Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Walckiers, Eugène

(b Avesnes-sur-Helpe, 22 July 1793; d Paris, 1 Sept 1866). French flautist and composer. He studied with Jean-Louis Tulou in Paris, where he met Henri Brod, Rossini and Reicha; the last mentioned is believed to have taught him harmony and composition. Walckiers’s first compositions were for flute ensembles, and after 1820 he also wrote piano works, probably under the influence of Kalkbrenner, Thalberg and Heinrich Wilhelm Marchand, with each of whom he collaborated on a work for flute and piano. His works, the vast majority for flute (often with alternative settings) include 19 solos, 113 duos, 19 trios and 13 quartets. He also made arrangements of themes from popular operas of the day. Some works specify flute with either piano or orchestra, but no orchestral parts survive. In his final years Walckiers also wrote string quintets and piano quintets (with cello and double bass, or two cellos), and some choral works. Walckiers also wrote a Méthode de flûte and a textbook Principes élémentaires de musique. ‘His music’, Richard Rockstro believed, ‘abounds in such delightful freshness and such impulsive variety of sentiment that in its own peculiar style it is absolutely unrivalled’. All Walckiers’s known works were published during his lifetime, and some first editions are housed in the Bibliothéque Nationale in Paris.




R.S. Rockstro: A Treatise on the Construction, the History, and the Practice of the Flute (London, 1890, rev. 1928), 603–4

B. Pierreuse: Flûte littérature: catalogue général des ouvres éditées et inédites par formations instrumentales (Paris, 1982), 647–8

C. Reinländer: Frühe Werke der Bläserkammermusik mit einfach besetzten Instrumenten: Verzeichnis 18. und 19. Jahrhundert (Puchheim, 1995, 2/1999), 47



See Reformed and Presbyterian church music, §I, 4(i).

Walden String Quartet.

American string quartet. Founded in 1934, its original members were the violinists Homer C. Schmitt (1911–80) and Bernard M. Goodman (b 1914), the cellist Robert H. Swenson (b 1910) and the viola player LeRoy Collins, who was replaced by five more players in the first 14 years of the group’s existence before John C. Garvey (b 1921) became the viola player in 1948. All of the original members played in the Cleveland Orchestra, and the quartet was based initially in Cleveland, then at Cornell University (1946–7), and from 1947 at the University of Illinois. The quartet established itself as a leading promoter of new string music in the USA, while not neglecting the classical repertory. It gave premières of more than 100 works by American composers, including Ives, Bergsma, Creston, Quincy Porter, Piston, Imbrie and Elliott Carter (his String Quartet no.1, 1950–51, was dedicated to the group), performed the works of modern European masters including Hindemith, Bartók, Schoenberg, Kodály, Szymanowski and Martinů, and received critical acclaim for its technical prowess and unanimity of expression. William Magers replaced Garvey for a season in 1971 before Guillermo Perich (b 1924) took over the viola position in 1972; the violinist Maria Lloyd (b 1922) replaced Goodman in 1974. The quartet disbanded in 1979 after the retirement of the remaining founding members.


Walder, Johann Jakob

(b Unterwetzikon, 11 Jan 1750; d Zürich, 18 March 1817). Swiss composer. He received instruction in music from Johannes Schmidlin and by at least 1774 was a keyboard teacher in Zürich, where he was also a cellist in the collegium musicum. In 1785 he went to Grüningen as a government official, and from about 1790 became ever more involved in political duties, serving as a member of the government (from 1799), president of a district tribunal (1807–14) and chief justice of the canton (from 1814). A composer of local importance, Walder was a follower of the Berlin lied school together with Johann Heinrich Egli (with whom he published several lied collections), but he also fostered choral singing. His Anleitung zur Singkunst (1788), containing over 50 songs with continuo, was important in the development of school music and was the most successful singing method in German-speaking Switzerland well into the 19th century.


all published in Zürich

Der lezte Mensch (cant., L. Meister), vs (c1777)

Songs: [21] Gesänge zum Clavier (1780); Sammlung [78] christlicher Gesänge, 4vv (1791); [23] Lieder zum gesellschaftlichen Vergnügen (1804); [4] Schweizerlieder (Meister), pubd serially in Neujahrsgeschenke für die Zürchersche Jugend der Musikgesellschaft auf der deutschen Schule (1780–83); collab. J.H. Egli and others in contemporary anthologies

Pedagogical: Anleitung zur Singkunst (1788, 6/1828)




A. Nef: Das Lied in der deutschen Schweiz Ende des 18. und Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts (Zürich, 1909)


Walderth, Ignaz [Joseph].

See Walter, Ignaz.



An Organ stop.



A hunting horn. See Horn.

Waldis, Burkhard [Burchard, Burckart, Burkard]

(b Allendorf an der Werra, c1490; d Abterode, c1557). German theologian, Protestant poet and hymn writer. Born of a ‘comfortably and honorably ancient family’ (Sessions, 129), he entered the Franciscan monastery in Riga by 1522. He was sent to Rome in 1523–4 with a delegation from the monastery to elicit support against the rising Reformation in Latvia; while passing through Nuremberg on his return he was imprisoned with fellow monks for several weeks. This experience, together with an unfavourable impression of the church and the secular behaviour of the priests received during his stay in Rome, led him to leave the order and become a Lutheran. He married and became a tinsmith, which led to extensive travel. From 1536 to 1540 he was imprisoned and tortured by the Teutonic Knights for his active part in promoting the Reformation and released on the intervention of Philipp of Hesse. On 23 October 1541 Waldis matriculated at Wittenberg University and in 1544 he was ordained pastor and provost at Abterode, a post he held until 1556 when illness forced his resignation.

Waldis was widely recognized as a poet. Particularly well known were his De Parabell vam vorlorn Zsohn (Riga, 1527; ed. G. Milchsack, Halle, 1881), a spiritual Festnachtspiel in Low German for Shrove Tuesday, launching a polemic against the papacy, which has been considered one of the most significant works of 16th-century dramatic literature; Der Esopus (Frankfurt, 1548), a collection of 400 animal fables dealing perceptively with contemporary or social conditions that continued to be included in books of fables into the 18th century; a contrafactum of Ich stund an einem Morgen; and a translation into German (1554) of Naogeorg's Regnum papisticum. In 1542 he wrote satirical poetry for Philipp of Hesse against antagonists of the Reformation.

Waldis provided many hymns for the new church. In De Parabell vam vorlorn Zsohn he included Luther's Nun bitten wir den Heiligen Geist, Jesus Christus, unser Heiland and Aus tiefer Not as integral parts of the play (sung by all), and he provided rhymed versions of various psalms and translations of several Latin hymns for use at the end of the prologue, at the end of the second act, and near the close of the final act. In 1537 he assisted Andreas Knöpken with a second edition of a hymnbook for Riga. His most extensive and significant contribution, however, was Der Psalter, in newe Gesangsweise und künstliche Reimen gebracht (Frankfurt, 1553), a translation of the entire Psalter into metrical verse made during his imprisonment at Riga. Waldis used Minnesang verse structures and provided them with original melodies. In 1523 he had met Hans Sachs, who was very much impressed with the quality of Waldis's work and borrowed one of Waldis's hymns to use in a work of his own. Five of the psalms appeared in two versions, and three of them shared melodies with others, making a total of 155 hymns and 152 melodies. Both the texts and the melodies are of a high standard, yet the hymns rarely appeared in contemporary hymnbooks. They were, however, influential on the hymn writing of Vulpius, and Heugel set the melodies in 156 compositions for four and five voices in 1555–70.


ADB (W. Kamerau)


MGG1 (K. Ameln)

G. von Tucher: Schatz des evangelischen Kirchengesangs, ii (Leipzig, 1848) [incl. 28 melodies]

G. Buchenau: Leben und Schriften des Burkhard Waldis (Marburg, 1858)

E.E. Koch: Geschichte des Kirchenlieds und Kirchengesangs, i (Stuttgart, 3/1867/R)

P. Wackernagel: Das deutsche Kirchenlied, iii (Leipzig, 1870)

W. Kamerau: ‘Burchard Waldis’, Grundiss zur Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung, ed. K. Goedeke (Dresden, 1886), ii, 447–53

J. Zahn: Die Melodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlieder (Gütersloh, 1889–93/R) [incl. 148 melodies]

S. Kümmerle: Encyklopädie der evangelischen Kirchenmusik, iv (Gütersloh, 1895/R)

K. Ameln, C. Mahrenholz and W. Thomas: Handbuch der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenmusik, iii/1 (Göttingen, 1936)

G. Müller: Deutsche Dichtung von der Renaissance bis zum Ausgang des Barocks (Darmstadt, 1957)

K.C. Sessions: ‘Luther in Music and Verse’, Pietas et societas: New Trends in Reformation Social History: Essays in Memory of Harold J. Grimm, ed. K.C. Sessions and P.N. Bebb (Kirksville, MO, 1985), iv, 123–39


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