(b Versailles, 3 April 1806; d Paris, 3 Aug 1882). Tenor and singing teacher. He was a pupil of Halévy at the Paris Conservatoire, which he entered in 1825, and shortly afterwards went to the Institution Royale de Musique Classique et Religieuse to study with Choron. He returned to the Conservatoire in 1828 to study singing with Davidde Banderali and Adolphe Nourrit, and was awarded the premier prix for singing the following year. He joined the Opéra in 1831 and remained there for around 12 years, singing major roles but never achieving star billing; Pitou argues that he was undervalued. He created the role of Don Gaspar in Donizetti's La favorite (1840) and sang Ottokar in the Berlioz version of Der Freischütz (1841). In 1833 he married the pianist Thérèse Andrien, and on leaving the Opéra he undertook a series of successful concert tours in Berlin, Prague and Vienna. After several years abroad, he returned to Paris and devoted himself to teaching singing and was considered one of the finest teachers in France; his pupils included Christine Nilsson, Mlle Hisson and, most notably, Zélia Trebelli. Wartel's repertory was unusually wide: his contact with Nourrit encouraged him to champion Schubert's music; he also sang 16th-century music in Fétis's Concerts Historiques (1832–3).
(b Paris, 2 July 1814; d Paris, 6 Nov 1865). Pianist, teacher, composer and critic, wife of (1) Pierre François Wartel. Educated at the Paris Conservatoire, she studied with Louis Adam and Fromental Halévy, winning prizes in piano and practical harmony in 1830. From 1831 to 1838 she worked at the Conservatoire as an accompanist and teacher of solfège, but was never promoted to the piano department. During several years in Vienna in the 1840s she acted as correspondent for the Revue et gazette musicale. On her return to Paris she became a central figure in chamber music circles and was renowned particularly as an interpreter of Beethoven, though for her concerto appearance at the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire on 26 January 1845 she chose Mozart. Preceded by Mme Brod (piano, 1828) and Louise Mattmann (piano, 1844), she was only the third female soloist to be engaged since Habeneck's institution of the Conservatoire series.
The extent of her compositional output is not known. Three works only, all for piano, were published in Paris and Leipzig: Six etudes de salon op.10 (1850) dedicated to Halévy, an Andante op.11 (1851) dedicated to Louise Farrenc, and an undated Fantasie. Wartel's style combined a late Classical sense of harmonic procedure, motivic working and phrase structure with the forms and rich pianistic textures of her time. Her last major publication was a series of essays on interpretative issues in Beethoven's piano sonatas.
(3) Louis Emile Wartel
(b Paris, 31 March 1834; d after 1865). Singer and teacher, son of (1) Pierre François Wartel and (2) Thérèse Wartel. He sang at the Théâtre-Lyrique in Paris from 1858 until 1865, then established a singing school of his own.
Comment on devient chanteur: douze exercices journaliers pour toutes les voix, précédés d'une notice résumant la méthode François Wartel (Paris, 1894)
S.Pitou: The Paris Opéra: an Encyclopedia of Operas, Ballets, Composers and Performers, iii: Growth and Grandeur, 1815–1914 (New York, 1990)
Warwick, (Marie) Dionne
(b East Orange, NJ, 12 Dec 1940). American popular singer. One of the leading female pop-soul singers of the 1960s, her partnership with songwriters Burt Bacharach and Hal David formed an innovative blend of sophisticated pop and subdued gospel-inflected singing, and produced eight top ten hits, including Anyone Who Had a Heart (1963), Walk on by (1964), I say a little prayer (1967), Do you know the way to San Jose (1968) and I’ll never fall in love again (1970). Bacharach and David’s songs, which contained metre changes, modulations, modal melodic turns and lyrics of understated urban vulnerability, were ideally suited to her vocal style, which maintained a restrained emotional intensity while gradually reducing the overt gospel influences. After parting with Bacharach and David, her recording met with little success in the 1970s, with the exception of Then came you (WB 1974), recorded with the Spinners and produced by Thom Bell. The Barry Manilow-produced album, Dionne (WB 1979), sold a million copies and yielded the hit singles I’ll never love this way again and Déjà Vu. Her biggest hits of the 1980s were collaborations with other singers: duets with Luther Vandross (How many times can we say goodbye, 1983) and Jeffrey Osborne (Love Power, 1987), and an all-star quartet formed with Elton John, Gladys Knight and Stevie Wonder for That’s what friends are for (1985), a benefit record for AIDS research and a number one hit in the US pop and rhythm and blues charts. Her recordings in the 1990s aroused little interest despite a duet with her cousin, Whitney Houston, on Friends Can Be Lovers (1993), an album also featuring a reunion with Bacharach and David.
(flc1620–50). English keyboard player and composer. He may have been the dedicatee of one of Thomas Tomkins's Songs (1622). In 1625 he was appointed organist of the Chapel Royal, and court musician ‘for the virginals’, both in succession to Orlando Gibbons; his last recorded court payment was in January 1649/50. Only one keyboard piece bears his name: Mr Warwicks Mask in US-NYp Drexel 5612 (ed. in CEKM, xliv, 1982). According to Hawkins (p.585) Warwick composed a song of 40 parts which was performed before Charles I in about 1635. Two surviving anthems in manuscripts from about 1625 may be by him, or by Thomas Warrock. (It is possible that Warwick was Warrock's son; it is unlikely that they were one and the same, as has sometimes been suggested.)
R.T.Daniel and P.le Huray: The Sources of English Church Music, 1549–1660, EECM, suppl.i (1972)
W.Shaw: The Succession of Organists of the Chapel Royal and the Cathedrals of England and Wales from c.1538 (Oxford, 1991)
J.Harley: William Byrd: Gentleman of the Chapel Royal (Aldershot, 1997)