|Fiche Civilization US
Aspect of geography and sociopolitical evolution.
*Settlement of the American continent.
*Formation of a nation.
*Growth of a nation.
-Waves 1 and 2 => 1606-1850
-Wave 3 => 1880-1924
-Wave 4 and Beyond => 1924-present
Settlement of American continent.
Origins to 1776.
Columbus sails to America in 1492.
Early contacts with America:
-Amerindians populated entire the American continent before arrival oh Europeans.
*Arrived between 70,000 and 12,000 BC
*Believe to be Asian origin.
-First Europeans to establish contact with America were Scandinavian explorers
*As of 1,000 CE Christian Era
The Role of Europe
-Three European powers dominate exploration of America.
*Spain, England, France.
-Conflicts in Europe determined destiny of territories in America.
Religious Movements in Europe.
-1517 Martin Luther, protestant Reformation.
*Calvin 1536 “institutes”
-1533 Henry VIII divorces, English Reformation begins.
-1492 Christopher Columbus.
*Bahamas, Cuba, Haiti/Dominican Republic
-1513 Florida and the pacific. Consédélion.
-1519-1521 Cortez, Conquest of Mexico
*1551. Universities in Lima, Mexico City.
-1588 Defeat of Spanish Navy by English.
-1608 Champlain explores and founds French settlement in Québec.
-Between 1698 and 1702 area along the Mississippi between Québec and Louisiana colonized.
England – First Settlements.
-1585 Sir Walter Raleigh. Fail.
*Virginia Company – merchants
-Quest for gold.
-Bring riches to the crown.
-1619, first slaves sold.
-1620 Plymouth, Massachusetts
*Protestant reforms did not go far enough.
*Between 1629 and 1642, 14.000 to 20.000 arrived from England (Business).
England – Growth og Colonies
-English colonies grew in Massachusetts and Virginia
-Other countries settled territories between them.
*French in the West.
*Dutch in New Amsterdam (New York)
Obsessed by the presence of evil.
The Devil, Satan.
Rejected Christian holidays
Derived from pagan holidays and rituals.
A Church state
Repressive and intolerant
Prototype of the constitution.
Education best weapon to fight Satan
² 1635 Boston Latin School.
² 1636 Harvard University.
Printing press 1634
First newspaper 1700
The Thirteen Colonies.
Thirteen colonies were incorporated under English administration.
FORMING A NATION
13 colonies consolidated between 1606 (VA) and 1732 (GA)
Conflicts with Native Americans were constant as the colonies spread west.
French and Indian Wat(1754-1763)
French army allied with Native –American Indian group vs the British
Colonist fought side-by-side with British army regulars
Signifiance of French and Indian War.
Class system felt strongly
Colonist lost the fear and respect reserved for British soldier.
Colonist became familiar with the British military techniques and strategies.
Not adapted to frontier conditions.
Growth of British territory in North America
Taxes imposed on all goods from England
Food, sugar (1764), tea.
Approved by parliament in 1765
All public documents
Affected those most likely to influence public opinion.
² Lawyers, merchants, printers, journalists.
Protest against the Stamp Tax followed, esp in Boston
Led by Sam Adams and the “Sons of liberty”
‘No taxation without representation”
Boycott lead to repeal of tax in 1766.
British continued taxation policy.
People on the frontier complained too
Lack of order and security
Local militias were formed
Justice system lacking under British control.
Boston massacre (1770). 17000 death.
News spread and caused further protest throughout colonies.
British reacted firmly.
Boston Tea Party (1773)
In response to Tea Act (1772)
England reacted even more severely
Massachusetts placed under military control.
War for independence.
Continental Congress gathered in 1774.
Representatives of each colony (exc. Georgia).
Opposed acts of British.
Drafted a “Declaration of Rights”.
Discussed armed defense of Massachussetts.
First battle took place in 1775 (Lexington and Concord – MA)
Declaration of independence (1776).
Written mainly by Thomas Jefferson.
Growth of the Nation.
The Northwest Ordinance – 1787.
Territory defined by the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, and the great lakes
Rights, land and protections for Settlers.
Egalitarian principles of constitution applied to territory.
Statehood was main goal
Slavery “tolerated” in territory, until 1848
Indian groups did of acknowledge American sovereignty
The Louisiana Purchase - 1803
Spain had acquired territory for France in 1763, but France acquired it back in 1800-1801.
The U.S preferred Spanish rule.
Napoleon sold territory for $15m.
Size of U.S doubled with Purchase of Louisiana.
Pres. Jefferson sent expedition headed by Lewis and Clark to explore new territory and find Pacific.
War with Mexico 1846-1848.
Texas annexed in 1845
Dispute with Mexico lead to war.
The U.S claimed all Mexican land north of Texas.
Size of nation increased by a third.
By 1912, with admission of Arizona and New Mexico entire continent was U.S territory
Liberal land distribution Policies.
Homestead act (1862).
“The Wheat Belt”.
Gold, but also silver, copper.
Slavery and the Struggle for Civil Rights.
Ethnic diversity and urban population.
Africans – largest ethnic group in 18tc Century.
1700-250,000 (including slaves)
1775- 2,5 m ( x10 increase) – 15% of population.
1/5th of entire labor force in bondage.
Established practice in English colonies (1618)
Important to economy of southern colonies.
² Esp on large plantations
l South Carolina.
Largest ethnic group in 18th century.
Revolution and Independence.
Most free blacks in the North supported Revolutionary cause.
Many Southern slaves supported the British.
Freedom offered to slaves who fought for British.
² Black loyalists lefts left America after the war and settled in Caribbean or England.
Slavery after Independence.
After Independence, Northern states abolished slavery.
Slave importation prohibited in 1808.
Abolitionist movement grew in North (1823).
Liberia / Back to Africa.
Compromises between “free” and “slave” states failed.
Civil war erupted in 1861.
- 1863 – Emancipation proclamation.
- Abraham Lincoln.
- Freedom for slaves in rebellious states.
Civil War Amendments. P31
After the war, three constitutional amendments
13th – Abolished slavery (1865).
14th – Granted citizenship and equal protection under the law to freedmen (1868).
15th – Granted freedmen the right to vote (1870).
Civil rights and liberties.
Southern states instituted racial segregation policies.
Community codes and laws separated public facilities and accommodations.
Any remained in effect until the 1960’s.
Southern states instuted rules that deprived black people of
The ability to vote
² Poll taxes
² Literacy tests.
The right to economic freedom
² Property rights.
² Work rights.
« Separate but equal »
These segregation policies were permitted under Supreme court decisions
Plessy v Ferguson 1896
“Sperate but equal” policies
Many remained in effect until the 1960’s
Much of the country today remains segregated.
Struggle for civil rights
Creation of NAACP 1910 (National Association for the Advancement of colored people)
Integration of Armed Forces 1948.
Brown vs Board 1954
Supreme Court ruling against segregated schools.
Montgomery bus boycott 1955-1956 (Rosa Parks).
Central aspect of US history
Equal opportunity and identity
social disoder, discrimination
Goal of immigration?
Integration / homogenisation
Diversity / pluralistic society
Four major waves
First Wave: 1606-1776
After "discovery" by Europeans, America became populated by
-Irish / Scottish
- Swedes and Dutch
Spanish = South and Southwest
Dutch and Swedish = Middle Atlantic
French = Canada ans West of Mississippi
-Up and down Atlantic coast
- 1660: immigration encouraged (Scots - Irish largest group)
- 1662: Royal Africa Slave Company (140,000 slaves)
-Largest non - anglophone immigrant group
- Settled in Middle colonies
- French Huguenots
- English: 52%
- Africans: 20%
Despite diversity of population Anglo- Saxon culture remained dominant.
Second Wave: 1820-1880
- Overpopulation in Europe
- Especially in cities
- Population doubles 1750-1850
- Medical and hygiene advances
- Exodus to cities
- Increase of food supply
- Transport improvements
Largest emigrating groups
Germans, Irish, Britans, Scandinavians.
- French canadians, Swiss, Chinese, Dutch
Reports of America as land of opportunity
Prospect of available land
Greater work possibilities
Northern European immigrants
- Settled in Mid- West
Irish immigration - an exception
Potato blight and subsequent famine 1840's and 1850's
Arrived with few funds and stayed where they landed
"Native" Americans vs newly arrived immigrants
The "Know- nothings"
Anti - immigrant political parti
Chinese arrived in West via San Fransisco
Work in mines and on the rail road
Supported by labor organisations
Repealed in 1943
Third Wave: 1880 - 1930 (1934)
Decline of Immigration from Northern and Western Europe.
New Immigrants, from Southern and Eastern Europe, began arriving.
15 M in 24 years.
Italians, Jews, Poles, Hungarians
- Mexicans, Russians, Greeks, Portuguese
Immigration control point
12 M people between 1892 and 1954
Under the Statue of Liberty
The New Collosus
Typical immigrant was less like a typical American
Culture / manners / customs
- Tenements (Big building)
- Exploitive work conditionz
- Children on the streets
Progressive era: 1900 - 1920
- Labor laws
- Compulsary schooling
- Improved living conditions
- Pure Food and Drug Act -> FDA (Food and Drug Association)
Asian exclusion repealed in 1943 (Chinese)