Chapters 10 to 13 Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State, 1789-1800 LT 10A: Describe the characteristics of the US population and major problems it faced in the 1790s. What were the largest US cities in 1790?
Where did 90 percent of Americans live in the 1790s?
What serious problems did the new US government face in the 1790s?
Why did many European leaders hope that the US government would fail?
LT 10B: Describe the actions taken by President Washington and Congress to begin the first federal government in
1789. Why was General George Washington such a popular choice for president?
To what political party did Washington belong when he ran for president?
Why did only six percent of the people vote for the electors who chose the president in 1789?
Where did the inauguration take place?
Where was the US capital in the 1790s?
Why did Washington set a precedent of formality and dignity for his social interactions with the public?
What position did Thomas Jefferson hold in the new government?
What position did Alexander Hamilton hold in the new government?
What position did Henry Knox hold in the new government?
What position did Edmond Randolph hold in the new government?
Why did Washington meet with the executive department heads in what eventually became known as the Cabinet?
What was the significance of the first Congress that met in 1789?
Why did several states want a Bill of Rights added to the US Constitution?
What were two reasons why Madison and others argued against adding the Bill of Rights to the Constitution?
How many amendments passed by Congress in 1789 were approved by the states as the Bill of Rights by 1791?
What rights were included in the 2nd Amendment?
What rights were included in the 5th Amendment?
LT 10C: Describe the major financial issues of Washington’s first term, including Alexander Hamilton’s financial
plan, funding at par, assumption, the Residence Act, taxation policies, the Whiskey Rebellion, and the Bank of the US. What was the purpose of the Department of the Treasury, organized by Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton?
Why did Secretary Hamilton propose a plan for economic development that would favor the wealthy?
What were the four key parts of Hamilton’s economic program that passed in 1790 and 1791?
Why did the federal government have a $54 million national debt?
To whom was the national debt owed?
Why had some original bond owners sold them to speculators for very low prices?
Why did James Madison argue that the bonds should be paid off at full value only to the original owners and at a
What was the significance of the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794?
What was the significance of the Treaty of Greenville in 1795?
What trade restrictions did the British place on the US in the 1780s and early 1790s?
Why did the British ignore America’s rights as a neutral nation and seize US ships sailing to French territories?
What is meant by impressment?
Why did the British impress American sailors into the British Navy?
What view did some DR Congressmen take because of violations of neutral rights and impressment?
Why did Washington send Chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794?
Why did Jay win few concessions in his bargaining with the British over the issues?
What were the five main provisions of the Jay Treaty of 1795?
Why were Jefferson and other Democratic Republicans outraged with the Jay Treaty?
Why did Washington support the Jay Treaty and recommend that the Senate ratify it?
What were the three main provisions of the Pinckney Treaty of 1795?
What is meant by a port of deposit?
Why did Washington warn against permanent alliances with foreign countries in his Farewell Address?
LT 10G Describe the significance of the Election of 1796 and the difficulties facing John Adams as president. What was the significance of Washington’s decision not to run for a third term as president?
What two ideas did Washington warn against in his Farewell Address?
Who were the candidates and what were their political parties in the first two-party election in 1796?
What problem resulted from the method used to select the vice-president in 1796?
What difficulties did Adams face as president because of his personality?
Why did Hamilton try to get Adams defeated in the election of 1796?
What was the significance of the High (or Ultra) Federalists?
Why did Adams’ decision to keep Washington’s Cabinet as his own lead to problems?
LT 10H: Describe the causes and results of the undeclared war with France. Why was France angry that the US had signed the Jay Treaty with Britain?
In what ways did the French retaliate for the Jay Treaty?
Why did the French seize over 300 US merchant ships in 1796 and 1797?
Explain the XYZ Affair that caused outrage among many Americans in 1798.
Explain the significance of the saying “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.”
What war preparations did the High Federalists urge Adams to take?
Why did Adams resist demands for raising an army and instead propose the creation of a navy?
What war preparations did Congress authorize in 1798?
Describe the undeclared (“quasi”) naval war with France from 1798 to 1800.
What was the purpose of the House Tax passed by Congress in 1798?
Why did John Fries and others in eastern Pennsylvania strongly oppose the property tax and refuse to pay it?
What impact did the Fries Uprising have on the tax collections?
Why did Adams send in federal troops to capture the rebels?
What was the outcome of the trial for John Fries?
LT 10I: Describe the purpose, provisions, and impact of the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. What was the stated purpose of the Alien and Sedition Acts passed by Congress in 1798?
What were two main provisions of the Alien Act?
Why did the Alien Acts especially anger the Democratic Republicans?
In what way did the Sedition Act limit freedom of speech and press?
How was the Sedition Act used to stop criticism of Federalist policies toward France in the press?
Why didn’t the US Supreme Court rule that the Sedition Act violated the US Constitution?
How did the “expiration” date of the Sedition Act show the law was intended to limit DR criticism of the Federalists?
Why did many Federalists support the Alien and Sedition Acts?
LT 10J: Describe the purpose, provisions, and impact of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. What was the purpose of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions written in 1798 and 1799?
Why did Jefferson and Madison ask Virginia and Kentucky to urge the repeal of the Alien and Sedition Acts?
Why did Jefferson and Madison write the resolutions anonymously?
Explain the compact theory that was included in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions.
What did the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions urge states to do to end the Alien and Sedition Acts?
Explain the concept of nullification that was included in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
Why did the Federalists criticize the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?
What impact did the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions have on other states?
What was the main significance of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?
LT 10K: Explain President Adams’ decision to seek peace and explain the terms of the Convention of 1800.
159. Why did both the US and France seek an end to the “quasi-war” they had been fighting for two years?
160. Why did Adams decide to send a new ambassador to France, despite criticism by the High Federalists?
How did Adams convince the High Federalists to support his decision to send a minister to France?
What were the main provisions of the Convention of 1800 which ended the naval warfare with France?
Chapter 11: The Triumphs and Travails of Jeffersonian Democracy
and the Second War for Independence, 1800-1815 LT 11A: Describe the issues and results of the Election of 1800 and why it is referred to as the “Revolution of 1800”. Who were the twoFederalists candidates for president in the Election of 1800?
What social classes generally supported the Federalists?
In which section of the country did the Federalists receive the most support?
What were the main ideas that were supported by the Federalist leaders?
What were the main accomplishments of the Federalists in the 1790s?
What were the three main problems for the Federalist Party in the late 1790s?
Who were the twoDemocratic Republican candidates for president in the Election of 1800?
What social classes generally supported the Federalists?
In which section of the country did the Democratic Republicans receive the most support?
What were the main ideas that were supported by the Democratic Republicans leaders?
In what ways was “mudslinging” used by both parties in the campaign during the Election of 1800?
What was the main criticism of Adams by his opponents?
Why did some critics accuse Jefferson of being a hypocrite when it came to the issue of liberty and slavery?
Why did critics accuse Jefferson of being a “howling atheist”?
Why did the House of Representatives have to choose the president in the Election of 1800?
Why did some Federalist members of the House favor Burr?
Why did some Federalist members of the House favor Jefferson?
What was the final result of the 36th ballot in the House?
What was the significance of the 12thAmendment which was ratified in 1804?
Why was the Election of 1800 a remarkable occurrence for the 1800s?
How did the election contribute to the continuation of the two-party system in American politics?
Why did Jefferson later refer to the election of 1800 as the “Revolution of 1800”?
LT 11B: Explain the controversy concerning Adams’ judicial appointments at the end of his term. What was the significance of Adams’ appointment of Federalist John Marshall as Chief Justice in 1801?
Who did Adams appoint to the new judgeships created by the Judiciary Act of 1801?
Who were the “midnight judges”?
Why were the Democratic Republican leaders angry with Adams’ last-minute appointments?
LT 11C: Describe the policy of “conciliation” of President Jefferson, as well as the new Democratic-Republican
policies he implemented. How did Jefferson demonstrate his informal style of leadership?
In what ways did Jefferson follow a policy of “conciliation” to unite the country?
What did Jefferson mean when he said “we are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”?
What is meant by a laissez faire philosophy of government that was supported by Jefferson?
In what four ways did Jefferson attempt to reduce the influence of the national government in people’s lives?
How did Jefferson demonstrate his faith in local militias and distrust of permanent peacetime armies and navies?
What actions did Jefferson take against the Alien and Seditions Acts?
What role did James Madison play in Jefferson’s cabinet?
What role did Albert Gallatin play in Jefferson’s cabinet?
What happened to the national debt during the Jefferson administration?
LT 11D: Describe the causes and impact of the Supreme Court decision of Marbury v. Madison in 1803. Why did Jefferson tell Secretary of State Madison not to deliver the appointment letters to the new “midnight judges”
appointed by Adams at the end of his term?
Why did William Marbury sue Madison?
What was the decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Marbury v. Madison?
What was the significance of the Marbury v. Madison decision?
Explain the concept of judicial review established by the Marbury decision.
How did the Marbury decision impact the power of the Supreme Court?
Why were the Democratic Republicans upset with the Marbury decision?
LT 11E: Describe the causes and results of the impeachment of Samuel Chase and other Federalist judges in the
early 1800s. What is meant by impeachment as it relates to elected federal officials?
Why did Jefferson and some of the DR Congressmen attempt to impeach and remove several judges from office?
Why did the House impeach, convict, and remove Judge John Pickering from office?
Why did Congress impeach Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase?
Why did the Senate refuse to convict Justice Chase in their trial?
What was the significance of the Senate’s refusal to remove Samuel Chase from office?
LT 11F: Describe the causes and results of the conflict with the Barbary nations during Jefferson’s terms in office. What are the Barbary Coast states?
Why were they able to demand annual payments from Americans in the 1790s?
How did Tripoli react in 1801 when Jefferson refused their demand for increased “protection money”?
What role did Stephen Decatur play in the US war with Tripoli?
How was the US able to finally defeat Tripoli in 1805?
When were the disagreements with the other Barbary States settled?
Why did the US gain respect as a nation as a result of the conflict?
What were the benefits of Jefferson’s decision to use of the “mosquito fleet” during the conflict?
What were the negative aspects of this decision?
LT 11G: Describe causes and results of the Louisiana Purchase. How did French leader Napoleon secretly obtain the area of Louisiana in 1800?
Why was Jefferson worried about the French control of Louisiana?
Why did Jefferson send Ambassador Livingston to France to try to purchase West Florida?
Why did Napoleon at first refuse to sell West Florida to the US, i.e. what plans did he have for Louisiana?
Who was Toussaint Louverture?
Why did Napoleon send a 20,000 man army to Haiti in 1802?
What did Jefferson mean when he said the US should “marry ourselves to the British”?
How did the Spaniards violate the Pinckney Treaty in 1802?
Why were western farmers so upset about the violations of the Pinckney Treaty?
Why did Jefferson send James Monroe to Paris to join Ambassador Livingston in early 1803?
In what two ways did Jefferson violate his Democratic Republican principles in his attempts to obtain New Orleans?
What were two reasons why the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand offered to sell New Orleans and Louisiana?
What were the terms of the Louisiana Purchase Agreement signed by Livingston and Monroe in late April of 1803?
How did the purchase of the Louisiana Territory violate Jefferson’s belief in a strict interpretation of the Constitution?
Why didn’t Jefferson attempt to change the Constitution to authorize the purchase of Louisiana?
Why did Jefferson urge the Senate to ratify the treaties that purchased Louisiana?
Why did many Federalists in the Senate oppose the purchase of the Louisiana Territory?
Chapter 12: The Upsurge of Nationalism, 1815-1824 LT 12A: Describe the characteristics of US population growth in the early 1800s. What was the most significant reason why the US was the fastest growing countries in the world?
What is meant by the statement, “the US had a median age of 17 in 1820?
What was the significance of the Wilderness Road, built in 1775?
What was the significance of the Cumberland Road, begun in 1811?
Why did a large number of Americans move west of the Appalachian Mountains during the early 1800s?
LT 12B: Describe and explain the causes of the Era of Good Feelings and the growth of nationalism that followed
the War of 1812. What is meant by the “Virginia Dynasty”?
What is meant by the Era of Good Feelings?
What is meant by nationalism?
What were three reasons for increasing US nationalism in the early 1800s?
Who were the nationalistic leaders in the Democratic Republican Party?
Who were the nationalistic leaders in the Federalist Party?
What was the significance of the authors Washington Irving and James Fennimore Cooper?
What was the significance of the North American Review?
How did American textbooks and artists reflect the new national culture?
How did the US armed forces gain increased national respect?
Why did most boys attend private seminaries or academies in the early 1800s?
What was meant by republican virtues, promoted by schools in the early 1800s?
Why did some schools begin to add “female departments” by the early 1800s?
In what twoways did Noah Webster promote America's "national character"?
LT 12C: Describe the purpose and provisions of the American System proposed by Henry Clay and how it was
implemented during Monroe’s presidency. What was the purpose of the American System supported by Henry Clay and others?
What were the three main provisions of the American System?
What parts of the American System were passed into law?
Why did the federal government generally refuse to support funding for internal improvements?
Why did Clay propose raising tariffs at the end of the War of 1812?
Why did Congressmen from the Mid-Atlantic and Western States generally favor higher tariffs?
What was the significance of the Tariff of 1816?
What were four major problems with statebanks of the early 1800s?
How did Clay convince Congress to support the creation of the Second US Bank in 1816?
LT 12D: Explain how Supreme Court decisions during the term of Chief Justice John Marshall strengthened the
powers of the federal government and promoted the spirit of nationalism. How did Chief Justice Marshall increase the power and prestige of the Supreme Court in the early 1800s?
How did the Marbury v. Madisondecision in 1803 increase the powers of the Supreme Court?
How did the decision of the Supreme Court in Fletcher v. Peck in 1810 increase the power of the Supreme Court?
Why was the Dartmouth College v. WoodwardSupreme Court decision in 1819 significant to the economy?
How did the decision Maryland v. McCullough(1819) support a “loose interpretation” of the Constitution?
Why did Supreme Court argue that the “power to tax was the power to destroy” in the McCullough decision?
How did the Cohens v. Virginia Supreme Court decision in 1821 increase the power of the Supreme Court?
In what ways did the Gibbons v. Ogdendecision in 1824 strengthen the economy and the national government?
LT 12E: Explain how each of the following foreign policies promoted nationalism: Rush-Bagot Agreement,
Conventions of 1800, Adams-Onis Treaty, Monroe Doctrine, and Russo-American Treaties. What was the major provision of the Rush-Bagot Agreement with the British in 1817?
What were three major provisions of the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 with the British?
How did the US acquire the area of West Florida?
Why was Spain unable to prevent the raids from East Florida into American settlements to the north?
Why did President Monroe send General Andrew Jackson to Florida in 1817?
What was the result of the First Seminole War?
In what ways did Jackson violate his order to respect Spanish rights in Florida during the Seminole War?
How was Secretary of State JQ Adams able to convince Congress not to punish Jackson for his actions?
What were the main terms of the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819?
Why did the US want the countries of Latin American to remain independent?
Why was the US worried about Russian expansion along the Pacific coast?
Why were some people critical of the Monroe Doctrine?
What was the main provision of the Russo-American Treaties of 1824 of 1825?
LT 12F: Explain how disagreements over internal improvements, the Panic of 1819, and sectionalism in the West
limited the growth of nationalism. Why did the West and the South generally support federal funding of improved transportation?
Why did New England generally oppose federal funding of improved transportation?
Explain the provision of John Calhoun’s Bonus Bill in 1817?
Why did President Madison veto the Bonus Bill and other similar bills?
How were most of the transportation projects paid for in the early 1800s?
What is meant by the Panic of 1819?
Why did the Bank of the US demand that state banks begin to pay back money they owed to the Bank of US?
Why did this cause the state banks to begin to limit the amount of loans they made?
Why did western land prices fall?
Why did many state banks fail?
What caused prices for farm goods and textiles to fall?
What impact did falling land prices and failed banks have on the economy?
How did the Panic of 1819 impact the Bank of the US and laws against imprisonment for debt?
What was the main provision of the Land Act of 1820?
Why were the basic economic interests that dominated the concerns of Congressmen from the West?
LT12G: Describe the conflict over slavery that arose in 1819 and explain how the Missouri Compromise temporarily
resolved the issue. What decision did Congress have to make concerning slavery in the new territories?
Why did the North have the most votes in the House of Representatives in the early 1800s?
What is meant by sectional balance?
Why was it important to both the North and the South to maintain an even number of states?
Why did the admission of Missouri as a slave state in 1818 cause such opposition among the northern states?
Why were southern states so concerned about Missouri being refused admission as a slave state?
Explain the Tallmadge Bill passed by the House in 1819 concerning the admission of Missouri to the Union.
Why did the southern states oppose the Tallmadge Bill?
Why was the Tallmadge Bill defeated in the Senate?
What were three basic proposals of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 developed by Henry Clay?
Why did Jefferson write that the Missouri issue was like “firebell in the night that filled him with terror?
Chapter 13: The Rise of Jacksonian Democracy, 1824 to 1840 LT 13A: Explain the issues and results, including the Corrupt Bargain, of the Election of 1824. What disagreements caused the end of the “Era of Good Feelings in the mid-1820s?
Who were the four candidates for president from the Democratic Republican Party in the Election of 1824?
Who won the popular vote in the Election of 1824?
Why did the House of Representatives have to choose the president?
What role did the Speaker of the House Henry Clay play in getting John Quincy Adams elected by the House?
To what Cabinet position did Adams appoint Clay?
Why did some people protest this election as the “corrupt bargain”?
LT 13B: Describe factors that made the JQ Adams administration unpopular with his party and Congress.
Why did many people feel that JQ Adams was not well-suited to the presidency?
Why is Adams considered the first minority president?
How did Adams’ appointments as president hurt his popularity within his own party?
What nationalistic programs did Adams urge that would increase the role of the federal government?
What were three reasons why Adams nationalistic proposals were not well-received by the public?
LT 13C: Explain the political conflict that resulted from the Tariff of Abominations and the provisions and impact of the South Carolina Exposition and Protest against it. What was the significance of the Tariff of 1828?
Why did northern manufacturers favor the tariff?
What were four reasons why most southerners strongly opposed this “tariff of abominations”?
What criticism was outlined by John Calhoun in the essay called The South Carolina Exposition and Protest?
What two concepts were used by John Calhoun to argue against the high tariffs?
What was the basic purpose of the South Carolina Exposition and Protest?
What impact did the essay have?
LT 13D: Describe the issues and results of the Election of 1828, including why it is called the “Revolution of 1828”. What were the basic programs supported by JQ Adams and the National Republican Party in the Election of 1828?