The Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (“the Department”) respectfully submits this Report to the Legislature: Charter School Enrollment Data Annual Report for 2015 pursuant to the requirement under G.L. c. 71, § 89(kk) that states:
The commissioner shall collect data on the racial, ethnic and socio-economic make-up of the student enrollment of each charter school in the commonwealth. The commissioner shall also collect data on the number of students enrolled in each charter school who have individual education plans pursuant to chapter 71B and those requiring English language learners programs under chapter 71A. The commissioner shall file said data annually with the clerks of the house and senate and the joint committee on education not later than December 1.
The most recent available data on charter school enrollment data is provided in Appendix A. This is compiled from the Department’s Student Information Management System (SIMS) information collection as of October 1, 2015 for the 2015-2016 school year. Please note that updated data for each charter school, including complete statistics about student enrollment, can always be found on the Department’s District and School Profiles website, http://profiles.doe.mass.edu/.
The Department fields numerous questions about charter schools, many of which focus on the demographic comparability of students enrolled at charter schools when compared to their sending districts. This is a key factor when considering the relative academic performance of the Massachusetts charter school sector, which multiple research studies have consistently demonstrated is very strong. In particular, studies conducted by researchers at Harvard, MIT, and Stanford1 employing both randomized control trial and quasi-experimental research designs suggest that urban charter schools in Massachusetts—particularly those in Boston—boost student achievement markedly. In Boston charter schools, research has shown students with low prior achievement scores are those for whom achievement gains are likely to be the largest,2 and that students with the most severe needs—special education students who spent the majority of their time in substantially separate classrooms and English language learners (ELLs) with beginning English proficiency at the time of the lottery—perform significantly better in charters than in traditional public schools.3 Following a general overview, including the legislative cap history, the remainder of the report provides analyses of five key areas: enrollment requirements, demographic comparability in enrollment, attrition, backfilling, and waitlists.
As part of the Education Reform Act of 1993, the Legislature authorized the creation of charter schools by enacting the Massachusetts charter schools statute, G.L. c. 71, § 89. Charter schools are public schools created by Massachusetts law, approved and reviewed by the Board and the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, and granted a higher degree of autonomy and independence than other public schools. The purposes of establishing charter schools include stimulating the development of innovative programs within public education; providing parents and students with greater options in selecting schools within and outside their school districts; encouraging performance-based educational programs; and providing models for replication in other public schools.5
All charter schools operate under five-year charters granted to an independent board of trustees by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (“the Board”). Charter schools may be proposed by teachers, school leaders, parents, or non-profit entities. To renew a charter for an additional five years, a school must affirmatively demonstrate faithfulness to its charter, academic program success, and organizational viability. The Board may place charter schools on probation; impose conditions on their operation; or suspend or revoke charters for violations of law or failure to make progress in student achievement, to comply with their charters, or to remain viable.
There are two types of charter schools: Horace Mann charter schools and Commonwealth charter schools. Each type is managed by a board of trustees and functions independently of the local school committee for the district in which the school is geographically located. Employees of either type of school may organize for collective bargaining. Charter applications for Horace Mann schools must be approved by local school committees and, in some cases, by local collective bargaining units. There are three types of Horace Mann charter schools:
A Horace Mann I is a new school that must be approved by the local school committee and the local collective bargaining unit.
A Horace Mann II is a conversion of an existing public school and must be approved by the local school committee and a majority of the school faculty, but not the local collective bargaining unit.
A Horace Mann III is a new school that must be approved by the local school committee but not the local collective bargaining unit.
Commonwealth charter schools are not subject to existing local collective bargaining agreements. Horace Mann charter schools are not subject to existing local collective bargaining agreements except to the extent specified in their charters and to the extent that all employees continue as collective bargaining unit members and maintain seniority, salary, and benefits.
Since the enactment of the charter school statute in 1993, the Legislature has expanded the availability of charter schools several times by amending the numerical and net school funding caps set forth in G.L. c. 71, § 89(i):
In 1993, the statute, as initially enacted, authorized the creation of 25 Commonwealth charter schools.6
In 1997, Commonwealth charter schools and Horace Mann charter schools were defined as separate types and the numerical cap was raised to 50 (37 Commonwealth and 13 Horace Mann). Also, a 6% limit on district funding allocable to Commonwealth charter school tuition was enacted.7
In 2000, the numerical cap was raised to its current level of 120 (72 Commonwealth and 48 Horace Mann) and the limit on district funding allocable Commonwealth charter school tuition was increased to 9%.8
In 2010, the most recent legislative amendment to the charter school statute was passed as part of An Act Relative to the Achievement Gap, which established the current numerical and funding cap provisions for charter schools, described in more detail below.
Generally, under the current law, no more than 120 charter schools may be in operation in the Commonwealth at a given time. Of these, up to 48 may be Horace Mann I or III charter schools and up to 72 may be Commonwealth charter schools. The number of Horace Mann III charter schools is limited to 14. However, there is no limit on the number of public schools that may be converted to Horace Mann II charter schools. Additionally, Commonwealth charters do not count toward the numerical cap of 72 if they are awarded to “proven providers” to establish schools in districts in the lowest 10% of student performance where enrollment would cause tuition payments to exceed 9% of the district’s net school spending. In addition to the numerical cap, the statute limits funding that may be allocated from school districts to Commonwealth charter schools. In general, no more than 9% of a district’s net school spending may be directed towards Commonwealth charter schools in the form of tuition payments but, in districts with student performance in the lowest 10%, that limit has been increased over recent years such that it will reach 18% in FY 2017. This funding cap does not apply to Horace Mann charter schools.
In 2015-2016, there are a total of 81 operating charter schools, including 71 Commonwealth charter schools (56 of which count toward the numeric cap of 72), 4 Horace Mann I charter schools, and 6 Horace Mann III charter schools.9 An additional Horace Mann III charter school has been approved by the Board, but is not yet operating. See Appendix B: Massachusetts Charter School Fact Sheet and Directory10 for additional details. Currently, due to tuition funding caps, the Department is not considering Commonwealth charter applications or expansion requests for Lawrence, Malden, and Somerville, with a limited number of seats remaining in Boston.11 See Appendix C for projections of Commonwealth charter school tuition funding caps for each district.