Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Wulf, Jan

(b Orneta, 1735; d Oliwa, 11 March 1807). Polish organ builder. He was the son of ‘Wulf of Orneta’ (probably ‘Wulf of Malbork’, who worked on the organ in Pelplin Cathedral as the assistant of Daniel Nitrowski at various times between 1674 and 1680). In 1758 Wulf went to Danzig; Abbot J. Rybiński of the Cistercian monastery in Oliwa sent him to north Germany and the Netherlands for three years for further training. On his return Wulf built the little organ (of which the case still exists) in the monastery church; on 22 January 1763 he entered the order (as Father Michaeł) and began work on the large organ. In 1776 he was ordained and in 1778 stopped work on the instrument, which was completed between 1791 and 1793 by F. Dalitz of Danzig. Before its renovation (1934–5), the organ had 83 stops on three manuals and pedal, including 49 foundation stops, 24 mixtures and mutations and ten reeds; it was three-quarters of a tone above modern concert pitch. The instrument was the largest old organ in Poland and represented a synthesis of southern and northern Polish styles.


F. Denecke: Die grosse Orgel von Oliva (Danzig, 1865)

F. Packheiser: Die grosse Orgel zu Oliva (Danzig, 1935)

R. Wyrobek and M. Odyniec: Organy oliwskie (Gdańsk, 1959)

J. Gołos: Zarys historii budowy organów w Polsce [Outline of the history of Polish organ building] (Bydgoszcz, 1966)

J. Gołos: Polskie organy i muzyka organowa (Warsaw, 1972; Eng. trans., 1922, as The Polish Organ, i: The Instrument and its History)

E. Smulikowska: Prospekty organowe w dawnej Polsce (Wrocław, 1989; Eng. trans., rev., 1993, as The Polish Organ, ii: Organ-Cases in Poland as Works of Art)


Wulfstan [Wulstan, Wolstan] of Winchester

(fl 992–6). English versifier, music theorist and most probably composer. He is not to be confused with the homilist Wulfstan of York, who was Bishop of London (996–1002), Bishop of Worcester (1002–16), and Archbishop of York (1003–23). Often referred to as ‘the cantor’ in his lifetime and describing himself as the ‘least servant of English hymn singers’, Wulfstan was the precentor at Winchester's Old Minster in the years before, and perhaps after, the turn of the millennium. John Leland (?1506–52) claimed that Wulfstan was chosen precentor by his fellow monks because of his ‘thoroughly melodious voice and consummate skill in singing’. According to his own testimony, Wulfstan was a pupil of St Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester (963–84). He died on July 22 (GB-Lbl Cotton Titus D.xxvii, f.6r), but the year is not known.

Wulfstan's name appears as an acrostic in the preface to his Brevilioquium de omnibus sanctis, a versification of a Carolingian sermon on All Saints. He is universally accepted as the author of the Narratio metrica de S. Swithuno (a versification of the Translatio et miracula S. Swithuni of Lantfred of Winchester) and a prose Vita S. Aethelwoldi. The dedication of the former to Bishop Elfheah (Alphege) of Winchester (984–1005) contains a justly famous hyperbolic description of the organ of Winchester (see McKinnon). Wulfstan's music theory treatise, Brevilioquium super musicam, is known only through a few citations in two 15th-century manuscripts of an anonymous commentary on Boethius's De institutione musica (GB-Ob Bod.77 and Oas 90). The Brevilioquium must be identical with Wulfstan's ‘work on the harmony of tones’ mentioned by William of Malmesbury (c1090–c1143) in his Gesta regum Anglorum. No liturgical music has survived that bears a medieval attribution to Wulfstan. Nevertheless, there is good reason to think he is the author of three hymns (Alma lucerna micat, Inclitus pastor and Caeli senator inclite) and two introit tropes (Patris adest votiva and Praesul Aethelwoldus) for St Ethelwold, a hymn (Agmina sacra poli) for St Birin, and a hymn (Aurea lux patriae) for St Swithun contained in Orderic Vitalis's (1075–c1142) manuscript of the Vita S. Aethelwoldi (F-AL 14). A number of hymns, tropes, and proses, both for the commemoration of Winchester saints and for other feasts (in GB-DRc B.III.32, Lbl Roy.15.C.vii, Lbl Cotton Nero E.i, F-R 1385 (U.107), GB-Cu Gg.5.35, Ccc 473 and Ob Bod.775) may well have been composed by Wulfstan. Lapidge and Winterbottom have pointed to linguistic features of Aula superna poli reboat (a hymn for All Saints), Ecce dies venerandus (an introit trope for St Just), Omnibus expletis fuerat (an offertory verse trope for the Dedication of a Church), and Gaudens christi (a prose for St Swithun) that link the pieces to poetry accepted as Wulfstan's, but they do not explicitly attribute any tropes or proses to Wulfstan. Holschneider has argued convincingly that Wulfstan was the composer of the main corpus of voces organalis to various genres of chant contained in GB-Ccc 473 (ff.135r–155r, 163r–189v). The traditional dating of this manuscript to the end of the 10th century led Planchart to conjecture plausibly that Wulfstan may have been one of its scribes, but this dating has since been questioned (see Hiley).


G.M. Dreves, C. Blume and H.M. Bannister, eds.: Analecta hymnica medii aevi (Leipzig, 1886–1922/R), xl (1902), xlviii (1905), xlix (1906), li (1908)

C. Blume: ‘Wolstan von Winchester und Vital von Saint-Evroult’, Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Philosophisch-historische Klasse, cxlvi/3 (1903)

A. Campbell, ed.: Frithegodi monachi Breviloquium vitae Beati Wilfredi et Wulfstani cantoris narratio metrica de Sancto Swithuno (Zürich, 1950)

H. Gneuss: Hymnar und Hymnen im englischen Mittelalter (Tübingen, 1968)

A. Holschneider: Die Organa von Winchester: Studien zum ältesten Repertoire polyphoner Musik (Hildesheim, 1968)

J. McKinnon: ‘The 10th-Century Organ at Winchester’, Organ Yearbook, v (1974), 4–19

A.E. Planchart: The Repertory of Tropes at Winchester (Princeton, NJ, 1977)

F. Dolbeau: ‘Le Brevilioquium de omnibus sanctis: un poème inconnu de Wulfstan, chantre de Winchester’, Analecta bollandiana, cvi (1988), 35–98

M. Lapidge and M. Winterbottom, eds.: Wulfstan of Winchester: the Life of St Aethelwold (Oxford, 1991)

D. Hiley: ‘The Englsih Benedictine Version of the Historia Sancti Gregorii and the Date of the “Wincheter Troper” (Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 473)’, Cantus Planus VII: Sopron 1995, 287–303


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