(b Torgau, 8 May 1527; d Torgau, 8 Nov 1578). German composer, only son of Johann Walter (i). In 1544 his schoolmasters, Markus Crodel and Melanchthon, recommended that he should attend Wittenberg University. Through Melanchthon’s intervention Walter entered the teaching profession and the Church in Schnaitheim bei Heidenheim (Württemberg) in 1547. He became a music teacher at Tübingen Monastery on 29 February 1548, remaining there for six months. According to Eitner, Walter was also a Kantor in Grossenhain. On 30 November 1551 he married Elisabeth, Crodel’s daughter. In 1553 he was an alto in the chapel of Elector Moritz of Saxony. Thereafter he lived in Torgau as a householder and granary steward (‘Kornschreiber’). It is open to question whether he became the ‘feiner gelehrter Mann’ that his father-in-law hoped for and it is not certain what role he played as a musician; Melanchthon correctly saw him as being primarily the son of an important composer. Walter’s known compositions, all for four voices, are a hymn composed on 4 December 1557, A solis ortus cardine (D-Sl Cod.mus.fol.I 22), a Te Deum (H-BA 22) and a motet Spes mea Christus (BA 22; only one voice).
M.Leube: Die Geschichte des Tübinger Stifts im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert (Stuttgart, 1921)
W.Gurlitt: ‘Johannes Walter und die Musik der Reformationszeit’, Luther-Jb, xv (1933), 1–112, esp. 55, 72
Walter [?Walters, ?Water, ?Waters], John
(bc1660; d 1708). English organist, music copyist and composer. He may be identified with the John Walter (Water, Waters) who was a chorister of the Chapel Royal under Blow in 1674 and whose voice had broken by 1677. He was organist of Eton College from 1681 to 1705, and as such was the first teacher of John Weldon, whom he sent in 1693 and 1694 to study with Purcell. The Eton accounts seem to show that Walter's teaching of the choristers there was respected. After leaving his post as organist, he shared with his successor, Benjamin Lamb, a stipend as a clerk of Eton College until 1708, when his name disappears from the accounts.
He made transcriptions, meticulous and reliable if sometimes slavishly literal, of sacred and secular music by English composers of the period, including numerous works by Blow (GB-Ckc, CH and Lbl) and Purcell (Lbl). His fair-copy score of Blow's Venus and Adonis (Lbl Add.22100) is annotated with stage directions, singers' names and so on, and he seems to have been involved in the first performance, for he made another and much rougher copy in short score (Lbl Add.31453), presumably for the purpose of drawing out a set of parts; he subsequently overwrote this copy with Blow's revised version of the work. He collaborated with his Eton colleague William Isaack in copying, presumably in haste, two important Purcell scores: the 1693 Queen Mary ode Celebrate this festival (Ob) and the Te Deum and Jubilate composed for St Cecilia's Day 1694 (US-STu).
Walter's own output was modest; his music is straightforward in construction and generally restrained in style, though not without vigour. Three verse anthems, Lord, I confess my sin, O give thanks and O God, thou art my God, and an Evening Service in A survive in autograph copies (GB-Lbl, WRec, WRch). The second anthem, more flamboyant than the others, is included in a collection compiled by Isaack (Cfm), while the third was transcribed by James Hawkins of Ely (Cu).
B.Wood: ‘A Note on Two Cambridge Manuscripts and their Copyists’, ML, lvi (1975), 308–12
W.Shaw: The Succession of Organists of the Chapel Royal and the Cathedrals of England and Wales from c.1538 (Oxford, 1991)
I.Spink: Restoration Cathedral Music 1660–1714 (Oxford, 1995)
(b Grosswierau, nr Schweidwitz [now Świdnica], 24 Jan 1918). German musicologist and organist. He studied music education at the Pädagogische Hochschule, Beuthen, and church music and musicology at Breslau University (1938–43). After the war he continued at Mainz University (1947–9), where he took the doctorate under Schmitz with a dissertation on Reger’s chorale preludes. He was appointed lecturer at Mainz in 1950 and professor and director of the department of church music at the Musikhochschule, Stuttgart, in 1967. His posts included church music director and organist in Breslau (from 1942), Bad Kissingen (from 1948) and Heidelberg (University of Heidelberg, 1961–83). His concerts were frequently broadcast and he made 12 recordings featuring the organ music of Silesia. He retired in 1983.
Walter has written extensively on organ building throughout Europe, particularly in Silesia, and on church music from the 17th to the 20th centuries. He has also published monographs on J.C.F. Fischer, whose works he has edited, and the abbey at Grüssau (now Krzeszów). His scholarly editions include works by Fux and Murschhauser and he has prepared practical editions of Silesian instrumental and church music.
Max Regers Choralvorspiele für Orgel (diss., U. of Mainz, 1949)
ed., with H.J.Bursch and D.Grossmann: L. Burgemeister: Der Orgelbau in Schlesien (Frankfurt, 2/1973)
‘A Spanish Registration List of c. 1770’, Organ Yearbook, iv (1973), 40–51
‘Olivier Messiaen und die Orgel von Ste Trinité, Paris’, Musik und Kirche, xlviii (1978), 261–72
‘Die Breslauer Dommusik von 1805–1945’, Musik in Schlesien im Zeichen der Romantik, ed. G. Pankalla and G. Speer (Dülmen, 1981), 87–218
Gregorianische Themen in nicht-gottesdienstlicher Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts (Rottenburg-Stuttgart, 1983)
Moritz Brosig (1815–1887): Domkapellmeister in Breslau (Dülmen, 1988)
‘Musikalienverzeichnis der Breslauer Kathedrale von 1761’, FAM, xxxv (1988), 256–75; see also ‘Musikalien-Inventar der Breslauer Kathedrale aus den Jahren 1824–25’, FAM, xxxvi (1989), 304–26
‘Der Orgelbaustil von Johann Philipp Seuffeurt (1693-1780)’, Acta organologica, xx (1988), 115–48
‘Schlesische musicalische Collegia … im Rahmen der allgemeinen Cäcilienbruderschaften’, Musik des Ostens, xi (1989), 75–138