Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Walter, David

(b Brooklyn, NY, 22 March 1913). American double bass player and teacher. He spent a decade playing in jazz groups, studied at the Juilliard School with Fred Zimmermann, 1936–8, and in 1939 joined the Pittsburgh SO as principal bass. He played in the NBC SO under Toscanini from 1940 to 1954, and in 1956 became a member of the New York City Ballet Orchestra; he also worked with Casals at the Casals Festival in Puerto Rico. One of America’s leading double bass teachers, Walter taught at the Manhattan School of Music from 1957 to 1992, and in 1969 was appointed to the Juilliard School; he has also been a guest faculty member at several conservatories throughout the USA, in Europe and in China, and has lectured widely and given masterclasses. He has contributed numerous articles to string journals, and edited many works for double bass, including Sperger’s Sonata no.1 and Pichl’s Concerto. He was chairman of the board of directors of the Symphony of the Air (as well as principal bass, 1956–62) and president of the International Society of Bassists (1976–84). He plays instruments by Hieronymus Amati II (1710), Paolo Antonio Testore (1735) and by F. Plumerel l’ainé (1843), the bass portrayed by Degas in his Musiciens.


Walter, George.

See Goehr, walter.

Walter [Walderth, Walther], (Johann) Ignaz [Joseph]

(b Radonitz [now Radonice], Bohemia, 31 Aug 1755; d Regensburg, 22 Feb 1822). German composer and tenor. He first studied under the organist Ignaz Neudörffl. From 1773, while a student at the University of Vienna, he studied singing and composition with Joseph Starzer. His identification with the Joseph Walter who sang for the National-Singspiel from 1780 to 1782 (and who was originally to have figured in Mozart’s Die Entführung aus dem Serail) seems very doubtful. From 1780 to 1786 Walter earned a considerable reputation as a tenor and composer of comic operas with various German companies in Augsburg, Prague, Riga, Frankfurt and Mainz.

In 1792 Walter joined G.F.W. Grossmann’s company in Lower Saxony as its music director. His operas for this troupe show his Viennese training to advantage, displaying a fondness for wind instruments, a cheerful and popular melodic style and a fine sense of musical architecture (his tonal plans seem closely modelled on the practice of Mozart, in whose operas he frequently sang). In 1787 he completed a setting of H.G. Schmieder’s Doktor Faust, a text cobbled from Goethe’s Faust fragment of 1790 and other German sources. His music, according to Spitta, shows him ‘wholly within Mozart’s sphere of influence’. Walter himself took the part of Faust, and the Queen of Aragon was sung by his wife Juliane Browne Roberts (1759–1835), whom he had married while at Riga. In 1804 Walter assumed direction of the Hoftheater at Regensburg, where he died in 1822. His half-brother, Johann (Nepomuk) Walter (b Radonitz, 11 Dec 1768; d Mannheim, 10 June 1822), was for a while a tenor at Frankfurt, Vienna and Mannheim (1790–96), and became a pharmacist.



music lost unless otherwise stated

Die 25000 Gulden, oder Im Dunkeln ist nicht gut munkeln (Spl, 3, C.H. Spiess), Dresden, Schwarze Thor, 15 Aug 1782

Der Kaufmann von Smyrna (Operette, 1, C.F. Schwan, after S.R.N. Chamfort: Le marchand de Smyrne), Prague, Nostitz, 1783

Der Trank der Unsterblichkeit (op, 4, C.A. Vulpius), Prague, Nostitz, 1783

Der Graf Von Waltron, oder Die Subordination (Spl, 4, J.B. Bergopzoomer, after H.F. Möller), Prague, Nostitz, 1784

Der ausgeprugelte Teufel, 1790

Der gerade Weg ist der beste (Kotzebue), 1790

Der Spiegelritter (Spl, 3, Kotzebue), Frankfurt, National, 11 Sept 1791

Die Hirtin der Alpen (op, 1, A.W. Schreiber, after J.F. Marmontel), Frankfurt, National, 1792

Die Harfe [Die Zauberharfe] (Operette, 2, Schreiber), 1793

Die böse Frau (komisches Original-Spl, 2, C.A. Herklots), Hanover, 26 Sept 1794, D-Dl

Doktor Faust (Original-Oper, 4, H.G. Schmieder, after J.W. von Goethe and others), Bremen, 28 Dec 1787; 2nd version, Hanover, 8 June 1798, Bhm; rev. (C.A. Mämminger), Regensburg, Hof, 10 Oct 1819

Die Weinlese (after F.-C. Dancourt: Les vendanges de Surênes), 1799

Das Wildpret, Frankfurt, 1799

Des Teufels Lustschloss (op, 3, A. von Kotzebue), Prague, Nostitz, 1801

Ritter Löwensteins Geist auf Wanderungen, oder Die Teufelsmühle am Wienerberg, 2. Theil (op, 3, C. Werner), Regensburg, Hof, 18 Aug 1809

Die Verfolgung des Arlekin (ballet, F. Blondin), Salzburg, National, 7 Oct 1811

Hass und Liebe, oder Das Fischermädchen (1, T. Körner), Regensburg, Hof, 8 Sept 1815

Incid music: Das Faustrecht in Thür (? K.F. Kensler), ?1784; Das Siegesfest (G. Hagemann), 1793; Die Hussiten vor Naumburg (Kotzebue), 1802, march, pf (Hamburg, n.d.); Herodes vor Betlehem, oder Der triumphirende Viertelsmeister (S.A. Mahlmann), 1804; Schillers [Todten-] Feyer (C.E. Graf von Benzel-Sternau), 1806; Irene (C. Auernhammer), 1810; Salmonäa, oder Die Makkabäer (T. Hell, from the French) 1810; Der travestirte Hamlet (K.L. Gieseke), terzetto

Pf arrs. of ops by other comps., incl. C.D. von Dittersdorf: Die Liebe im Narrenhause (Mainz, 1799)

other vocal

Sacred: 3 masses, H-P, VEs; 3 other masses; 6 motets

Cants.: Les Forges des Lemnes; Weihnachts-Cantate; Cantata Sacra, for coronation of Leopold II, 4 solo vv, orch, 17 Oct 1790; Der Friede (J. Will)

Solo vocal: Divita ogni gioire, aria and recitative, S, orch (Mainz, n.d.); Euch verlass’ ich, meine Schriften, aria (Leipzig, n.d.); Ode an die Freude (F. von Schiller), acc. gui (Hanover, n.d.); Ich denke dein wenn mir der Sonne Schimmer, v, gui, D-KIl


Prologue, orch; Conc. for 2 cl; several fl concs.

Chbr: Qt, hp, fl, vn, vc, op.9 (Brunswick, 1799); Parthia, E, 2 cl, bn, 2 hn, A-KR; 4 duets, 2 vn, CH-ALus; 6 qts and 6 duets, hp; Trio, 3 cl


P. Spitta: ‘Die älteste Faust-Oper und Goethe’s Stellung zur Musik’, Zur Musik (Berlin, 1892), 197–234

H. Pigge: Geschichte und Entwicklung des Regensburger Theaters (1786–1859) (Munich, 1953)

K.M. Pisarowitz: ‘Mozarts Urbassa’, Mitteilungen der Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum, xiii/3–4 (1965), 15–20 [incl. extensive bibliography]

T. Bauman: North German Opera in the Age of Goethe (Cambridge, 1985)

M. Walter: ‘Die “Wälter” aus Radonitz – ein böhmisch-österreichisches Hutmacher- und Musikergeschlecht’, Adler, xii (1980–82), 330–35


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