Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Waldkirch, Henrik

(d Copenhagen, 1629). Danish music printer. He was the first Danish music printer of any importance and probably a member of a Danish printing family in Schaffhausen, where he may have been born. In 1586 he was granted a privilege to print a Danish Bible, and in 1598 he established with Mads Vingard a printing business at Copenhagen University, continuing on his own when Vingard died in 1623. Waldkirch visited the Frankfurt book fairs and took publications from Nuremberg houses to Denmark. The bulk of the 25 musical titles that can be assigned to Waldkirch (listed in Davidsson) is made up of psalm books and other liturgical volumes in Danish. He also published music by Borchgrevinck, Brachrogge and Pedersøn, who were working in Venice at that time, and Hans Kraft’s treatise, Musicae practicae rudimenta (1607).


Å. Davidsson: Dansk musiktryck intill 1700-talets mitt/Dänischer Musikdruck bis zur Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (Uppsala, 1962)


Waldstein, Ferdinand Ernst Joseph Gabriel, Count von Waldstein und Wartenberg zu Dux

(b Dux [now Duchcov], 24 March 1762; d Vienna, 29 Aug 1823). German musical patron of Bohemian birth. He was the youngest of four sons of the 11 children of Count Philibert Waldstein und Wartenberg zu Dux and Maria Anna Theresias, born Princess von Liechtenstein. In 1787 at Ellingen he began his novitiate in the Teutonic Order, transferring in early 1788 to the court of Elector Max Franz in Bonn and receiving his order there in June. He served on diplomatic missions between 1788 and 1792 (Mann).

Waldstein became acquainted with Beethoven through the circle of the von Breuning family and was an invaluable supporter of the composer until the early 1790s; Beethoven’s childhood friend Franz Wegeler called him ‘Beethoven’s first and in every respect most important patron, his Maecenas’. Waldstein was a gifted improviser on the piano and was credited by Wegeler with developing Beethoven’s ability to improvise variations. About 1792 Beethoven composed a set of piano variations for four hands on a theme of Waldstein (woo67), and in 1791 his Ritterballett woo1 was performed with an attribution to Waldstein. When Beethoven left for Vienna in 1792, his close friends gave him an autograph album; and Waldstein’s inscription ends: ‘With the help of assiduous labour you shall receive: Mozart’s spirit from Haydn’s hands’. This close friendship was most valuable to Beethoven in establishing himself in Vienna.

From 1795 to 1807 Waldstein served in the British army as a field marshal, in 1809 he returned to Vienna, but did not resume his friendship with Beethoven. In 1812 he resigned from the Teutonic Order and married Countess Isabella Rzewuska. He was erudite, a gifted linguist, and at ease at court, but he was reckless, mercurial and financially imprudent. He went bankrupt in 1816, and died a pauper. Waldstein’s extant compositions (most in D-BNba) include a Symphony in D (ed. in Denkmäler rheinischer Musik, i, Düsseldorf, 1951), three solo cantatas and two songs.


T. Frimmel: Beethoven-Handbuch (Leipzig, 1926/R), ii, 398

J. Heer: Der Graf von Waldstein und sein Verhältnis zu Beethoven (Leipzig, 1933)

E. Forbes, ed.: Thayer’s Life of Beethoven (Princeton, NJ, 1964, 2/1967)

W. Mann: ‘Graf Waldstein’, Beethoven in Bonn (Bonn, ?1984), 204–25

M. Ladenburger: ‘Das böhmishe Element im kurkölnischen Musikleben’, Beethoven und Böhmen, ed. S. Brandenburg and M. Gutiérrez-Denhoff (Bonn, 1988), 31–42

T. DeNora: Beethoven and the Construction of Genius (Berkeley, 1995)



A type of friction drum. See String drum.

Waldteufel [Lévy], (Charles-)Emile

(b Strasbourg, 9 Dec 1837; d Paris, 12 Feb 1915). French composer, pianist and conductor. His father Louis (1801–84) and brother Léon (1832–84) were violinists and dance composers, and his Bavarian mother was a pianist. In 1842 the family moved to Paris, where his father's dance orchestra gained prominence in Society circles. Emile studied the piano with his mother and Joseph Heyberger, and in December 1853 he was formally admitted to the Conservatoire in Adolphe Laurent's piano class, where his fellow students included Massenet. For a time he earned a living testing pianos for the manufacturer Scholtus, besides giving piano lessons and playing at soirées. He was appointed court pianist to Napoléon III in 1865 and conductor of the state balls the following year, directing the music in the Tuileries, at Biarritz and at Compiègne. He took part in the war of 1870–71 as a volunteer and in 1871 he married the singer Célestine Dufau. After the war his recognition remained restricted to French society, until in October 1874 he was introduced to the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII). This led to the hugely successful launch of his waltz Manolo in London and to long-term publishing contracts (1875–88) with the London firm of Hopwood & Crew. From this time dated a succession of internationally acclaimed dances, including the waltz Les patineurs (1882). He declined an invitation to New York in 1882 but in November 1885 conducted at Rivière's Promenade Concerts in London and in 1889 appeared in Berlin. He conducted at the Opéra Balls in Paris in 1890–91 and was in charge of the music at presidential balls at the Palais de l'Elysée until his retirement in 1899. Waldteufel remains the most widely popular waltz composer after the Strauss family; though his works lack the Strausses' rhythmic and melodic variety, they possess a distinctive poetic grace and charm.


Selective list from c300 dances published in Paris and/or London for pf; most also appeared in orch versions. Dates indicate publication or (in a few cases where publication was delayed) preparation of plates. The standard opus numbering, begun retrospectively in 1883 by Litolff, is incomplete and chronologically misleading.

Over 180 waltzes, incl. Joies et peines (1859); Mello (1866); Vergissmeinnicht (Myosotis) (1867); Manolo (1873); Bien aimés (1876); Violettes (1876); Mon rêve (1877); Pomone (1877); Toujours ou jamais (1877); Les sirènes (1878); Très jolie (1878); Pluie de diamants (Pluie d'or) (1879); Amour et printemps (1880); Dolorès (1880); Je t'aime (1882); La barcarolle (1882); Les patineurs (1882); Sur la plage (1883); Estudiantina (1883) [after P. Lacome]; The Grenadiers, valse militaire (1886); España (1886) [after Chabrier]; Acclamations (1888); Tout Paris (1889); Fleurs et baisers (1904)

Over 70 polkas, mazurkas, galops, gavottes and marches, incl. Prestissimo, galop (1877); Bella bocca (Bonne bouche), polka (1879); Minuit, polka (1880)

Babiole, pizzicati [for strings] (1907)

c20 songs, chamber and pf pieces


H. Waldteufel: Centenary broadcast 5 Dec 1937 [typescript, BBC archives, London]

J.P. Zeder: Les Waldteufel et la valse française (Strasbourg, 1980)

A. Lamb: Skaters' Waltz: the Story of the Waldteufels (Croydon, 1995) [incl. list of compositions]

B. Fischbach and Y. Waldteufel: La Valse au coeur: Emile Waldteufel, ‘le Strauss français’ (Strasbourg, 1997)


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