Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Woffington, Margaret [Peggy]

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Woffington, Margaret [Peggy]

(b Dublin, ?1714; d London, 1760). Irish actress. In 1730 she was engaged by Madame Violante to take part in her ‘Lilliputian Actors’ theatre, where she is said to have made her first appearance in a children’s performance of The Beggar’s Opera. In 1740 she went to London, became the mistress of Garrick, and achieved fame as an actress. She is unlikely to be directly related to the family of organists of the same name (see Woffington).


Wohlgemuth, Conrad.

See Lustig, Jacob Wilhelm.

Wohlgemuth, Gerhard

(b Frankfurt, 16 March 1920). German composer. He studied medicine in Greifswald and Halle (1940–48) and was essentially self-taught musically. After winning a prize in composition in 1948 he turned away from medicine to music. In Halle he studied composition with Fritz Reuter and took piano lessons with Bronislaw von Pozniak. After a time as a reader for music publishers in Halle and Leipzig (1949–56), he settled in Halle as a composer and lecturer in theory at the university's musicology institute. A versatile composer, he directed his attention at first to chamber music and pieces for amateurs. Characteristic of his later work are the romantic 12-note String Quartet no.1 and the Violin Concerto, a work that finely blends a lively joy in music-making with a studied expressiveness incorporating new techniques; there are some parallels with Prokofiev. Wohlgemuth has received the Halle Arts Prize (1955), the Handel Prize (1962) and the Arts Prize of the DDR (1964).


(selective list)

Orch: Concertino, pf, orch, 1948; Heitere Musik, 1952; Suite, 1953; Sym., 1955; Sinfonietta, 1956; Händel-Metamorphosen, 1958; Concertino, ob, str, 1957; Sym., 1958, rev. 62; Vn Conc., 1963; Telemann-Variationen, 1964; Divertissement, pf, orch, 1986–7; Sym., 1983; Piccolo concerto, pf, orch

Chbr: 2 pf sonatinas, 1944, 1945; Sonatina, a rec, pf, 1948; Inventionen, pf, 1949; Pf Sonatina, 1949; Sonatina, tr rec, pf, 1949; Sonata, vn, pf, 1955; Pf Sextet, 1955; 2 str qts, 1960, 1968 (‘Dölauer’); Variations on a Theme of G.F. Händel, 2 pf, 1969; Str Qt, 1977; Wind Qnt ‘Supremalitapega’, 1992

Vocal and dramatic: 4 altdeutsche Lieder, 1935; Till, op, 1952; Provencalisches Liebeslied, ballet, 1954; Jahre der Wandlung (orat, F. Döppe), 1961; film scores, vocal music


E. Rubisch: ‘Gerhard Wohlgemuth’, Aus dem Leben und Schaffen unserer Komponisten (Berlin, 1960–61), 104–8

F. Schneider: Das Streichquartettschaffen in der DDR bis 1970 (Leipzig, 1980)

M. Hansen: ‘Gerhard Wohlgemuth’, Komponieren zur Zeit: Gespräche mit Komponisten der DDR (Leipzig, 1998), 260–95



Baptismal name of Adalbert of Prague.

Wójcik-Keuprulian [née Wójcikówna], Bronisława

(b Lemberg [now L'viv], 6 Aug 1890; d Warsaw, 11 April 1938). Polish musicologist. She studied philosophy and mathematics, and musicology with Chybiński at Lwów University, taking the doctorate in 1917 with a dissertation on Johann Fischer. She was an assistant in the musicology department of Lwów University (1919–25) and professor of music at the Lwów Conservatory (1919–20). She completed the Habilitation in musicology at the University of Kraków in 1934. Most of her research was devoted to the music of Chopin. Her most valuable work is her book Melodyka Chopina (1930), the first extended study on the subject.


‘Tańce polskie Jana Fischera z Augsburga’ [Polish dances by Johann Fischer of Augsburg], KM, ii (1913–14), 83–90; repr. in Szkice muzykologiczne (1923)

Tańce polskie Jana Fischera z Augsburga [Polish dances by Johann Fischer of Augsburg] (diss., U. of Lwów, 1917)

‘Johann Fischer von Augsburg (1646–1721) als Suitenkomponist’, ZMw, v (1922–3), 129–56

‘Problemy formy’, Romantyzm w muzyce, ed. M. Glinski (Warsaw, 1928), 70–90

‘Un disciple de Jean-Baptiste Lully: Johann Fischer’ RdM, x (1929), 246–54

Melodyka Chopina [Chopin’s melody] (Lwów, 1930)

‘O trioli w mazurkach Chopina’ [On triplets in Chopin’s mazurkas], Księga pamiątkowa ku czci profesora Adolfa Chybińskiego (Kraków, 1930), 107–14

‘Consideration sur les éléments du style de Chopin’, ReM, no.121 (1931), 87–95

‘Wariacje i technika wariacyjna Chopina’ [The variations and variation technique of Chopin], KM, nos.12–13 (1931), 380–92

‘Czynnik: stylu szopena’ [Factors of Chopin’s style], ‘Zarys bibljografji’ [Selective bibliography], Szopen, ed. M. Glinski (Warsaw, 1932), 52–65, 91–5

‘Elemente des Volksliedes in Chopins Melodik’, Slavische Rundschau (1933)

Stanowisko muzykologii w systemie nauk [The place of musicology in the system of science] (Habilitationsschrift, U. of Kraków, 1934; Kraków, 1934)


S. Zetowski: ‘Na zgon Bronisławy Wójcik-Keuprulian’, Śpiewak, ix/5 (1938), 71–3

S. Zetowski: ‘Dr Bronisława Wójcik-Keuprulian’, Muzyka polska, xxii/6 (1938), 253–8


Wolanek, Anton.

See Volánek, Antonín.

Woldemar, Michel

(bap. Orléans, 21 Sept 1750; d Clermont-Ferrand, 19 Dec 1815). French violinist and composer. He was born into a wealthy family and took his name from his godfather Woldemar, Count of Lowendal, Marshal of France. According to Lottin, in his youth he was held prisoner at the Sabot d’Angers, where he developed his talent for the violin. In Paris he took lessons with Lolli and became a well-known violinist. He said that he performed his ‘Fandango, air favori des Espagnols’ (published in 6 rêves d'un violon seul) in Madrid about 1770, and he took part in the concerts of the Baron de Bagge in Paris. A change of fortune obliged him to earn his living by playing, and he left Orléans and followed a troupe of travelling actors. By June 1801, however, he was the owner of a vineyard in Orléans, and in January 1806 he was giving lessons and accompanying voice, piano and harp. In April 1804, he had moved to Paris, and in about 1807 he settled in Clermont-Ferrand where he was attached to the cathedral choir school and taught music.

Woldemar’s works include studies, caprices, varied themes and melodies, sonatas, duos, violin concertos, and a concerto for a five-stringed ‘violon-alto’(c - g - d' - a' - e''). He described himself as ‘élève de Lolli’. His Sonates fantomagiques conjure up a dialogue with the ghosts of Lolli, Mestrino, Pugnani and Tartini. His Grande méthode, ou Etude élémentaire pour le violon contains a variety of exercises (for scales, runs, trills, bowing, pauses, double-stopping etc.) and gives examples by famous masters, in particular Mestrino, Lolli, Cramer and Giornovichi. Inventive by nature, he devised a curious system of musical stenography, the Tableau mélo-tachygraphique. He also wrote a parody of the Ten Commandments (the Commandemens du violon), and published letters and articles, often ironic and polemical, in the Correspondance des amateurs musiciens and above all in Le Courrier des spectacles; his criticism of Les mystères d’Isis (a French adaptation of Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte) in 1801 drew a sharp reply from Le Sueur.


printed works published in Paris unless otherwise stated

Inst.: Conc. for violon-alto, C (1787); 6 airs variés, 2 vn (c1800); Romances du Prisonnier [Della Maria] variées, vn, b (c1800); 6 thèmes fugués dans le mode mineur, vn (c1800); 3 thèmes d’Haydn variés, vn (c1800); 3 vn duos, op.6 (c1800); 3 duos dialogués, vn, va (c1802); 3 duos à la première position, 2 vn (c1802); 4 sonates fantomagiques (les ombres de Lolli, de Mestrino, de Pugnani, de Tartini), vn, b (c1802); 6 rêves, vn (1803); 3 vn concs., a, E, d (1803–4), no.3 arr. cl, fl (1804), lost; Recueil d’airs de Fanchon la vielleuse, arr. 2 vn (c1804); Gavotte de Vestris variée, vn (1805); 12 nouvelles variations sur Les folies d’Espagne, vn (1805); Quatuor dialogué, str qt (1805); Romance de Gaviniès variée, vn (1805), ?lost

Studies, etc. (for vn solo unless otherwise stated): Le nouvel art de l’archet, 1, 2 vn (1798); Caprices ou études (c1800); Etude ou [3] caprices (c1800); Etudes élémentaires, 2 vn (c1800); Le nouveau labyrinthe harmonique, op.10 (c1800) [incl. double stopping exercises]; 12 études d’une difficulté progressive (c1801); 12 grands solos ou études (c1802); Etude élémentaire de l’archet moderne (1802); Exercises (Vienna, 1802–5); 6 caprices ou points d’orgue (c1804); 4 grands solos ou études, op.40 (c1826) [2nd edn of 4 sonates fantomagiques]; La gamme fuguée (n.p., n.d.)

Methods: Méthode pour le violon (1795–8); Grande méthode ou Etude élémentaire pour le violon (1798–9; 2/1802–3, with 15 leçons faciles); Barême lyrique de Woldemar, ou L’art de composer toute sorte de musique sans savoir la composition (1800), lost; Tableau mélo-tachygraphique (1800); Méthode d’alto (c1800); Méthode de clarinette (c1802)

ed.: Méthode de violon par L. Mozart (c1804)







D. Lottin: Recherches historiques sur la ville d’Orléans, ii (Orléans, 1865)

F. Hellouin: ‘La sténographie musicale’, Feuillets d’histoire musicale française, 1st ser. (1903), 155–67

N.K. Nunamaker: The Virtuoso Violin Concerto before Paganini: the Concertos of Lolli, Giornovichi, and Woldemar (diss., Indiana U., 1968)

M. Garnier-Butel: Les quatuors à cordes publiés en France dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle (diss., U. of Paris, IV Sorbonne, 1992; microfiche, Lille, 1996)


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