach to Realism and Symbolism in Sacred Painting’, MQ, xlix (1963), 450–63

‘Muses and Music in a Burial Chapel: an interpretation of Filippino Lippi’s Window Wall in the Cappella Strozzi’, Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Instituts in Florenz, xi (1963–5), 263–86

‘Leonardo’s Invention of the Viola Organista’, Raccolta Vinciana, xx (1964), 1–46; see also pp.47, 69

‘Musicians and Musical Instruments in “The Hours of Charles the Noble”’, Cleveland Museum of Art Bulletin, lii (1965), 84–90

‘The School of Gaudenzio Ferrari and the Early History of the Violin’, The Commonwealth of Music, in Honor of Curt Sachs, ed. G. Reese and R. Brandel (New York, 1965), 182–93

Musical Instruments of the Western World (London and New York, 1966; Ger. trans., 1966 as Die schönsten Musikinstrumente des Abendlandes)

Gaudenzio Ferrari, his School and the Early History of the Violin (Milan, 1967)

‘Anatomy the Teacher: on the Impact of Leonardo's Anatomical Research on his Musical and other Machines’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, cxi (1967), 234–47

Musical Instruments and their Symbolism in Western Art (New York, 1967, 2/1979) [incl. list of writings, 235–8]

‘A Spinettina for the Duchess of Urbino’, Metropolitan Museum of Art Journal, i (1968), 95–108

‘Strange Musical Instruments in the Madrid Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci’, Metropolitan Museum Journal, ii (1969), 115–26

‘The Crosby Brown Collection of Musical Instruments: its Origin and Development’, Metropolitan Museum Journal, iii (1970), 337–56

‘Über Musikinstrumentensammlungen des Frühbarock’, Studia musico-museologica (Nuremberg, 1970), 6–18

‘The Iconology of Music: Potentials and Pitfalls’, Perspectives in Musicology, ed. B.S. Brook, E.O.D. Downes and S. Van Solkema (New York, 1972), 80–90

‘La musical nel “Paragone” di Leonardo da Vinci’, Studi musicali, i (1972), 79–99

Leonardo da Vinci as a Musician (New Haven, CT, 1982)


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