The underlying aim of this document is to encourage all relevant stakeholders to make access services more widely available on television and as a result focuses on the significance of standardisation across the globe and technologies. This is deemed absolutely essential for interoperability and usability of access services on television and therefore impacts on product and service design. A comprehensive list of standards available in this area of operation can be found in appendix 3 of this document. These standards apply to, amongst a host of other functions, access services, design of remote controls, user interface, and symbols that aid accessibility.
All such design should conform to relevant consumer equipment standards whilst also not being overly prescriptive to avoid stifling innovation.
Appendix 3 shows a list of relevant TV standards
4. Access to television - user requirements
This section on user requirements identifies and details the requirements which, if implemented, will facilitate access to television for blind and partially sighted people. These requirements are applicable regardless of television viewing platform and geographical location. They will not only improve access but will make television viewing a more satisfying experience for the target audience.
The user requirements have been assigned to one of the following three subdivisions:
1. Must have: this means that the requirements are necessary
2. Should have: this means that the requirements are recommended
3. May have: this means that the requirement could add positively to the experience.
Packaging must not contain materials that may cause injury, such as staples;
The packaging must convey clear information to the buyer about the functions of the equipment. Where appropriate, official recognised logos must be used. Tactile alternatives must be provided when possible.
Additional components such as batteries and other accessories should be separately and securely wrapped but easy to open by hand.
Accessible print standards, as applicable in different countries, may be used for any text on the packaging such as RNIB Clear Print Guidelines for the UK. [See appendix 1 for RNIB Clear Print Guidelines]
22.214.171.124 Instruction manual including quick start guide and main user guide
Full user guide and the quick start guide must be available, on request, in alternative formats – Braille, Large Print, Audio and accessible online formats.
Information presented using diagrams and screen shots must also be available within the text instructions.
The instructions must provide information about the accessibility features of the product and how to access audio description.
The design and layout should conform to the guidelines/ standards recommended by blindness organisations in different countries.
Glossy paper should be avoided.
Page layout should be simple and uncluttered.
On-screen information may also be provided, in addition to the printed manual.
External connections must be easily accessible and clearly marked.
If information about connector engagement is displayed on the screen then, clear audio feedback of connector engagement must be available. i.e. Scart Cable or HDMI installed
126.96.36.199 Equipment tuning
[For example: initial settings, on-screen display, basic tuning and advanced settings for access features such as subtitling/ audio description / favourites]
Receivers must carry out the full tuning sequence automatically following initial powering on once the receiver is connected to a display, a power source, or service platform [terrestrial, cable, satellite].
All receivers must automatically identify new services launched by broadcasters without the user having to retune.
At all stages of the tuning sequence the status should be indicated in text and audio, describing the action being carried out, state of progress and time remaining.
This screen should also have a clear ‘exit’ or ‘skip’ prompt.
Following initial tuning, an on-screen message should prompt users of the options to set up any preferences. This may be achieved by referring them to the Quick Start Guide or by an on-screen step-by-step process. Typical preferences essential to this set of user requirements are:
audio description default on
set-up of favourites or ‘hide’ channels (as appropriate)
It is critical that the user interface is designed in such a way that it takes into account the needs of all possible users, including blind and partially sighted persons. Some of the key functions, inclusive but not limited to, that must be completely accessible are;
switching on and off,
accessing the EPG and
be able to turn on/off access features such as audio description.
This section has been split into five parts for ease of navigation and understanding;
[Note: Safe area is a measured zone within the video frame which defines where all text should be contained to prevent loss during transmission and reproduction.]
Only one font should be used throughout the application.
Changes in font size and colour should be minimized.
Colours with a saturation index of less than 85% should be used to avoid distortion and flicker.
The text colour should have sufficient contrast against the background colour.
The font used should not distort and the size used shall be sufficient to assure the legibility of the text. Tiresias is the recommended font for this purpose in the UK, although others as recommended by organisations in different countries of the world can be used.
Use of multiple columns for on-screen text may be avoided, as these can be difficult to read. If multiple columns are used, a sufficient margin may be provided between the columns with an appropriate column size when the selected font size is large.
Users may be given the option to change colour combinations, font sizes and the screen background, including a "high contrast" display option, with larger text and icons, dark background and light text. These parameters may be configurable by the user.
The text paragraphs may be kept short with good line spacing.
The excessive use of graphics may be avoided to represent different options.
Icons may be accompanied with text.
DTV receivers should be designed using universal design principles such that they do not create any access barrier for people with functional diversity. The user requirements in this section are applicable across the number of interactive services that area available via the television equipment these days such as internet television, IPTV, red button services, catch-up services.
All interactive services must have the ability to deliver audio description.
The service must let the users choose their preferred text size/ background and foreground colour for the on-screen display.
The service must let the user enable TTS or audible feedback to hear an audio alternative to the displayed text.
Information in the menus must be perceptive and logical. Menu structures must be simple, each following a similar pattern path.
On-screen display must show information about programmes, such as cost of pay-per-view, terms and conditions, and availability of access features such as audio description. These must be available on all IPTV services through a single button.
Information mentioned above must be available as text on-screen as well as in TTS.
Information chosen by the user for display, such as the channel guide, genre guide, or information on television content, should remain on-screen until the users decides to remove it.
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 should be followed where appropriate to ensure complete access to the content on a web page.
User Interface Web Browser Guidelines should apply where content is delivered through a web browser to allow a more adaptable user interface.
In conjunction with the remote control there should be a single button that returns the viewer to the opening menu in IPTV.
The user should be able to turn on and off TTS and audio description on a temporary or permanent basis.
The user may be able to change the layout according to their preference, so that the layout becomes simpler and more intuitive.
188.8.131.52 Remote control- design and functionality
The remote control is, without a doubt, the principal piece of equipment used for interacting with various television applications such as EPG, mini guide and access features. However, little has been done to ensure that they are usable by persons with sight loss. To be rendered completely accessible, thought not only needs to be given to its design but also its functionality.
The following user requirements recommend ways in which this can be achieved.
Remote controls must be ergonomic and usable by people with sight loss, in accordance with universal design principle
Buttons must be logically and functionally distributed e.g., channel numbers to be grouped together, channel up and down beside the volume up and down. Consideration must be given to space between buttons with sufficient space between them. This must be done in accordance with guidance already specified in technical standards such the D-book 6.0, (DTI, 1998)
Buttons must be of suitable size for use by people with sight loss. [Refer to D-book 6.0, DTI (1998)]
The number 5 button must have a raised dot or line for tactile identification. [ES 201 381 Human Factors (HF) ETSI Standards, 1998]
Where a purely touch sensitive remote control is provided with the equipment, another remote control must be made available upon request which is more accessible for people with sight loss. This is similar to the current strategy that has been adopted by Apple Inc. for their touch products.
The On/Off button should be sufficiently isolated so that it cannot be accidentally pressed.
184.108.40.206.2 Remote control functionality
The angles of transmission and reception between the remote control and the television must be broad so that it is not necessary to orient the control accurately. [Trace R & D Centre, University of Wisconsin-Madison (1998) Accessible Design of Consumer Products, Section 1: Output/Displays]
The remote must provide one-touch access buttons to accessibility services i.e., audio description and subtitling.
No action should require pressing two or more buttons at the same time.
Assigning dual functionality to buttons should be avoided.
The provision of basic operating controls on the receiver itself is encouraged. These should provide at least a minimum level of operation without use of a remote control. These should be labelled clearly and meaningfully using the same labelling as used on the remote control.
Tactile feedback should be provided on button presses.
Please note a list of industry specifications on design and functionality of remote controls has been provided at the end of the document in appendix 5.
220.127.116.11 Audible feedback
Audible feedback is an important tool for communication, compensating any inability to process visual feedback or on-screen information by providing the user with adequate complementary information.
Any process that takes place on-screen (e.g. system updating itself), in addition to being reported by a text to speech engine, must be accompanied by an audible feedback that allows the user to identify the process that is taking place.
Pop-up messages must be accompanied by an audible feedback.
The fundamental frequency of the signal must not be higher than 2.5 kHz [ISO/CD 24500 (2008)]
When the channel is changed sound signals should identify television broadcasts that contain audio description for the blind and partially sighted users. This should also be indicated while scrolling down the EPG.
In the case of an operation confirmation signal, if the user selects the next operation, the reaction of the next operation should be given priority and the former auditory signal should be interrupted.
The user should be able to turn off insignificant auditory signals, by turning off the extra beeps. [e.g. "extra beeps on/off"]
For further guidance on the tone of the auditory signal, please refer to ISO/CD 24500  Ergonomics – Accessible design – Auditory signals for consumer products.
18.104.22.168 Text-to-Speech [TTS]
Digital set-top boxes offer access to a wealth of information, entertainment and services via electronic program guides (EPGs), which require users to scroll through long lists of on-screen text and graphics to view choices and select a programme or service. The latest generation of digital set-top boxes offer EPGs that provide detailed information about programmes, the ability to set parental controls, and the ability to programme channel selections for future viewing. However, since most of the information on the EPG is of graphical nature, it is completely inaccessible to a blind person and extremely hard to follow for a partially sighted person. The more graphical the interface, the harder it is for a user who is blind or partially sighted to use it.
TTS is automated verbal generation of elements presented on-screen [graphics, text, icons etc] in simulated human speech. A system used for this purpose is called a speech synthesiser and can be implemented in software or hardware. The user requirements for TTS are as follows:
An audio prompt must be provided at start-up that instructs the user how to enable TTS features.
The user must be able to activate or de-activate TTS as per need.
A single button on the remote control must be assigned at start-up to toggle the enabled / disabled setting.
The user must be given the control to increase or decrease the volume of TTS relative to the broadcast level. A number of factors could influence the user's decision to change the volume e.g. hearing ability of the user, distance from the product, ambient sounds etc.
The user should be able to change the level of verbosity depending on how much spoken cues is preferred.
The user should be able to adjust the speed of the TTS audio and other characteristics such pitch and TTS voice type.
The TTS should be available in different languages. Where there is receiver UI language that is not supported by TTS, then the user must be informed in some way before changing the UI language.
The information reproduced through TTS may skip unwanted redundant elements in the information. Please see “A Developer's Guide to Creating Talking Menus for Set-top Boxes and DVDs” for further details (NCAM, 2009).
Users must be able to lock access to certain channels depending on the content being broadcast on the channel. This is only in cases where this feature, parental lock, has been made available on the system.
22.214.171.124 Audio Description
Television receivers must be able to deliver audio description in cases where content providers have made a description track available.
There receiver must have the ability to enable audio description so that the setting remains active across channels.
Events that carry subtitles and/or audio description must be clearly indicated in the EPG in a manner that the user can identify them without having to hunt for them. Appropriate and relevant logos must be used.
Programmes that support audio description must additionally be identified by differing audible feedback signals (e.g. beep) when description mode has been globally selected and deselected and when a current described event is selected.
126.96.36.199 Recording and playback on DVR
Clear indication must appear on-screen accompanied by an audible signal [e.g. beep] when recording is initiated or stopped on a current event.
DVR and On-demand services must also support recording and playback of audio description.
When the hard disk of the DVR is almost full a warning message may be displayed on the screen whenever a recording starts or a new recording is programmed. This message may also be available in TTS.
The programme name, channel number, event name and information pertaining to the currently selected event must be voiced.
188.8.131.52 Emergency information
All emergency information that is displayed in text must be voiced.
184.108.40.206 Miscellaneous information
Where appropriate, the message must give instructions in text and speech on how to clear the message and how to save it for a later reminder.
If the message requires user initiated or automatic re-configuration of the tuner system there should also be a warning in text and speech not to unplug the tuner while this action is taking place.