Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Woodcock [Woodcoke, Woodecock], Clement

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Woodcock [Woodcoke, Woodecock], Clement

(b c ?1540; d Chichester, 1590). English singer, organist and composer. He was a lay clerk at King's College, Cambridge in 1562–3. In 1565 he was appointed a singer at Canterbury Cathedral, becoming a full lay clerk in 1568. About 1570 he left Canterbury to take up the position of organist and Master of the Choristers at Chichester Cathedral. He presumably took orders at this time since he acquired the position of priest vicar on 1 April 1574. He was granted the living of Rumboldswhyke, near Chichester, on 7 November 1589.

Of his five known compositions (all ed. in MB, xliv, 1979), all instrumental, four appear in GB-Lbl Add. 31390. This manuscript is dated 1578 and has Chichester connections. Woodcock may well have been involved in its compilation; he had already been paid a consultancy fee at Canterbury in connection with the copying of new music books there. However, the discovery of examples of his signature at Canterbury now seems to discount the previously suggested possibility that he copied the Chichester source.

Woodcock's three In Nomines all have their cantus firmus transposed to G final. In his In Nomine no.3 the cantus firmus is in the top voice, adding to the constraints already imposed by monothematicism to produce a certain stiffness. The remaining two In Nomines have the melody in the middle voice and are more successful, particularly the first whose deliberately paced textures resemble those of other contemporary composers of instrumental music, notably Byrd. Browning my dere comprises ten variations on a popular song melody which migrates from one instrument to another, with systematic contrast between three- and five-voice texture. It probably is a response to a similar work by Stonings with only five variations, and appears to have provoked Byrd's 20-variation set. Hackney, possibly also based on popular material, has an unusual homophonic texture. The work consists of a series of cadences in C, with few additional chords other than F and G.


T. Dart: ‘Music and Musicians at Chichester Cathedral, 1545–1642’, ML, xlii (1961), 221–6

W. Edwards: The Sources of Elizabethan Consort Music (diss., U. of Cambridge, 1974), 90–97

D. Mateer: ‘Further Light on Preston and Whyte’, MT, cxv (1974), 1074–7

O. Neighbour: The Consort and Keyboard Music of William Byrd (London, 1978)

R. Ford: ‘Clement Woodcock's Appointment at Canterbury Cathedral’, Chelys, xvi (1987), 36–43

I. Payne: ‘Instrumental Music at Trinity College, Cambridge, c.1594–c.1615: Archival and Biographical Evidence’, ML, lxviii (1987), 128–40

R. Rastall: ‘Spatial Effects in English Instrumental Consort Music, c.1560–1605’, EMc, xxv (1997), 269–88


Woodcock, Robert

(bap. Chelsea, London, 9 Oct 1690; d Chelsea, 10 April 1728). English composer and woodwind player. His parents ran a school for girls in Chelsea. The engraver George Vertue, who knew him, wrote that Woodcock had ‘a place or clerkship in the Government’ until about 1725, leaving to devote himself to marine painting, and that he was ‘very skillful in music, had judgement and performed on the hautboy in a masterly manner’. Hawkins called Woodcock ‘a famous performer on the flute [i.e. recorder]’, but he was more likely an enthusiastic amateur on the oboe, recorder and flute. He died of gout, leaving his family in penury.

In 1720 Woodcock set Newburgh Hamilton’s St Cecilia’s day ode, The Power of Musick (London, music lost). His only surviving compositions are a set of XII Concertos in Eight Parts (London, 1727), three for sixth flute (descant recorder in d''), three for two sixth flutes, three for flute and three for oboe; nine have no violas among the strings. They are of historical importance as the first flute concertos ever published and the first oboe concertos published by an English composer. Nos.1–4 and 6–8 are essentially Venetian in conception, with the fast–slow–fast sequence of movements; the main influences are Vivaldi and Albinoni. The first-movement ritornellos generally include attractive, well-contrasted and balanced phrases, but the passage-work in the episodes is routine and largely scalar. The slow movements are dances (sicilianas and sarabands) or Handelian adagios, and the finales are simple dances or binary movements with regular phrases echoed as variations. Nos.5 and 9–12 are melodically more Handelian and more varied in construction, variously avoiding or obscuring the ritornello principle, having four movements (slow–fast–slow–fast), or incorporating viola parts; three manuscript sources (D-HRD Fü 3625a; D-SWl 2436; S-Uu ihs19:24) attribute no.12 to Handel, under whose name it has been published (Braunschweig, 1935). A similar Venetian-Handelian split is evident in Babell's recorder concertos. Woodcock's no.11 is a concerto grosso in which the oboe mainly doubles the violins. There is no support for Priestman's allegation that Woodcock may have stolen one or more of the concertos.




G. Vertue: The Note-Books of George Vertue Relating to Artists and Collections in England (Oxford, 1933–4)

D. Macmillan: ‘“A New Concerto, Compos'd by Mr. Woodcock”’, Recorder and Music Magazine, viii (1985), 180–81

D. Lasocki and H. Neate: ‘The Life and Works of Robert Woodcock, 1690–1728’, American Recorder, xxix (1988), 92–104


Wooden fish.

See Temple blocks.

Woodfield, Ian

(b London, 2 Aug 1951). British musicologist. He studied at Nottingham University (1969–72) and King's College, University of London (1973–7), where his teachers included Howard Mayer Brown and Margaret Bent. He took the doctorate at King's College in 1977 with a study on the origins of the viol. After one year as research fellow at Bath University (1977–8), he was appointed lecturer (1978), senior lecturer (1989), reader (1994) and director of the school of music (1995–) at Queen's University, Belfast. His areas of research include the history of the viol, music in 18th-century Anglo-Indian society, Italian opera in London during the 1770s and the role of musicians in exploration of the 16th and 17th century.


The Celebrated Quarrel between Thomas Linley, senior, and William Herschel: an Episode in the Musical Life of Eighteenth-Century Bath (Bath, 1977)

‘The Early History of the Viol’, PRMA, ciii (1976–7), 141–57

‘Viol Playing Techniques in the Mid-Sixteenth Century: a Survey of Ganassi's Fingering Instructions’, EMc, vi (1978), 544–50

‘The Mythology of the English Harp’, GSJ, xxxiii (1980), 133–4

The Early History of the Viol (diss., U. of London; Cambridge, 1984/R)

‘The Keyboard Recital in Oriental Diplomacy, 1520–1620’, JRMA, cxv (1990), 33–62

‘The Basel gross Geigen: an Early German Viol?’, A Viola da Gamba Miscellany: Utrecht 1991, 1–14

“‘Music of Forty Several Parts”: a Song for the Creation of Princes’, Performance Practice Review, vii (1994), 54–64

‘The “Hindostannie Air”: English Attempts to Understand Indian Music in the Late Eighteenth Century’, JRMA, cxix (1994), 189–211

‘Collecting Indian Songs in Late Eighteenth-Century Lucknow: Problems of Transcription’, British Journal of Ethnomusicology, iii (1994), 73–88

‘New Light on the Mozarts' Visit: a Private Concert with Manzuoli’, ML, lxxvi (1995), 187–208

English Musicians in the Age of Exploration (Stuyvesant, NY, 1995)

‘Music and Empire’, The Age of Romanticism and Revolution: an Oxford Companion to British Culture 1776–1832 (forthcoming)

Music of the Raj: a Social and Economic History of Music in Late Eighteenth-Century Anglo-Indian Society (forthcoming)


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