(bItawamba County, MS, 5 May 1942; d Nashville, TN, 6 April 1998). American country singer and songwriter. She was brought up by her mother and grandparents, worked as a cotton picker from an early age and first married at 17. Captivated by gospel music, she nevertheless trained as a hairdresser, but in the mid-1960s left for Nashville, against her husband’s wishes. She was discovered by producer Billy Sherrill, who signed her to the Epic label, and with whom she enjoyed a series of 15 number one records in the country music charts and co-wrote Stand by your man. Wynette’s performance of this now classic song, with a voice cracking under the weight of emotion, deflected attention from some of its irony, while another heartfelt hit D-I-V-O-R-C-E further reinforced her image as one of life’s victims.
It was with country singer George Jones, her third husband, that Wynette found her greatest success. Together they recorded a series of highly regarded albums that chronicled their varying relationship, including Take Me (1971), Together Again (1980) and Two Story House (1980). When their six-year marriage finally ended Wynette returned to solo work. Beset by recurring health problems and personal traumas (in 1978 she was kidnapped and beaten) the boundaries between her songs and her life at times seemed blurred. Although her excesses were portrayed as epitomizing country music, much of her work, notably through Sherrill’s big production numbers, took her outside the country arena.
T.Wynette and J.Dew: Stand by your Man (New York, 1979)
M.A.Bufwack and R.K.Oermann: Finding her Voice: the Saga of Women in Country Music (New York, 1993)
Wynkyn de Worde
(bc1455; d London, 1534). English printer, of French origin. He was Caxton’s assistant at Westminster, London, about 1480, and in 1495 he published an edition of Ranluf Higden’s Polycronicon, the first book published in England to include musical notes. Wynkyn’s reputation as an influential music printer rested for many years on the theory that he printed the XX Songes, a set of partbooks published in London in 1530, but this was later found to be the work of another printer who remains unidentified.
H.M.Nixon: ‘The Book of XX Songs’, British Museum Quarterly, xvi (1951), 33–5
J.Moran: Wynkyn de Worde (London, 1976)
M.C.Erler: ‘Wynkyn de Worde’s Will: Legatees and Bequests’, The Library, 6th ser., x (1988), 107–21
Wynne, David [Thomas, David Wynne]
(b Penderyn, Glam., 2 June 1900; d Maesycwmmer, Mid Glam., 23 March 1983). Welsh composer. He worked as a miner before entering University College, Cardiff, as a mature student in 1925. He took the BMus in 1928, trained as a teacher for a year at Bristol University and became the first full-time music teacher at a Welsh school, at Lewis School, Pengam, Glamorgan (1929–60). He then taught at the Welsh College of Music and Drama in Cardiff (1960–70) and at University College, Cardiff (1970–80). In 1945 he won the Clements Memorial Prize and first made contact with Michael Tippett, one of the judges, whose support was crucial in his early career.
The early influences on him were Bartók and Schoenberg, though the influence of Schoenberg was a negative one: he realized that the dodecaphonic system was alien to his Celtic spirit, but it showed him that there were new ways of thinking, and that the way was open to new harmonic and structural principles. The influence of Bartók was much more positive, as his language and style become a lingua franca for so many composers of that period and later. This was allied to a rhythmic diversity which derived directly from the complex metrical patterns of Welsh poetry, particularly the work of poets like Dafydd ap Gwilym.
Wynne is at his best in his large-scale works, and his output is centred on his four symphonies and a quantity of large-scale chamber works. The complexity of his writing and the consequent technical demands made on performers have militated against regular performances of his music, but one of the peaks of his orchestral output is his Second Symphony of 1955, which is the climax of his early period.
Among his chamber works the five string quartets show him as a traditionalist at heart, in structure if not in language. This view is reinforced by his sonatas for violin, viola, trumpet and trombone, all with piano, and by the four piano sonatas, which combine a Bartókian drive with a Celtic complexity most notable in the slow movements, where the structural boundaries are often stretched to the limit by a free-fantasy approach.
A practical composer, he was not averse to writing Gebrauchsmusik, as may be seen in a series of orchestral works incorporating Welsh folktunes or original melodies in the style of Welsh folktunes, particularly in the two Cymric Rhapsodies and the Welsh Folk Song Suite. In his middle and later life he became interested in colouristic effects, as shown in his Mosaic for Four Percussion Players (1968). At this period he returned to a form of dodecaphony in which he used the 12 notes of the chromatic scale in a series of three chords each of which in turn formed the melodic and harmonic basis of an entire piece, as for example in Octade (1978). His Fourth Symphony, incomplete at his death, but with full and detailed sketches, is still unperformed, as are three large-scale stage works, Jack and Jill, Night and Cold Peace and Cain.
Song cycles: Songs of Solitude (P.B. Shelley, A. Symons, G.R. Hamilton, J. Freeman, H. Trench, L. Johnson, R. Tagore), T, str orch, 1946; Chwe Chan, 6 songs (D. Nanmor, I. Fardd, D. ap Gwilym, M. ap Rhys, anon. 15th-century text, trans. G. Williams), T, hp, 1950; Ebb and Flow (Tagore, W. Whitman, Shelley), T, vn, vc, fl, cl, bn, pf, 1960; Coming Forth by Day (Egyptian text, trans. R. Hillyer), S, pf, 1964; Evening Shadows (Jap. text, trans. G. Bownas, A. Thwaite), S, pf, 1971; Six Songs (Jap. text, trans. Bownas and Thwaite), SSA, pf, 1972
Choral: Night Watch (E. Hughes), T, B, SATB, orch, 1957; Owain ab Urien (Taliesin), male chorus, brass, perc, 1967; The Traveller (Tagore), T, SATB, 1973; Night Music, S, str qt, pf, 1974; Geni Crist (Madog ap Gwallter), motet, SSATB, org, 1979; 2 Poems (W. Blake), chorus, 3 hp, 1980; 2 Poems (Blake), female chorus, pf, 1980
MSS in GB-CDu
Principal publisher: University of Wales Press
B.Rands: ‘The Music of David Wynne’, Anglo-Welsh Review, xiv (1964), 80