And hellenic colonization



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HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS


I.

The division of the loose Hellenistic Empire of Alex. the Gr. after his death among his immediate successors/the diadochoi (sing. diadochos)




A.

General Ptolemy: Egypt; Caria, Lycia, and Pamphylia in SW Anatolia




B.

General Seleucus: all the Eastern provinces and kingdoms of the Empire incl.

East Anatolia

an example from E. Anat.: Kingdom of Commagene

(Kummuhu of Late Hittite Period)









1. nothing much remains of the cities

2. two extremely important monuments: Nimrud Tumuli, Adıyaman, Kâhta

a. Karakuş Tumulus (the bridge on the way is later Roman)

1) the tumulus of a queen

2) there are four columns on four sides of the tumulus w. figures on them








b. actual Mount Nimrud Tumulus: grave monument for King Antiochus I

1) the tumulus itself: mound of pebbles, the chamber not found

2) two terraces

a) West


- reliefs on stelae showing the ancestors of the king

- other reliefs (dexiosis scenes: king shaking hands w. deities)

- colossal heads (fallen fr. the original enthroned positions)

- head of eagle (no. of them)

- lion

- head of Helios (sun-god)



- head of Commagene (goddess of the country)

- head of Heracles (deified hero)

- head of Zeus (main god)

b) East


- reliefs

- colossal heads

- head of eagle (no. of them)

- lion (no of them)

- head of Herecles

- head of Antiochus

- altar





C.

General Lysimachos







1. Pergamon and Western Anatolia







2. Alexander’s treasure, guarded by General Philetairos, whose descendants

also seize the throne (the Attalid Dynasty)









3. a survey of the Hellenistic remains of the Acropolis of the city of

Pergamon, the capital of the Attalid Kingdom









a. Upper Acropolis

1) city walls enlarged in time of different kings

2) from North to South the Hell. buildings










a) arsenal buildings (five of them)

- close spaced foundation walls: indication of heavy weight

stored above

- hundreds of different calibre shots were found (now stored in the

lower agora)

- no remains of the wooden catapults

b) water supply system

- water brought by pipes from Mount Madara to the North, passing

from the higher ridges of mountains (pipes still remain in certain

parts)


- cisterns: both private and public

c) palaces: five of them (I-V)

- the Roman Trajaneum has taken up most of the space of the palace

gardens to the west

- plan is usually peristyle (courtyard, gallery of columns around

and rooms behind)

- beautiful floor mosaics: that of P.V are in very good condition

-signed Hephaistos

-motif: var. basic geometric motifs, naturalistic patterns as well

(garlands), realistic depictions

d) Athena Sanctuary

- an Ionic temple dedicated to Athena

- temenos area beautifully enclosed on three sides w. stoas

- the stoa in the north has two rows of columns and there is access

to the library from the second floor of this stoa

- second floor parapets of the stoa have beautiful reliefs

depicting symbols of Athena

- behind SE corner of the sanctuary there is an entrance to the

upper acropolis from the city wall








e) Heroon: monument dedicated to the heroes

- east end is the actual part for the heroes

- there is a place reserved for feasts in front of the part dedicated to

the heroes









f) Altar of Zeus: built in commemoration of the final victory of the

Pergamenes over the Gauls (190 BC)

- now in Pergamon Museum in Berlin

- temenos enclosed by stoas all around

- entrance fr. behind the altar (east)

- visitors have to go round S or N to come to the front of the altar

- reliefs on the altar frieze

- East side: Athena and Zeus group (Gigantomachi/battle w. the

giants, symbolic of the battle w. Gauls)

- South side: Helios group (assoc. w. day and light)

- North side: figures assoc. w. darkness and the underworld

- West side: figures assoc. w. night and darkness












g) theatre

- seating about 10.000 spectators

- stage building: not permenant, set up when there is

a performance

- cavea divided into three parts by diazomas (walks)

- building for the changing of actors south of orchestra

- Temple of Dionysos at the end of the promenade








b. Lower Acropolis

1) residential area between the upper acropolis and the major buildings

of the lower acropolis

2) important features

a) Heraion

- temple dedicated to Hera

- exedra on the west side of it

- stoa on the other side (west)

b) gymnasion

- upper: much changed in the Roman Period reserved for the

young men

- middle: remains mostly Hellenistic, reserved for the youth

- lower: Hellenistic, reserved for boys

c) Demeter Sanctuary

- for special rituals assoc. w. women

- was originally outside the city walls

- seats for the elderly on the east half of the north side

- stoa all around the sacred area

- altars in front of the temple




HELLENISTIC ART


I.

City planning




A.

Hippodamian plan: influenced by former developed cities of Anatolia







1. finally developed by Hippodamos of Miletos







2. regular plan

a. square or rectangular insulae

b. streets cutting each other at 90o

c. two main streets cutting each other at a certain point






B.

Priene: a model Hellenistic city

1. acropolis

2. upper city

a. bouleuterion: city council building

1) square shaped amphitheatre (three sides)

2) small enough to be closed by a roof without having a forrest of

columns

b. theatre



1) round amphitheatre/cavea

2) one diazoma (walk) at the top of the cavea

3) orchestra: semicircle

4) stage building

a) skene

b) proskene: front of the skene

5) two entrances on either side of the cavea

c. agora


1) rectangular square: stelae of decrees

2) stoas on three sides, street on the north and another stoa

3) shops behind the stoas

d. Temple of Zeus: adjacent to the agora on the narrow east side

1) temenos (sacred area) closed by regular stoas

2) plan of the temple: small prostyle (prostylos)

e. Temple of Athena Polias (temple dedicated to the patron goddess

of the city)

1) peripteros (one row of columns around)

2) high terrace (temenos area)

3) altar (rectangular, to the front of the temple)

4) propylon (monumental entrance to the temenos area)

f. houses

1) basic plan: peristyle w. andron (rooms reserved for men in the

front part of the house)

2) the other Greek house plan: house w. a pastas (forecourt)

g. streets

1) paved w. regular worked stone

2) drainage canals in the middle of the street

3) street leading to the lower city paved with cobbles












h. gymnasion: school and exercise grounds

1) square palaestra: the open square area for exercise

2) classrooms (graffiti on the walls made by the students)

i. city walls: built w. regular worked square stones (ashlar masonry)






C.

Hellenistic temple architecture







1. mostly of Ionic order in Anatolia

a. capital

1) volutes /

2) listel /

3) bolster /// abacus on top

4) anthemion /

5) necking /

b. shaft: the actual column made with drums and fluted

c. base

1) upper torus /



2) Scotia /

3) lower torus /// there are variations

4) plinth /

5) stylobate (the actual terrace ground on which the temple stands)









2. basic plans

a. templum in antis

b. peripteros (one row of columns)

c. dipteros (two rows of columns)

d. pseudo-dipteros (second row of columns half columns on the wall

of the cella)

e. polipteros (more than two rows)








3. façade above the columns in the front and the back

a. architrave

b. frieze

1) trighlyph

2) metope

c. cornice

d. pediment: triangular in shape and there are statues placed in it








4. decorative elements

a. motifs

1) palmettes

2) acanthus leaves

3) meander

4) guilloche

5) chimation

6) egg and dart

7) bead

8) floral (vine and ivy esp. loved)



b. reliefs: on the metopes and cella frieze

c. sculpture: in the pediments, actual image of the deity inside the cella

opposite the front entrance









5. three important Hellenistic temples

a. Didymaion: Temple of Apollo in Didyma

1) cella never meant to be closed

a) below the naos and pronaos: stairs

b) templum in antis opp. the naos in cella (a separate building)

2) Ionic order and the bases mostly beautifully decorated

b. Artemision in Ephesus: Ionic order

1) was one of the seven wonders of the world

2) now only one column remaining

3) 36 columns in the pronaos w. relief decorations at the bottom

a) one in the British Museum (showing Hermes)

b) the decorated columns of the original archaic temple were

presents of Croesus, the last king of Lydia

4) the original Artemis of Ephesus cult statue is lost, but there are

Roman copies

a) in shape she is Cybele, the Mother Goddess of Lydians and

Phrygians

b) in name she is Artemis

c. Artemision of Sardis: three different phases

1) the last phase in relatively good shape

2) Ionic order

6. Hellenistic walls

a. sometimes built with irregularly worked stones

b. usually of regularly worked stones/ashlar masonry



II.

Hellenistic Art




A.

Sculpture







1. relief: mostly high/altar of Zeus in Pergamon the best example

2. round


a. Pathetic School of Sculpture in Pergamon

1) far away nostalgic look

2) slightly opened mouth

3) contorted muscles

4) sad faces (sad subjects)

b. material used: mostly bronze, also stone (marble) (Roman copies

are marble)








c. some examples

1) Alexander head from Pergamon

2) Alexander statue by Menas found in Magnesia

3) nymph (sea fairy) from Tralles (Aydın)

4) running athelete (bronze) from the sea near Nicomedia

5) satyr (bronze): goat’s legs have disappeared in Hellenistic Period









d. terra cotta figurines

1) decorate the houses of the aristocrats and the rich

2) painted

3) variety of subjects: ordinary people, deities, etc.











4) Myrina figurines are quite famous

5) one important example: Aphrodite found in Dardanos, Çanakkale

a) shown naked

b) preparing for her bath

c) she is still wearing her jewellery (painted with gold)





B.

Hellenistic sarcophagi: a good variety found at the royal necropolis of the

Kingdom of Sidon









1. Alexander sarcophagus: depicting hunting scenes and battle scenes

of Alexander









a. Alexander himself is shown as the first figure on one of the long sides,

central fig. his friend Hephaistion, who died in the battle of Gaugamela

(331 BC) in Persia

b. original paint still remaining on

1) blue

2) yellow



3) red

c. the lid made as temple roof w. all the acrotheria and the lions’ heads









2. the sarcophagus of the mourning women

a. the sarcophagus representing an Ionic temple

b. women shown in between the columns

c. each woman has a different position and different way of showing

her grief

3. Lycian tomb

a. shape typical Lycian, only lacking the fake wooden beams

b. on narrow sides: centaurs fighting (Kentauromachi)

c. on long sides: hunting





C.

Hellenistic wall paintings and mosaics







1. not much original wall painting remaining: 4th cent. paintings in the

looted tomb and Philip II’s tomb in Aegae, give us an idea, also

Roman copies

2. mosaics

a. floor mosaics of the palaces of Pergamon: best examples

b. there are some examples from the Kingdom of Kommagene as well

c. we get an idea from Roman mosaics much influenced by Hellenistic

mosaics





D.

Pottery







1. tradition of relief decorated and painted pottery from 4th cent.

2. real glazed pottery in Late Hellenistic Period

3. Pergamene pottery: beginnings of terra sigillata

4. black glazed (firnis) w. white painted ivy leaves, usually fluted






E.

jewellery: some actually found in tombs, etc. w. distinct style, seen also

on figurines, etc.





GENERAL INTRODUCTION

TO THE WORLD OF ROME


I.

Foundation legend




A.

Aeneas: a Trojan







1. son of Anchises

2. flees from Troy after it falls to Achaeans, about 1250 BC

3. wanders about until he reaches Italy

a. marries Lavinia, princess of Latium

b. Askanius/Julius: Aeneas’ son from earlier marriage (Julius – line of

Julians – also Julias Ceaser, 100-44 BC)

1) becomes king after his father

2) from the same line Numitor is dethroned by his brother Amulius

3) Numitor’s daughter Rhea Sylvia has twins by the god Mars in the

Vesta Temple, where she was put by his uncle

a) Romulus /a she wolf takes care of them,

b) Remus / they are finally saved by the shepherd Faustulus and

his wife Laurentia near Palatina





B.

Rome founded

1. April 21st, 753 BC

2. by Romulus

3. on Palatine Hill/”Roma quadrata” the core of the eternal city Rome

4. special protectors of the city: the DIOSCURI (gemini: twins) w. pointed

caps


a. Castor : mortal / statues on the

b. Pollux : immortal / Capitoline Hill, Rome



II.

Rome becomes an Empire




A.

Augustus Period: Sept. 2nd, 31 BC, the Sea Battle of Actium




B.

Trajan Period: largest frontiers, 98 – 117 AD

III.

What is characteristically Roman in Art




A.

regular city planning: Roman garrison city







1. decumanus maximus: main street in East-West direction







2. cardo: main street in North-South direction




B.

Architecture







1. features

a. the wall

1) stone: opus quadratum /eg. Augustus Temple, Ancyra (Ankara)

2) brick: fired bricks and mortar/Roman novelty

a) opus latericum: eg. Serapeion, Pergamon

b) usually covered with marble plaques, often alternating colours

3) brick a. stone: opus listatum or mixtum, eg. East Gymnasion, Ephesos








b. the arch

1) used as gates, eg. Hierapolis, Denizli

2) used as triumphal arches

a) eg. Arch of Titus: South of Forum Romanum, Rome

- commemorating victory over Jews

- 70 AD


b) eg. Arch of Constantine: near the Colosseum, Rome










c. the vault and its variations

1) barrel vault: eg. Supporting Temple of Zeus, Aizanoi

(Çavdarhisar, Kütahya) Hadrian Period: 117-138 AD

2) groined vault: buttressing each other eg. Trajan Market Halls, Rome









d. the dome: eg. Pantheon, Rome temple to all gods of

Rome, Hadrian Period, 117 – 138 AD

e. Corinthian order: in Anatolia used together w. the Ionic order

f. triumphal column: eg. Trajan’s Column, Rome









2. forms

a. Forum (plural Fora)

1) monumental town centres for political and official gatherings

2) in Anatolia they are called “State Agora”

3) egs. Forum Romanum, Forum Trajanum, etc. in Rome

b. temples: edifices which could be entered by the public (differing from

the Greek temple)

1) recantangular: eg. Temple of Saturn, Forum Romanum

2) round: eg. Vesta Temple, Rome

c. waterworks and forms associated w. them

1) bath (thermae)

a) making use of the most of the novel architectural features

b) hypocaust: important novelty/heating through air channels in

the basement

2) fountains: elaborate fountain houses,

egs. Nympheum in Corinth and Nimes

3) aqueduct: arches used to bring water to cities



eg. Pont du Gard, Nimes, France

4) bridge: some Roman bridges are still in use



eg. Cendere, Kâhta, Adıyaman

d. theatres

1) regular theatres

a) built on arches and vaults if necessary

b) skaene frons: tall façade of the stage

- cutting the theatre from the outside world

- screening the noises from the street

2) amphitheatres: esp. for gladiatorial games and games w. wild

animals (typical Roman)

a) built on arches and vaults

b) most important example Colosseum/Amphitheatrum Flavium,

Flavian Dynasty Period, 80 AD

e. Roman house

1) basic types

a) Roman villa: mansion in the country

b) House w. an Atrium: courtyard around which the busts of the

ancestors of the family are displayed

2) decorative elements

a) strictly architectural pieces used also as decoration

(column capitals, etc.)










b) strictly decorative elements

- mosaics/floor and wall/tessera (square piece), plural: tesserae

- opus settile/piece work/geometrical shaped marble pieces

- wall paintings: esp. in Pompeii and Herculaneum,

also Ephesos, Turkey

- sculpture/statues, busts, statuettes and figurines

f. basilica: rectangular roofed hall

1) meeting place

a) social

b) commercial









g. tombs







1) monumental round tombs

a) eg. Tomb of Augustus, Rome

b) eg. Tomb of Hadrian, Castel Sant’Angelo, Rome

2) house shaped tombs, eg. Hierapolis, Denizli

3) sarcophagi


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