Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Wishart, Trevor

(b Leeds, 11 Oct 1946). English composer and writer on music. He studied at Oxford University (BA 1968), the University of Nottingham (MA 1969) and the University of York (PhD, composition, 1973). Subsequently he remained in York working as a freelance composer, and has lectured at many institutions worldwide, with extended stays in Australia, Canada, USA, Sweden and the Netherlands as well as at British universities. His reputation among contemporaries is that of a radical innovator. His early works involve improvisation with found objects, environmental events, performance and installation art and participatory games and workshops designed to involve audiences in the creative process. In later works he has sought to extend the vocal repertory through the exploration of new vocal sounds (Anticredos and the Vox series) and pioneered the art of composing directly with sound, or ‘sonic art’ (see Electro-acoustic music, §2). This music moves between the pure manipulation of sonority and what he calls ‘cinematographic use of soundscapes’, employing sophisticated signal processing instruments of his own design to control the internal quality and the evolution of sounds themselves. His writings, particularly On Sonic Art and Audible Design, have helped to define the scope and craft of this new field.


(selective list)

concert works

Kaleidoscope, orch, 1969; Machine 2, chorus, tape, 1969; Polysaccharides, 8 cl, 1969; Red Bird, a political prisoner’s dream, tape, 1973–7; Fanfare & Contrapunctus, tape, 1976; Fidelio, fl, 6 suitcases, 1976; Vocalise, 1v, 1977; Tuba Mirum, prep tuba, mimes, tape, 1977–8; Anticredos, 2 S, T, 3 B, 1980; Pastorale, Walden-2, miniature set, props, fl, tuba, tape, 1980; Vox 1, S, A, T, B, tape, 1981–2; Anna’s Magic Garden, tape, 1982; Vox 2, S, A, T, B, tape, live elecs, 1983–4; Vox 3, S, A, T, B, click tracks, 1985; Vox 5, tape, 1986; Vox 4, S, A, T, B, tape, 1987–8; Vox 6, S, A, T, B, tape, 1988–9; Dance Music, orch, click tracks, 1990–91; Tongues of Fire, tape, 1992–4; Fabulous Paris, tape, 1995–7

experimental projects

Bicycle Music, bicycles, 1970; Found Objects Music, found objects, 1970; Landscape, environmental event, incl. airborne insts, 1970; Son et lumière, Domestic, multimedia, mice, 1974; Mengerie, exhibition of assemblages and their sounds, 1974–5; Beach Singularity, environmental event for the holiday beach, 1977; Spanner, participatory multimedia project, 1977


Material in GB-Lmic; Sonic Arts Network

Principal publishers: Universal, University of York, Orpheus the Pantomime

Principal recording companies: Art Tower Mito, Hyperion, Orpheus the Pantomime, Österreichischer Rundfunk, Paradigm, Virgin, Wergo


Sun: Creativity & Environment (London, 1974/R)

Sun 2: a Creative Philosophy (London, 1975/R)

Whose Music? a Sociology of Musical Languages (London, 1977/R)

Book of Lost Voices (York, 1979)

‘Bicycle Music’, Scores: an Anthology of New Music, ed. R. Johnson (New York, 1981)

On Sonic Art (York, 1985, 2/1996)

‘The Composition of VOX 5’, Computer Music Journal, xii/4 (1988), 21–7

Music Origination by Computer: a Composer’s View’, Musicus, i (1989), 29–31

‘Computer Music and Post-modernism’, Sonic Arts Network Journal, v (1991) [pp.2–6]

‘Words as Music’, Musicworks, no.50 (1991), 24–9

‘From Architecture to Chemistry’, Interface, xxii (1993), 301–15

Audible Design: a Plain and Easy Introduction to Practical Sound Composition (York, 1995)

‘Connections’, CMR, xv (1996), 89–97

‘Die electroakustische Musik ist tot: lang lebe Sonic Art’, Positionen, xix (1996), 7–9

‘The Situation of the Sonic Arts Today’, Journal of Electroacoustic Music, ix (1996), 22–5


H. Leopoldseder: ‘Computermusik’, Meisterwerk der Computerkunst (Bremen, 1988), 165–8

D. Witts: ‘Trevor Wishart and “Vox”’, MT, cxxix (1988), 452–4 [interview]

T. Williams: ‘An Analysis of Trevor Wishart’s Vox 5’, Journal of Electroacoustic Music, vii (1993), 6–13


Wisłocki, Stanisław

(b Rzeszów, 7 July 1921; d Warsaw, 31 May 1998). Polish conductor and composer. He studied in Lwów and Timişoara, and in Romania made his débuts as pianist and conductor (1940). In 1947 he founded the Poznań State Philharmonia, which he conducted for 11 years, and from 1977 was chief conductor of the Polish Radio National SO in Katowice. He also conducted the Warsaw PO and appeared as a guest conductor throughout Europe and the Americas. His compositions are unpretentious and melodious, often taking thematic material from Polish folksong.


(selective list)

Orch: Na rozstajach [At the Crossroads], sym. poem, 1942; Sym., 1944; Ov., chbr orch, 1945; Taniec zbójnicki [Bandits’ Dance], small orch, 1945; Nokturn, 1947; Pf Conc., 1949; Ballada symfoniczna, 1952; Symfonia o tańcu [Dance Sym.], 1952

Other works: Sonata, vn, pf, 1942; Sonata na temat Scarlattiego, pf, 1942; Pf Qt, 1943; 2 pf suites, 1943; Poèmes (S. Minulescu), T, chbr orch, 1944

Principal publishers: PWM


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