What is the most important reason for Google being able to pursue four business strategies simultaneously?



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Technology Guide 2


Multiple Choice
Over the past twenty years, hardware costs have _____, while software costs have _____.

A. increased, increased

B. decreased, decreased

C. decreased, increased

D. increased, decreased

E. increased, remained level


Ans: C

Ref: TG2.1 Significance of Software

Today, software comprises a larger percentage of the cost of modern computer systems than it did in the early 1950s for which of the following reasons?

A. Hardware costs have decreased

B. Hardware performance has increased

C. Software has become increasingly complex

D. Building software applications remains slow, complex, and error-prone

E. All of the above


Ans: E

Ref: TG2.1 Significance of Software

_____ is a written description of a computer program’s functions.

A. Explanatory instructions

B. Documentation

C. Graphical user interface

D. Plug and play

E. README files


Ans: B

Ref: TG2.1 Significance of Software

Unlike the hardwired computers of the 1950s, modern software uses the _____, where computer programs are executed in the computer’s CPU.

A. Stored program concept

B. Multitasking

C. Multithreading

D. Multiprogramming

E. Plug and play


Ans: A

Ref: TG2.1 Significance of Software

The _____ complexity of software means a _____ potential for errors.

A. decreasing, decreasing

B. decreasing, increasing

C. increasing, decreasing

D. increasing, level

E. increasing, increasing


Ans: E

Ref: TG2.1 Significance of Software

_____ are sequences of instructions used to direct the workings of a computer.

A. Computer programs

B. Microcode instructions

C. Assembler commands

D. XML

E. Input/output instructions


Ans: A

Ref: TG2.1 Significance of Software

The set of computer programs used to manage hardware resources is called

A. Microsoft Office Suite

B. application software

C. general software

D. systems software

E. personal application software


Ans: D

Ref: TG2.1 Significance of Software

The set of computer instructions that provides specific functionality to a user is called

A. transaction processing software

B. application software

C. general software

D. systems software

E. microcode


Ans: B

Ref: TG2.1 Significance of Software

Which of the following is not a function of the operating system?

A. Allocates CPU time and main memory to programs running on the computer

B. Provides an interface between the user and the hardware

C. Supervises the overall operation of the computer

D. Increases the complexity of the system to the user

E. None of the above


Ans: D

Ref: TG2.2 Systems Software

The main system control program is the _____.

A. operating system

B. cache software

C. virtual memory

D. security monitor

E. multithread register


Ans: A

Ref: TG2.2 Systems Software

Virtual memory allocates hard disk space to supplement the immediate, functional memory capacity of what?

A. ROM


B. EPROM

C. Extended memory

D. RAM

E. The registers


Ans: D

Ref: TG2.2 Systems Software

_____ means that several parts of the same application can work simultaneously.

A. Multithreading

B. Multitasking

C. Time-sharing

D. Scalability

E. Multiprocessing


Ans: A

Ref: TG2.2 Systems Software

_____ occurs when a computer system with two or more processors runs more than one program, or thread, at a given time by assigning them to different processors.

A. Multithreading

B. Multitasking

C. Time-sharing

D. Scalability

E. Multiprocessing


Ans: E

Ref: TG2.2 Systems Software

_____ means that two or more programs can run on the computer system at the same time.

A. Nultithreading

B. Nultitasking

C. Time-sharing

D. Scalability

E. Multiprocessing


Ans: B

Ref: TG2.2 Systems Software

The _____ allows users to exert direct control of icons on the computer screen.

A. systems software

B. application software

C. graphical user interface

D. plug-and-play

E. operating system


Ans: C

Ref: TG2.2 Systems Software

_____ are programs that sort records, create directories and sub-directories, restore accidently deleted files, and manage memory usage.

A. System utilities

B. General application software

C. Personal application software

D. System performance monitors

E. System security monitors


Ans: A

Ref: TG2.2 Systems Software

_____ are programs that manage the processing of jobs on a computer system.

A. System utilities

B. General application software

C. Personal application software

D. System performance monitors

E. System security monitors


Ans: D

Ref: TG2.2 Systems Software

_____ are programs that protect a computer system from unauthorized use, fraud, and destruction.

A. System utilities

B. General application software

C. Personal application software

D. System performance monitors

E. System security monitors


Ans: E

Ref: TG2.2 Systems Software

Creating specific application software using an organization’s own resources is called what?

A. Outsourcing

B. Consultant-based development

C. In-house development

D. Contract software

E. Application service providers


Ans: C

Ref: TG2.3 Application Software

Off-the-shelf software _____.

A. may not match an organization’s current work processes and data

B. is more flexible in making modifications

C. requires more risk because all features and performance are not known

D. is rarely tested prior to release
Ans: A

Ref: TG2.3 Application Software

_____ programs are often used when analyzing financial data.

A. Database

B. Word processing

C. Spreadsheet

D. Graphics

E. Communications


Ans: C

Ref: TG2.3 Application Software

Which of the following is not a characteristic of today’s typical software?

A. Efficient

B. Full of errors

C. Poorly designed

D. Expensive

E. An art as well as a science


Ans: A

Ref: TG2.4 Software Issues

Which of the following is not a factor in the selection of software?

A. Size and location of the user base

B. Number of the databases required for the software

C. Costs


D. In-house technical skills

E. System capabilities


Ans: B

Ref: TG2.4 Software Issues

The concept of _____ refers to competing computing products working together.

A. open source software

B. software-as-a-service

C. object oriented software

D. application software package

E. open systems


Ans: E

Ref: TG2.4 Software Issues

In order to protect their software from illegal distribution, vendors often rely on _____

A. encryption

B. private security agents

C. software licensing

D. Internet-based distribution methods
Ans: C

Ref: TG2.4 Software Issues

_____ is software whose source code is available at no cost to developers and users.

A. Freeware

B. Shareware

C. Open systems

D. Open source software

E. Software-as-a-service


Ans: D

Ref: TG2.4 Software Issues

Which of the following is not an advantage of open-source software?

A. Produces high quality code

B. Produces code that can be changed to meet the needs of the users

C. Bugs are discovered quickly

D. Limited support is available only through online communities of core developers

E. Produces reliable code


Ans: D

Ref: TG2.4 Software Issues

Which of the following is not a disadvantage of open-source software?

A. Organizations need in-house technical support or a maintenance contract from a third party

B. May not be easy to use

C. May take time and money to train users

D. May not be compatible with existing systems

E. Runs slower than comparable vendor-developed software


Ans: E

Ref: TG2.4 Software Issues

_____ is copyrighted software that is made available to the user at no cost for an unlimited period of time.

A. Freeware

B. Shareware

C. Open systems

D. Open source software

E. Software-as-a-service


Ans: A

Ref: TG2.4 Software Issues

_____ is software that typically allows no access to the underlying source code.

A. Freeware

B. Shareware

C. Open systems

D. Open source software
Ans: B

Ref: TG2.4 Software Issues

Developers use _____ to write new application and systems software.

A. code generators

B. applets

C. programming languages

D. developer workbenches
Ans: C

Ref: TG2.5 Programming Languages

Which programming language uses mnemonics such as SUB for subtract and MOV for move to help users with programming?

A. Machine language

B. Assembly language

C. Procedural language

D. Non-procedural language

E. Visual programming language


Ans: B

Ref: TG2.5 Programming Languages

Which programming language consists entirely of 0’s and 1’s?

A. Machine language

B. Assembly language

C. Procedural language

D. Non-procedural language

E. Visual programming language


Ans: A

Ref: TG2.5 Programming Languages

Place the following programming languages in order of programmer ease of use, from easiest to most difficult:

A. machine language – assembly language – procedural language – non-procedural language

B. assembly language – machine language – procedural language – non-procedural language

C. non-procedural language – procedural language – assembly language – machine language

D. non-procedural language – procedural language – machine language – assembly language

E. procedural language – machine language – non-procedural language – assembly language


Ans: C

Ref: TG2.5 Programming Languages

Languages that use icons, symbols, and pull-down menus to develop applications are called _____

A. object-oriented languages

B. second generation languages

C. visual programming languages

D. Java

E. third generation languages


Ans: C

Ref: TG2.5 Programming Languages

In an object-oriented language, one of the primary advantages of an object is that it contains _____

A. reusable code

B. reusable data

C. embedded graphics

D. messages

E. no errors


Ans: A

Ref: TG2.5 Programming Languages

Which of the following is not a benefit of Java to organizations?

A. Companies need to purchase only one network copy of software

B. Companies will need powerful personal computers for their employees

C. Companies will have better control over their data and applications

D. Software management will be easier

E. None of the above


Ans: B

Ref: TG2.5 Programming Languages




Chapter 4


Multiple Choice
In the opening case of Chapter 4, which of the following are problems that Panasonic faces when it wants to introduce a new product?

A. The company has multiple sales subsidiaries and manufacturing facilities.

B. The company has difficulties procuring the right materials from the right sources.

C. Language barriers.

D. The amount of time required to modify product materials for national product releases.

E. All of the above.


Ans: E

Ref: Chapter opening case

In the opening case of Chapter 4, what is the most significant benefit of Panasonic’s new data management system?

A. Cost savings

B. Improved time-to-market for products

C. Reduced time required for creating and maintaining product information

D. Company moved from “push” inventory model to “pull” model

E. Improved response to retailer orders


Ans: B

Ref: Chapter opening case

It is very difficult to manage data for which of the following reasons?

A. amount of data stays about the same over time

B. data are scattered throughout organizations

C. decreasing amount of external data needs to be considered

D. data security is easy to maintain

E. data are stored in the same format throughout organizations


Ans: B

Ref: 4.1 Managing Data

When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate _____:

A. Tracking cookies

B. Information

C. Clickstream data

D. Web data

E. Hyperlink data


Ans: C

Ref: 4.1 Managing Data

Place the following members of the data hierarchy in the correct order:

A. bit – byte – field – record – database – file/table

B. bit – field – byte – record – file/table – database

C. byte – bit – record – field – database

D. bit – byte – field – record – file/table – database

E. bit – record – field – byte – file/table -- database


Ans: D

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

Verifying that no alphabetic characters are in a Social Security Number field is an example of _____ :

A. data isolation

B. data integrity

C. data consistency

D. data redundancy

E. application/data dependence


Ans: B

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

_____ occurs when applications cannot access data associated with other applications.

A. Data isolation

B. Data integrity

C. Data consistency

D. Data redundancy

E. Application/data dependence


Ans: A

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

_____ occurs when the same data are stored in many places.

A. Data isolation

B. Data integrity

C. Data consistency

D. Data redundancy

E. Application/data dependence


Ans: D

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

_____ occurs when various copies of the data agree.

A. Data isolation

B. Data integrity

C. Data consistency

D. Data redundancy

E. Application/data dependence


Ans: C

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

You have moved to a different apartment, but your electricity bill continues to go to your old address. The Post Office in your town has a problem with its data management, which is:

A. Data redundancy

B. Data inconsistency

C. Data isolation

D. Data security

E. Data dependence


Ans: B

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

A(n) _____ is a logical grouping of characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number.

A. byte


B. field

C. record

D. file

E. database


Ans: B

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

A(n) _____ is a logical grouping of related/similar fields.

A. byte


B. field

C. record

D. file

E. database


Ans: C

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

A(n) _____ is a logical grouping of related/similar records.

A. byte


B. field

C. record

D. file/table

E. database


Ans: D

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

A(n) _____ represents a character, such as a letter, number, or symbol.

A. byte


B. field

C. record

D. file

E. database


Ans: A

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

In a database, the primary key field is used to _____:

A. specify an entity

B. create linked lists

C. identify duplicated data

D. uniquely identify a record

E. uniquely identify an attribute


Ans: D

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

As an individual student in your university’s student database, you are a(n) _____ of the STUDENT class.

A. instance

B. individual

C. representative

D. entity

E. relationship


Ans: A

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

At Umass, students can take more than one class, and each class can have more than one student. This is an example of what kind of relationship?

A. one-to-one

B. one-to-many

C. many-to-one

D. many-to-many

E. some-to-many


Ans: D

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

In a university’s relational database, the student record contains information regarding the student’s last name. The last name is a(n):

A. attribute

B. entity

C. primary key

D. object

E. file
Ans: A

Ref: 4.2 The Database Approach

In the relational database model, related tables can be joined when they contain common _____.

A. Files

B. Rows


C. Records

D. Columns


Ans: D

Ref: 4.3 Database Management Systems

_____ tell the database management system which records are joined with others in related tables.

A. Primary keys

B. Secondary keys

C. Common attributes

D. Common files

E. Common fields


Ans: A

Ref: 4.3 Database Management Systems

Data dictionaries perform all of the following functions except:

A. Provide information on each record

B. Provide information on why attributes are needed in the database

C. Define the format necessary to enter data into the database

D. Provide information on name of attributes

E. Provide information on how often attributes should be updated


Ans: A

Ref: 4.3 Database Management Systems

In a relational database, every row represents a _____:

A. file


B. record

C. attribute

D. primary key

E. secondary key


Ans: B

Ref: 4.3 Database Management Systems

A standardized language used to manipulate data is _____:

A. MS-Access

B. Oracle

C. query-by-example language

D. structured query language

E. data manipulation language


Ans: D

Ref: 4.3 Database Management Systems

Data dictionaries provide which of the following advantages to the organization?

A. reduce data inconsistency

B. provide for faster program development

C. make it easier to modify data and information

D. all of the above
Ans: D

Ref: 4.3 Database Management Systems

_____ is a method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form.

A. Structured query

B. Normalization

C. Query by example

D. Joining

E. Relational analysis


Ans: B

Ref: 4.3 Database Management Systems

When data are normalized, attributes in the table depend only on the _____.

A. Common record

B. Common attribute

C. Primary key

D. Common row
Ans: C

Ref: 4.3 Database Management Systems

The data in a data warehouse have which of the following characteristics?

A. are organized by subject

B. are coded in different formats

C. are updated in real time

D. are typically retained for a defined, but limited, period of time

E. are organized in a hierarchical structure


Ans: A

Ref: 4.4 Data Warehousing

The data in a data warehouse:

A. Are updated constantly in real time

B. Are updated in batch mode, approximately once per day

C. Are not updated

D. Are purged constantly as new data enter

E. Are available for MIS analysts, but not users


Ans: C

Ref: 4.4 Data Warehousing

The process of moving data from various sources into the data warehouse is called:

A. Upload

B. Extract, transform, load

C. Online transaction processing

D. Master data management

E. Online analytical processing


Ans: B

Ref: Data Warehousing

Compared to data warehouses, data marts have which one of the following characteristics?

A. cost less

B. have longer lead time for implementation

C. have central rather than local control

D. contain more information

E. are harder to navigate


Ans: A

Ref: 4.4 Data Warehousing

_____ is a formal approach to managing data consistently across an entire organization.

A. Database management

B. Enterprise information management

C. Data warehousing

D. Data governance

E. Data mart


Ans : D

Ref : Data Governance

Difficulty : Easy
_____ provides companies with a single version of the truth for their data.

A. Data warehouse

B. Data mart

C. Database

D. Master data management

E. Enterprise information management


Ans: D

Ref: 4.5 Data Governance

_____ describe the activities of the business, where _____ categorize, aggregate, and evaluate data generated by the organization’s activities.

A. Transaction data, master data

B. Source data, transaction data

C. Operational data, master data

D. Master data, source data

E. Business dimensional data, databases


Ans: A

Ref: 4.5 Data Governance

_____ is a process that helps organizations identify, select, organize, disseminate, transfer, and apply expertise that are part of the organization’s memory and typically reside inside the organization in an unstructured manner.

A. discovery

B. knowledge management

C. decision support

D. online analytical processing

E. data mining


Ans: B

Ref: 4.6 Knowledge Management

Explicit knowledge has which of the following characteristics?

A. objective and codified

B. personal

C. slow


D. costly to transfer

E. ambiguous


Ans: A

Ref: 4.6 Knowledge Management

Tacit knowledge has which of the following characteristics?

A. codified

B. objective

C. unstructured

D. rational

E. technical


Ans: C

Ref: 4.6 Knowledge Management

Historically, management information systems have focused on capturing, storing, managing, and reporting _____ knowledge.

A. tacit


B. explicit

C. managerial

D. geographical

E. cultural


Ans: B

Ref: 4.6 Knowledge Management

The most important benefit of knowledge management systems is:

A. Improved customer service

B. Make best practices available to employees

C. Retention of scarce knowledge if employees retire

D. Improved morale

E. More efficient product development


Ans: B

Ref: Knowlege Management






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