Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Warmsley, Peter. See Wamsley, Peter. Warmuth, Carl

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Warmsley, Peter.

See Wamsley, Peter.

Warmuth, Carl.

Norwegian firm of music publishers, founded in Christiania (now Oslo). It was the leading music firm in the country in the 19th century. It started as a modest shop for strings, run in his home by the German emigré Carl Warmuth sr (1811–92). According to the firm, the business was established in 1843, but it seems that the actual date was a few years later. Wind and bowed stringed instruments and sheet music were added to the business, which moved in 1861 to larger premises. Its scope radically increased with Warmuth’s son Carl jr (1844–95); he joined the firm and took over the management in 1874. He was an exceptionally enterprising and efficient businessman and the firm bought up almost all its competitors: Lindorff & Co. in 1864, Edvard Winther in 1878, Hermann Neupert in 1879, A.M. Hanche in 1881 and J.D. Behrens in 1890.

The firm’s first publication appeared in 1851, but serious publishing activity did not begin before 1862. Warmuth’s list eventually amounted to 2870 publications. The firm was of considerable significance to Norwegian cultural life because most of its publications were by native composers, including a large number of women. Such important composers as Kjerulf, Grieg and Svendsen had some of their well-known works published by Warmuth.

From 1880 to 1896 Warmuth edited and published the first Norwegian music periodical to gain recognition outside Norway, Nordisk musik-tidende. The firm also operated an important concert agency and a lending library of 65,000 volumes, probably one of the largest in northern Europe. Carl Warmuth jr was awarded many Norwegian and foreign honours. After his death in 1895 the firm began to decline. There were various changes in management until it was bought by the partnership of Brødrene Hals and Wilhelm Hansen of Copenhagen in 1908. On 1 January 1909 Hals and Warmuth were incorporated into Norsk Musikforlag.


T. Voss: Warmuths Musikhandel, Brødrene Hals, Norsk Musikforlag 1843–1943 (Oslo, 1943)

D. Fog and K. Michelsen: Norwegian Music Publication since 1800: a Preliminary Guide to Music Publishers, Printers and Dealers (Copenhagen, 1976) [with dated plate nos.]

K. Michelsen: ‘Om musikkfirmaet Carl Warmuth i Christiania’, SMN, iii (1977), 33–51

K. Michelsen: Musikkhandel i Norge inntil 1929: en historisk oversikt (Oslo, 1980)

K. Michelsen: ‘Music Trade in Norway to 1929’, FAM, xxix (1982), 43–4

P.A. Kjeldsberg: Piano i Norge: ‘et uunværligt Instrument’ (Oslo, 1985)

K. Michelsen: ‘Musikk-leiebibliotekene i Norge’, SMN, xi (1985), 81–9

K. Michelsen: ‘Historien om Harz-Musikverein’, SMN, xiv (1988), 147–74

K. Michelsen: ‘Historien om Carl Warmuths musikketablissement’, Carl Warmuth, kongelig Hof-Musikhandler, Christiania: Festskrift til 150-årsjubileet 1993, ed. Ø. Norheim and H. Herresthal (Oslo, 1993), 5–28

Ø. Norheim: ‘Carl Warmuths musikkforlags-utgivelser: et utvalg med kommentarer’, ibid., 34–49


Warner, Sylvia (Nora) Townsend

(b Harrow-on-the-Hill, 5 Dec 1893; d Frome Vauchurch, Dorset, 1 May 1978). English music scholar. Daughter of a master at Harrow, she studied music, including composition, under Percy Buck, director of music at Harrow School. Her early compositions, which remain unpublished, were admired by Vaughan Williams. On the recommendation of W.H. Hadow, she became a member of the editorial committee of Tudor Church Music (1917–29), working alongside Buck, Alexander Ramsbotham and E.H. Fellowes. In addition to her extensive editorial work on the first ten volumes of Tudor Church Music (1917–29), she contributed a chapter on notation to the Oxford History of Music (introductory volume, 1929), lectured before the Musical Association (1918–19) and edited octavos of Tudor compositions for performing editions published by Stainer & Bell. For these clear and careful performing editions, she followed the editorial methods of Fellowes. With the success in 1927 of her second novel, Mr Fortune’s Maggot, Warner turned from musicology to writing, becoming a successful poet and author.


C. Harman: Sylvia Townsend Warner: a Biography (London, 1989)


Warner Bros. Music.

American firm of music publishers. It was formed by Warner Bros. in Los Angeles in 1929 to gain control of copyrights for music used in its films. Four separate publishers of popular music, Harms, Remick, Witmark and New World Music, were purchased and amalgamated to form the Music Publishers Holding Corporation. The companies’ catalogues included the works of such composers as Walter Damrosch, Rudolf Friml, George Gershwin, Victor Herbert, Jerome Kern and Sigmund Romberg. In 1937 two divisions of the firm were established, the popular and the standard (the latter dealing with educational music and texts). In 1968 the company became known as Warner Bros. Music. Among Warner’s acquisitions in the 1980s were the film score catalogue of 20th Century-Fox (which included Star Wars and works of Johnny Mercer) and Birchtree Ltd with its 50,000 titles, including Happy Birthday and the Suzuki Methods. In 1987 the parent company Warner Communications took over the English firm Chappell, forming the Warner/Chappell Music Group; in 1989 it merged with Time, Inc. to create Time Warner, shortly afterwards becoming the Warner Music Group (a unit of Time Warner). With the acquisition in 1994 of CPP/Belwin (which it merged with its print division, Warner Bros. Publications), Warner/Chappell expanded its list of educational publications. In the 1990s it issued the music of such artists as Michael Jackson, Prince, Madonna and Elton John. With its alliance in January 2000 to the EMI group (which represents the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, among others), Warner EMI Music will rival Universal Music, a division of Seagram, as it expands into music distribution on the internet.


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