Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Warenoff, Leonard. See Warren, Leonard. Waring, Joh

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Warenoff, Leonard.

See Warren, Leonard.

Waring, Joh.

(fl c1440). Composer, perhaps (from his name) of English origin. He is known only through a setting of the text Alle dei filius found in D-Mbs Clm 14274 (see K. Dèzes, ZMw, x, 1927–8, pp.65–105). The work is for three voices with the cantus firmus in the tenor.


Warka, Adam.

See Jarzębski, Adam.

Warlock, Peter [Heseltine, Philip (Arnold)]

(b London, 30 Oct 1894; d London, 17 Dec 1930). English composer, editor and writer on music. Born in the Savoy Hotel, he came from a well-to-do family of stockbrokers, solicitors and art connoisseurs; his father died when he was only two. His domineering mother, Edith Covernton, had Welsh connections and Warlock was to have strong ties with Wales throughout his life. In 1903 she married Walter Buckley Jones and mother and son moved to Wales. At preparatory school his interest in music was awakened through the pianola; his education continued at Eton where his musical interests were encouraged by a sympathetic piano teacher, Colin Taylor. It was Taylor who in 1911 obtained permission for him to attend a concert of Delius's music, an event which was to have a lasting effect on his life. Warlock's interest in Delius's music had begun as early as 1909 and, by the time of his first meeting with Delius at the concert in 1911, he had already become obsessed with his music. From then on a quite remarkable friendship developed between the two men and for the next seven years Delius was Warlock's mentor as well as a regular correspondent for the rest of his life.

Although it had been presumed that Warlock would follow in the family footsteps and work in either the Stock Exchange or Civil Service, there was a certain indecision about his immediate future and, on finishing school, he spent a few months in Cologne studying German and the piano. These musical studies, however, proved unsuccessful and, resigned to a non-musical career, he entered Oxford in October 1913 to read for a degree in classics. Dissatisfied and unhappy, he left after only one year and for a short while enrolled as a student at the University of London, but this second attempt at a university career was even shorter lived than his first. In February 1915 he secured an appointment as music critic on the staff of the Daily Mail though he soon found the work frustrating and lasted in the position for barely four months. One of his early interests was Elizabethan literature and now, finding himself unemployed, he spent time in the British Museum editing early music.

It was during this period that he met D.H. Lawrence whose work he admired, soon finding himself part of the author's circle and planning a Utopian settlement in America. At the beginning of 1916 Warlock, a conscientious objector, followed Lawrence to Cornwall and involved himself in an unsuccessful venture to publish Lawrence's books. The friendship between the two men, however, proved highly volatile and they soon parted company under acrimonious circumstances.

Soon after Warlock's return to London he met the composer and critic, Cecil Gray, and the two soon became close friends, sharing a bohemian existence in Battersea. Together they planned a number of grandiose schemes by which to bring about the ‘regeneration’ of music in England. Warlock's meeting in June 1916 with the enigmatic, Anglo-Dutch composer Bernard van Dieren also had a profound effect on him and he now became an enthusiastic champion of his music. In November 1916 he published his first musical article and used, for the first time, the pseudonym, Peter Warlock.

Having in the meantime married an artists' model, Minnie Lucy Channing (‘Puma’), who had earlier borne him a son, Warlock returned to Cornwall for a brief while in April 1917 and, outwardly at least, resumed cordial, if distant, relations with Lawrence. What he did not know was that Lawrence was at the time writing Women in Love in which he and Puma were being introduced as two unattractive characters. When in 1921 he learnt that the book was to be published, he threatened legal action and Lawrence was forced to rewrite certain passages.

Although he had intended settling in Cornwall for a time, Warlock became alarmed at the renewed possibility of military conscription and in August 1917 fled to Dublin where he remained for the next year. During this period he became involved in certain occult practices which Gray claimed were psychologically damaging. This ‘Irish’ year was, nevertheless, a very positive and productive one, marked by a sudden surge of remarkable artistic productivity when, in the space of a fortnight, he wrote ten songs, some of which rank among his finest compositions. In August 1918 he returned to England and sent seven of these recently composed songs to the publisher Winthrop Rogers, using the pseudonym Peter Warlock, for he realized that the name Heseltine was already being regarded with suspicion and hostility by the London musical fraternity. Given also its occult associations, the choice of name is significant. It was from this time on that he became more and more involved in a number of public and private quarrels which were to occur throughout his life.

In 1920 Rogers decided to reorganize a magazine which he owned, The Organist and Choirmaster, into something of more general interest. Accordingly The Sackbut was launched with Warlock as editor. Between May 1920 and March 1921 nine issues appeared and included a varied amount of material much of which was of a controversial nature. However, just as The Sackbut was beginning to succeed, Rogers, nervous of the contentious material, withdrew his financial backing, Curwen took over the publication, and an embittered Warlock was relieved of the editorship.

After this débâcle an impecunious Warlock moved back to the family home in Wales where he lived almost continuously for the next three years. Here he completed a book on Delius, made a number of arrangements of Delius's works, transcribed an enormous quantity of early music and also composed a large number of original songs, completing in June 1922 his acknowledged masterpiece, the song-cycle, The Curlew.

At the beginning of 1925 Warlock decided to settle in Eynsford where he ran a kind of open house and it is from this period that much of the Warlock ‘legend’ originates. During these years he wrote a study of Gesualdo, a book entitled The English Ayre, continued with his early music transcriptions, and also produced a slowly decreasing number of original compositions, including some fine songs and perhaps his best-known piece, the Capriol Suite. By autumn 1928, however, he had found it financially impossible to maintain the Eynsford life-style and moved back to Wales briefly before returning to London. Having felt a slow drying up of his creative abilities, he was more than grateful when Beecham invited him to edit a magazine as part of a new operatic venture and to help in the organization of the Delius Festival held in October 1929. The festival itself was a great success but by the beginning of 1930 Beecham's venture had collapsed and Warlock was once again out of work.

Life became bleaker as the year 1930 progressed and there seemed to be little demand for his songs, if indeed the inspiration or will to compose was still there. Black moods of depression settled more frequently and he was found dead, of gas-poisoning, in his flat in Chelsea on the morning of 17 December 1930. At the inquest the coroner recorded an open verdict as there was insufficient evidence on which to decide whether death was the result of suicide or accident.

Warlock is essentially a miniaturist and the largest part of his output consists of solo songs with piano accompaniment. There are in addition choral works (some unaccompanied, some with keyboard accompaniment and a few with orchestra), the remaining handful of works being for orchestra or for piano. He was also a distinguished editor and transcriber of early music (570 published items) as well as an author (9 books, 73 articles), editor and critic (51 reviews). At a time when musical scholarship was still very much in its infancy, he made an enormous contribution to the rediscovery of early English music. Here he showed a rare respect for the composers' intentions, his strict editorial practice being to present only that which the composers had written without emendations or additions.

The initial influence of the Victorian and Edwardian drawing-room songs (notably those of Quilter), can be seen in his early settings. Although elements of Delius's style were absorbed into his harmonic palette at an early stage, his encounter with the music of van Dieren had a marked effect on his developing style and his somewhat austere Saudades carefully imitate the van Dieren model. As a result his style became more disciplined, less harmonic and more contrapuntal in texture. Acquaintance with the music of the Elizabethans added a new influence as in As ever I saw and Sweet content, with a strong vein of medievalism and mysticism present in songs such as My gostly fader and The bayley berith the bell away. Folksong elements also emerge (Yarmouth Fair and Milkmaids) and the roistering Warlock of the pubs and taverns surfaces in songs such as Captain Stratton's Fancy and Good Ale. The influence of Bartók, another of Warlock's enthusiasms, even manifests itself, particularly in The Curlew. The idiosyncratic harmonic language with its unlikely and disparate mixture of Edwardiana, Delius, van Dieren, Elizabethan and folkmusic gives Warlock's music a strongly personal voice. Among his choral pieces are some exceptionally beautiful carol-settings, notably ‘Bethlehem Down’ and ‘Balulalow’. The marked contrast between the extrovert and gentler settings seemed for some to confirm an apparent dichotomy in the Warlock/Heseltine personality and the pseudo-psychological interpretation of his complex character as schizophrenic was exploited by Gray in his memoir. However, acquaintance with Warlock's complicated life story, with its constant family pressures, his lack of self-confidence, wild emotional swings, and lack of any permanent employment or regular income, confounds such simplistic explanation. The split-personality theory was, at any rate, vehemently denied by his closest friends. His final frustrations lay, no doubt, in his lack of formal musical training and the miniature forms in which his genius moulded itself led him into a kind of artistic cul-de-sac. In the end he had no way of breaking through the barriers of his self-created musical language either to develop new harmonic techniques or explore new territories of form.





Warlock, Peter



all voice and piano; unless otherwise stated, all text sources are anonymous

The Wind from the West (E. Young), 1911; A Lake and a Fairy Boat (T. Hood), 1911; Music, when soft voices die (P.B. Shelley), 1911 [2 versions]; The Everlasting Voices (W.B. Yeats), 1915; The Cloths of Heaven (Yeats), 1916, rev. 1919; Saudades: Along the Stream (Li Po), Take, o take those lips away (W. Shakespeare), Heraclitus (Callimachus), 1916–17; The Water Lily (R. Nichols), 1917; I asked a thief to steal me a peach (W. Blake), 1917 [2 versions]; Bright is the ring of words (R.L. Stevenson), 1918; To the Memory of a Great Singer (Stevenson), 1918, rev. 1922; Take, o take those lips away (Shakespeare), 1918 [2nd setting]; As ever I saw, 1918

My gostly fader (C. duc d'Orléans), 1918; The bayley berith the bell away, 1918; Whenas the rye (G. Peele), 1918; Dedication (P. Sydney), ?1918; Love for Love, ?1918–19; My sweet little darling, ?1918–19; Sweet Content (T. Dekker), ?1918–19; Balulalow (M. Luther), ?1919; Mourne no Moe (J. Fletcher), 1919; Romance (Stevenson), 1919; There is a Lady, ?1919

Play Acting, 1920; Captain Stratton's Fancy (J. Masefield), 1921; Mr Belloc's Fancy (J.C. Squire), 1921 [2 versions]; Late Summer (E.B. Shanks), 1921–2; Good Ale, 1922; Hey troly loly lo, 1922; The Bachelor, 1922; Piggesnie, 1922; Little Trotty Wagtail (J. Clare), 1922; The Singer (E.B. Shanks), 1922; Adam lay ybounden, 1922; Rest sweet nymphs, 1922; Sleep (J. Fletcher), 1922; Tyrley Tyrlow, 1922

Lillygay: The Distracted Maid, Johnny wi' the Tye, The Shoemaker, Burd Ellen and Young Tamlane, Rantum Tantum (V.B. Neuburg), 1922; Peterisms, set I: Chopcherry (Peele), A Sad Song (Fletcher), Rutterkin (J. Skelton), 1922; Peterisms, set II: Roister Doister (N. Udall), Spring (T. Nashe), Lusty Juventus (R. Wever), 1922–3; In an arbour green (Wever), 1922; Milkmaids (J. Smith), 1923; Autumn Twilight (A. Symons), 1922

Candlelight (12 nursery rhymes), 1923; Jenny Gray, 1923; 2 Short Songs (R. Herrick): I held love's head, Thou gav'st me leave to kiss, 1923; Consider (F. Madox Ford), 1923; Twelve Oxen, 1924; The Toper's Song, 1924; Sweet and Twenty (Shakespeare), 1924; Peter Warlock's Fancy, 1924; Yarmouth Fair (H. Collins), 1924; I have a garden (T. Moore), 1910, rev. 1924; Chanson du jour de Noël (C. Marot), 1925; Pretty Ring Time (Shakespeare), 1925; 2 Songs (A. Symons): A Prayer to St Anthony, The Sick Heart, 1925

The Countryman (J. Chalkhill), 1926; Maltworms (Stevenson), 1926, collab. E.J. Moeran; The Birds (H. Belloc), 1926; Robin Goodfellow, 1926; Jillian of Berry (F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher), 1926; Away to Twiver, 1926; Fair and True (N. Breton), 1926; 3 Belloc Songs: Ha'nacker Mill, The Night, My Own Country, 1927; The First Mercy (B. Blunt), 1927; The Lover's Maze (T. Campion), 1927; Cradle Song (J. Phillip), 1927; Sigh no more ladies (Shakespeare), 1927

Walking the Woods, 1927; Mockery (Shakespeare), 1927; The Jolly Shepherd, 1927; Queen Anne, 1928; Passing by, 1928; Seven Songs of Summer: The Passionate Shepherd (C. Marlowe), The Contented Lover (trans. J. Mabbe), Youth (R. Wever), The Sweet o' the Year (Shakespeare), Tom Tyler, Eloré Lo, The Droll Lover, 1928; And wilt thou leave me thus? (T. Wyatt), 1928; The Cricketers of Hambledon (Blunt), 1928; Fill the Cup, Philip, 1928; The Frostbound Wood (Blunt), 1929; After Two Years (Aldington), 1930; The Fox (Blunt), 1930; Bethlehem Down (Blunt), 1930 [rev. of 1927 choral version]

other vocal

Choral: The Full Heart (R. Nichols), S, SSAATTBB, 1916, rev. 1921; As Dewe in Aprylle, SSAATBB, 1918; Benedicamus Domino, SSAATTBB, 1918; Cornish Christmas Carol (H. Jenner), SSAATTBB, 1918; Kanow Kernow (Jenner), SSAATB, 1918; Corpus Christi, A, T, SSAATBB, 1919; 3 Carols: Tyrley Tyrlow, SATB, orch, Balulalow, S, SATB, str orch, The Sycamore Tree, SATB, orch, 1923; 3 Dirges of Webster: All the flowers of spring, SSAATTBB, Call for the Robin Redbreast, SSAA, The Shrouding of the Duchess of Malfi, TTBB, 1923–5; One More River, Bar, TTBB, pf, 1925; The Lady's Birthday, Bar, ATTB, pf, 1925; The Spring of the Year (A. Cunningham), SATB, 1925; Bethlehem Down (Blunt), SATB, 1927; I saw a fair maiden, SATTB, 1927; What Cheer? Good Cheer! 1927; Where Riches is Everlastingly, unison vv/SATB, org, 1927; The Rich Cavalcade (F. Kendon), SATB, 1928; The First Mercy (Blunt), SSA, pf, 1928 [arr. of 1927 solo version]; The bayley berith the bell away, 2vv, pf, 1928 [arr. of 1918 solo version]; The Five Lesser Joys of Mary (D.L. Kelleher), unison vv, org, 1929; Carillon Carilla (H. Belloc), unison vv/SATB, org, 1930

Vocal-chbr: My lady is a pretty one, 1v, str qt, 1919; The Curlew (Yeats), T, fl, eng hn, str qt, 1920–22; A Sad Song (J. Fletcher), 1v, str qt, 1922, unpubd; Chopcherry (G. Peele), 1v, str qt, ?1922, unpubd; Sleep (J. Fletcher), 1v, str qt, ?1922, unpubd; Sorrow's Lullaby (T.L. Beddoes), S, Bar, str qt, 1926–7; Corpus Christi, S, Bar, str qt, 1927 [rev. of 1919 choral version]; Mourn no moe (J. Fletcher), 1v, str qt, 1927, unpubd; My little sweet darling, 1v, str qt, 1927 [rev. of 1919 solo version], unpubd; The Fairest May, 1v, str qt, 1930 [rev. of 1922 solo version]; Balulalow (M. Luther), 1v, str qt, pf, unpubd; My gostly fader (C. duc d'Orleans), 1v, str qt, unpubd; Pretty Ring Time (Shakespeare) [rev. of 1925 solo version], unpubd; Take, O take those lips away (W. Shakespeare), 1v, str qt, unpubd


4 Codpieces, pf, 1916–17; A Chinese Ballet, pf, 1917, unpubd; An Old Song, small orch, 1917; The Old Codger, pf, 1917, unpubd [parody of C. Franck: Symphony]; Folk Song Preludes, pf, 1918; Serenade, str orch, 1921–2; Capriol Suite, pf duet/str orch, 1926, arr. full orch, 1928; Row well ye Mariners, pf, unpubd

MSS in GB-Lbl, CU

Principal publishers: Augener, Boosey & Hawkes, Chester, Curwen, Elkin, Enoch, Novello, OUP, Stainer & Bell, Thames, Winthrop Rogers

Warlock, Peter


Frederick Delius (London, 1923, rev. 2/1952/R by H. Foss) [published as P. Heseltine]

ed.: Songs of the Gardens (London, 1925)

Preface to C.W. Beaumont, trans.: T. Arbeau: Orchesography (London, 1925/R)

Thomas Whythorne: an Unknown Elizabethan Composer (London, 1925)

The English Ayre (London, 1926/R)

with C. Gray: Carlo Gesualdo: Prince of Venosa: Musician and Murderer (London, 1926/R) [published as P. Heseltine]

ed., with J. Lindsay: The Metamorphosis of Aiax: a New Discourse of a Stale Subject by Sir John Harrington and the Anatomie of the Metamorpho-sed Aiax (London, 1927)

ed., with J. Lindsay: Loving Mad Tom: Bedlamite Verses of the XVI and XVII Centuries (London, 1927)

Merry-go-down: a Gallery of Gorgeous Drunkards through the Ages: Collected for the Use Interest Illumination and Delectation of Serious Topers (London, 1929) [published as Rab Noolas]

English Ayres: Elizabethan and Jacobean: a Discourse by Peter Warlock (London, 1932)

ed.: Giles Earle his Booke (London, 1932)

Warlock, Peter


[E.J. Moeran]: Peter Warlock (Philip Heseltine): Miniature Essay in English & French (London, 1926)

C. Gray: Peter Warlock: a Memoir of Philip Heseltine (London, 1934)

W. Mellers: ‘Delius and Peter Warlock’, Scrutiny, 5 (1937), 384–97

G. Cockshott: ‘Some Notes on the Songs of Peter Warlock’, ML, xxi (1940), 246–58

K. Avery: ‘The Chronology of Warlock's Songs’, ML, xxix (1948), 398–405

I.A. Copley: ‘Peter Warlock’s Vocal Chamber Music’, ML, xliv (1963), 358–70

I.A. Copley: ‘Peter Warlock’s Choral Music’, ML, xlv (1964), 318–36

I.A. Copley: ‘The Published Instrumental Music of Peter Warlock’, MR, xxv (1964), 209–23

F. Tomlinson: A Peter Warlock Handbook (London, 1974–7)

F. Tomlinson: ‘Peter Warlock (1894–1930)’, Music and Musicians, 23 (1974), 32–4

T. Hold: ‘Peter Warlock: The Art of the Song-Writer’, MR, xxxvi (1975), 248–99

F. Tomlinson: Warlock and Delius (London, 1976)

F. Tomlinson: Warlock and van Dieren (London, 1978)

I.A. Copley: The Music of Peter Warlock: a Critical Survey (London, 1979)

I.A. Copley: A Turbulent Friendship: a Study of the Relationship between D.H. Lawrence and Philip Heseltine (‘Peter Warlock’) (London, 1983)

E. Fenby: ‘Warlock as I knew him’, Composer, no.82 (1984), 19–23 [in conversation with D. Cox]

D. ApIvor: ‘Philip Heseltine (Peter Warlock): a Psychological Study’, MR, xlvi (1985), 118–32

P.J. Reynolds: ‘Peter Warlock: his Contemporaries and their Influence’, British Music Society Journal, vii (1985), 48–58

H. Davies: ‘Bernard van Dieren, Philip Heseltine and Cecil Gray: a Significant Affiliation’, ML, lxix (1988), 30–48

B. Smith: ‘Peter Warlock: a Study of the Composer through the Letters to Colin Taylor between 1911 and 1929’ (diss., Rhodes U., 1991)

N. Heseltine: Capriol for Mother: a Memoir of Philip Heseltine (Peter Warlock) (London, 1992)

J. Bishop and D. Cox, eds.: Peter Warlock: a Centenary Celebration (London, 1994)

I. Parrott: The Crying Curlew: Peter Warlock, Family and Influences (Llandysul, 1994)

B. Smith: Peter Warlock: the Life of Philip Heseltine (Oxford, 1994)

B. Collins: Peter Warlock: the Composer (Aldershot, 1996)

B. Smith, ed.: The Occasional Writings of Philip Heseltine (Peter Warlock) (London, 1997–9)

B. Smith: Delius and Warlock: a Friendship Revealed (Oxford, 1999)

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