Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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Waterhouse, George

(b ?Lincoln; d ?London, 18 Feb 1602). English musician and composer. An entry in the Chapel Royal cheque book records that he was from Lincoln and was sworn in as a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in July 1588. The claim that he was organist of Lincoln Cathedral and the Chapel Royal is without foundation. According to Wood he spent several years studying practical and theoretical music and supplicated on 7 July 1592 for the degree of BMus at the University of Oxford. He is remembered for his extraordinary skill in the art of canon, which he demonstrated in his 1163 canons on the plainsong Miserere. Two manuscript copies belonged to Henry Bury, of Bury, Lancashire, who bequeathed them to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, with the request that they be ‘kept or published in print for the credit of Englishmen and for the better preserving and continueing of that wonderful work’. In the Cambridge copy (GB-Cu Dd.iv.60) the canons are numbered in a rather confusing manner but are arranged in groups. They are all written in score, with the plainsong Miserere notated at the top of each page; except for a few three- and four-part canons (on ff.198ff) they are all of the ‘two in one’ kind. The copy of the canons bequeathed to Oxford is no longer traceable. Morley warmly praised Waterhouse’s gigantic undertaking: ‘my friend and fellow, Mr. George Waterhouse, upon the same plainsong of “Miserere” for variety surpassed all who ever laboured in that kind of study’ and hoped that the canons could be published, ‘for the benefit of the world and his own perpetual glory’; they never were published, however. Later, in the peroration to his book, he returned to ‘those never enough praised travails of Mr. Waterhouse, whose flowing and most sweet springs in that kind may be sufficient to quench the thirst of the most insatiate scholar whatsoever’.


AshbeeR, vi, viii

T. Morley: A Plain and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke (London, 1597/R); ed. R.A. Harman (London, 1952, 2/1963/R), 202, 307–8

A. Wood: Appendix to the History and Antiquities of the Colleges and Halls in the University of Oxford, containing Fasti oxonienses, ed. J. Gutch (Oxford, 1790)

E.F. Rimbault, ed.: The Old Cheque-Book or Book of Remembrance of the Chapel Royal (London, 1872/R)


Waterhouse, William (Robert)

(b London, 18 Feb 1931). English bassoonist. He studied at the RCM under Archie Camden and began his career in the Philharmonia Orchestra. He played with the Royal Opera House Orchestra, 1953–5, and as first bassoon in the Italian-Swiss Radio Orchestra in Lugano, 1955–8. He became first bassoon of the LSO in 1958 and from 1964 to 1982 was first bassoon of the BBC SO. In 1966 he was appointed professor of bassoon at the RMCM. He joined the Melos Ensemble in 1959, and with them has made many recordings and toured Europe and the USA, appearing as soloist there and in Britain, where he is widely regarded as a leading exponent of his instrument. He has been visiting professor at faculties in America, Canada and Australia, and has been a jury member for international competitions. Several composers, including Gordon Jacob, Stanley Weiner, Jean Françaix and Elliot Schwarz, have dedicated works to him. He has published a bibliography of bassoon music (London, 1962), and has edited several works for bassoon. Waterhouse has formed a collection of bassoons, which was exhibited at the 1983 Edinburgh Festival; his catalogue of the collection, The Proud Bassoon (Edinburgh, 1983), traces the historical development of the instrument.


Water key

(Fr. clef d’eau; Ger. Wasserklappe; It. chiave d’acqua).

A small sprung, pivoted lever on brass instruments (though seldom on horns), with an attached pad covering a small hole, used to release moisture trapped inside the instrument. The hole may be opened by depressing the touchpiece of the key while blowing silently into the instrument. Some instruments have more than one water key. Though the provenance of the device is uncertain, there was a water key on the hibernicon, a contrabass bass-horn patented in 1823 by J.R. Cotter of Co. Cork. A water key also features in the Stuckens 1826 French patent specification of an omnitonic horn (Morley-Pegge, 59; see Sax). Leopold Uhlmann patented a water key for a valve trombone in Vienna on 12 July 1830 (Dahlqvist, 111–12 and fig.1). Jean-Louis Halary patented the ‘Siphon’ water key for the trombone in Paris in 1845. A recent and successful invention has been the Amado water key, used by the Getzen co., USA.


R. Morley-Pegge: The French Horn (London, 1960, 2/1973)

R. Dahlqvist: ‘Some Notes on the Early Valve’, GSJ, xxxiii (1980), 111–24


Waterman, Christopher A(lan)

(b Fresno, CA, 16 Sep 1954). American ethnomusicologist, son of the ethnomusicologist Richard A. Waterman. After completing the BMus in Boston, he went on to study ethnomusicology with Bruno Nettl at the University of Illinois, taking the doctorate in anthropology in 1986 with a dissertation on juju, for which he carried out extensive field research with urban Yoruba musicians in Nigeria. He taught at the University of Washington, Seattle (1985–96), and was then appointed professor at UCLA. His scholarly interests have focussed on 20th-century change in west African popular music, the popular music culture of the USA, music and social identity, the history of jazz, and the history of ideas in African music research. Waterman is also a professional jazz musician (bass) and the leader of west African popular music ensembles in the USA.


‘“I’m a Leader, Not a Boss”: Social Identity and Popular Music in Ibadan, Nigeria’, EthM, xxvi (1982), 59–71

‘Asiko, Sakara, and Palmwine: Popular Music and Identity in Inter-War Lagos’, Urban Anthropology, xvii (1988), 229–58

Juju: the Historical Development, Socioeconomic Organization and Communicative Functions of a West African Popular Music (diss., U. of Illinois, 1986; Chicago, 1990 as Juju: a Social History and Ethnography of an African Popular Music)

‘“Our Tradition Is a Very Modern Tradition”: Popular Music and the Construction of Pan-Yoruba Identity’, EthM, xxxiv (1990), 367–80

‘Juju History: toward a Theory of Sociomusical Practice’, Ethnomusicology and Modern Music History, ed. S. Blum, P. Bohlman and D. Neuman (Urbana, IL, 1991), 49–67

‘The Uneven Development of Africanist Ethnomusicology: Three Issues and a Critique’, Comparative Musicology and Anthropology of Music: Essays on the History of Ethnomusicology, ed. B. Nettl and P. Bohlman (Chicago, 1991), 169–86

‘Africa’, Ethnomusicology: Historical and Regional Studies, ed. H. Myers (New York, 1993), 240–59


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