(b Leicester, 23 Sept 1904; d Toronto, 3 Jan 1966). Canadian conductor, violinist and music administrator. He was the pioneer of music broadcasting in Canada. He began to study the violin at the age of seven in Lethbridge, Alberta, where his family had settled in 1907. In 1921 he toured Canada as a soloist, then studied with Healey Willan, Luigi von Kunitz and Leo Smith at the Toronto Conservatory. From 1922 to 1926 he taught there and was a member of the Toronto SO. In 1925 he was appointed music director of the Toronto radio station CKNC, and in 1933 became music director of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, forerunner of the CBC. Through hundreds of broadcasts he had become the most widely known conductor in Canada, and from 1936 he pursued a freelance career. In 1947 he was appointed music adviser to the CBC and organized the CBC Opera Company. As CBC director of music from 1952 his principal responsibility was the CBC SO (formed in 1952, disbanded in 1964), which became one of the foremost in Canada. The orchestra performed numerous works by Canadian composers, including many commissions, and introduced new works by composers from all over the world. In its time it was the only symphony orchestra in North America supported solely by a broadcasting organization. Sargent called it ‘one of the four great orchestras of the Americas’, and Stravinsky chose it to record several of his important works that had originally been scheduled for New York.
Wade, Bonnie C(laire)
(b Nashville, TN, 29 March 1941). American ethnomusicologist. She took the BMus at Boston University (1963) and at UCLA she completed the MA (1967) and the PhD (1971), the last with a dissertation on khayāl. She taught at Brown University (1971–5) and then joined the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, where she established the internationally respected ethnomusicology programme. She was made professor at California in 1981 and has served as chairman of the music department (1983–88), undergraduate dean (from 1992), and chair of the deans (from 1994). She has held offices in a number of professional societies, including that of vice-president of the AMS (1990–93), board member of the IMS (1987–97) and president of the Society for Ethnomusicology (1999–2001).
A pioneer in her field, Wade wrote one of the first standard ethnomusicological textbooks, Music in India (1979), which emphasises the classical music traditions of Hindustani and Karnatak music. Her early work focussed on genres, particularly the Japanese tegotomono (a genre of chamber music) and the North Indian classical vocal genre khayāl (1971, 1984), as performed by traditional gharānās (both groups and individuals). Her later writings, such as Imaging Sound (1998), use a multi-disciplinary approach, studying historical documentation and miniature paintings from the Mughal period; she has also written on the influence of Western music in Japan. A prolific writer and distinguished scholar, teacher and administrator, she has influenced a generation of younger ethnomusicologists.
‘Chiz in Khyal: the Traditional Composition in the Improvised Performance’, EthM, xvii (1973), 443-59
with A.M.Pescatello: ‘The Status of Women in the Performing Arts of India and Iberia: Cross-Cultural Perspectives from Historical Accounts and Field Reports’, The Performing Arts: Music and Dance: Chicago 1973, 119–40
‘Fixity and Flexibility: from Musical Structure to Cultural Structure’, Anthropologica, xviii/1 (1976), 15–26
The Tegotomono: Music for the Japanese Koto (Westport, CT, 1976)
ed., with C.Seeger: Essays for a Humanist: an Offering to Klaus Wachsmann (New York, 1977) [incl., with A.M. Pescatello: ‘Music “Patronage” in Indic Culture: the Jajmani Model’, 277–336]
ed., with D.Heartz: IMSCR XII: Berkeley 1977 [ incl. ‘Music Criticism in India: an Urban Phenomenon’, 300–2]
‘Prolegomena to Song Text Perspective’, YIFMC, vii (1977), 73–88
‘Indian Classical Music in North America: Cultural Give and Take’, Language and Civilization Change in South Asia, ed. C. Maloney (1978), 119–40
Music in India: the Classical Tradition (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1979/R)
‘Cadence Practice in Hindustani Vocal Music: Khyal in Three Rags’, Music East and West: Essays in Honor of Walter Kaufmann, ed. T. Noblett (New York, 1981), 43–61
Performing Arts in India: Essays on Music, Dance, and Drama (Washington DC, 1983/R)
Khyāl: Creativity within North India’s Classical Musical Tradition (Cambridge, 1984/R)
‘Performance Practice in Indian Classical Music’, Performance Practice: Ethnomusicological Perspectives, ed. G. Béhague (Westport, CT, 1984), 13–52
‘Music as Symbol of Power and Status: the Courts of Mughal India’, Exploration in Ethnomusicology: Essays in Honor of David P. McAllester, ed. C.J. Frisbie (Detroit, 1986)
ed.: World of Music, xxxii/2 (1990) [incl. ‘The Meeting of Musical Cultures in 16th-Century Court of the Mughal Akbar’, 3–25]
ed.: Text, Tone and Tune: Parameter of a Multicultural Perspective (New Delhi, 1993) [incl. ‘Prolegomenon to Texts, Tones and Tunes: Issues and Themes from a Meeting of Minds’, 1–14]
‘Keiko Nosaka and the 20-Stringed Koto: Tradition and Modernization in Japanese Music’, The Musicological Juncture: Essays in Honor of Rulan Chao Pian, ed. B. Yung and J.S.C. Lam (Cambridge, MA, 1994), 184–98
ed.: World of Music, xxxviii/2 (1996) [incl. ‘Performing the Drone in Hindustani Classical Music: What Mughal Paintings Show us to Hear’, 41–69]
Imaging Sound: an Ethnomusicological Study of Music, Art, and Culture in Mughal India (Chicago, 1998)