I. Details of proposed price, technology transfer and indigenous production



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i. Details of proposed price, technology transfer and indigenous production

a. France - Dassault Aviationn SA’s (AM.FR)

b. US – Boeing Co. (BA) F-18

c. Sweden – Saab Gripen NG

ii. Saab’s economic situation

iii. Gripen sales and tenders

a. Gripen NG tenders

b. Gripens in service




Brazil’s Embraer is looking to purchase 36 fighter planes under the country’s proposed FX-2 program.
i. Three Potential Deals:
a. France - Dassault Aviationn SA’s (AM.FR)


  • Deal for 36 Rafale fighters

  • est. pricing ranges from $82 to $130 million price per unit (not including weapons and support)

  • Sept. 10 – a Brazilian official speaking to AFP on condition of anonymity said Sarkozy wrote to da Silva promising "unrestricted access to technology" in the Dassault offer – this statement prompted issuing of similar statements by both US and Saab representatives

  • Sept. 29 - According to statement by Embraer’s VP, Rafales deal woud be for “flight-ready planes” (limiting local industry participation)



Rafale Fighter Deal:

  • Sept. 8 - France has struck a landmark outline accord to sell 36 Rafale fighters for between four and seven billion dollars to Brazil, potentially the first foreign customer for the expensive jet, officials said.




  • A Dassault spokesman said the company hopes to finalize the sale in 2010




  • Throughout its tender process, Brazil has emphasized that full technology-sharing took priority over cost.


French-Brazil Strategic Relationship:

  • Lula said that his country wanted closer military ties with France. "We are definitively consolidating a strategic partnership we started in 2005," Lula said in a joint news conference with Sarkozy in Brasilia.




  • The deal adds to 10 billion dollars' worth of agreements Brazil has already struck with France to buy five submarines (one to be converted to nuclear power) and 50 military transport helicopters.




  • Brazil's only aircraft carrier is a mothballed vessel bought from France in 2000.




  • France is also to buy about 10 military transport aircraft Brazil's air force plans to build with Embraer, the national aircraft manufacturer.




  • The military transport planes that Brazil is selling, the KC-390, are designed to carry lighter loads than the delayed Airbus A400 heavy military transport plane France is committed to.



French Company:

  • France would back Dassault Aviation's bid for the contract to build 36 fighter planes for Brazil's air force, the official said, speaking on condition of anonymity because of palace rules.




  • The deal would be key for Dassault, which has not yet had a foreign buyer for its Rafale.




  • The Rafale is one of three planes in competition for the Brazilian contract, along with Chicago-based Boeing's F-18 Super Hornet and Saab's Gripen NG.




  • French daily Le Monde, which participated in the interview, quoted the Brazilian leader as suggesting the French bid had a "comparative advantage" over those of its rivals.


Brazil’s Request:

  • Brazil's air force has not given a price tag for the 36 jets, which it hopes to have delivered by 2014. The total number of jets ordered could also increase up to 100.




  • Agencia Estado news service said it could be between $2.2 billion and $2.5billion.


b. US – Boeing Co. (BA) F-18

  • Aug. 10 - Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) notifies Congress of potential sale to Government of Brazil including:

  • 28 F/A-18E Super Hornet Aircraft

  • 8 F/A-18F Super Hornet Aircraft

  • 72 F414-GE-400 installed engines

  • host of spare parts and munitions

Estimated value of total sale = $7 billion

~ $90 million per unit for the F/A-18s


  • Sept. 9US Embassy in Brazil issues statement:




    • US govt. has issued a final approval on transfer of “all necessary and advanced technologies associated with the U.S. Government’s offer of the F/A-18 Super Hornet”




    • “Boeing's multi-billion dollar offset package to be invested directly into the Brazilian aerospace industry will transfer technology related to military design and production, provide autonomy in key areas of program support, and develop a broad Brazilian aerospace industry beyond just fighter aircraft, through direct involvement with the world’s largest aerospace company.”

*Note: the US government’s notification to Congress of a possible sale to Brazil of F-18s states that “offsets agreements associated with this proposed sale are expected,” it does not mention either advanced technology transfer or local assembly, as claimed in the statement made by the US Embassy in Brazil.




c. Sweden – Saab Gripen NG


  • Tender for 36 Gripen NGs

~ $60 million per unit


  • Sept. 29 - According to a statement from Embraer’s VP, Saab is offering a “pre-production deal giving Brazil opportunity to develop from scratch-knowledge of the plane” – and that the NGs would have “important locally produced components” - and the development of the jet would bring “important technological benefits”

From Saab’s NG tender proposal to Brazil -


- Transfer of Technology

The Transfer of Technology (ToT) programme will guarantee full involvement in future capability development and maximize Brazilian industrial autonomy through the transfer of unique and highly advanced competencies.

The ToT will include:


  • Design, development and integration of hardware, avionics, software and systems on the Gripen NG

  • Transfer of Advanced Technologies and key High-Tech competencies for example Sensor Fusion, Low-Observability (LO) and Stealth.

Saab guarantees unrivalled access to all levels of technology, including full access to Gripen NG source codes.

- Offset

The proposal will deliver Offset equal to the contract value. The Offset programme will transfer unique and advanced technologies and know-how to appropriate Brazilian industrial and institutional parties with the objective of developing national capabilities.

- Support solution

The logistics concept is designed to meet the requirements of the Brazilian Air Force and makes maximum usage of existing Brazilian infrastructure.

The training programme utilizes the existing infra-structure together with synthetic training aids and the Gripen system in order to maximize the training benefit.

- Partnership

COMAER and Brazilian industry would become partners with the Swedish Air Force and Saab in the design, development and integration of future technology programmes for the Gripen NG.

Early Brazilian involvement in the Gripen NG design and development will give the Brazilian Air Force and industry unrivalled access to all levels of technology now and for the future.

*Note: According to a recent interview with Jane’s analyst, Craig Cafferty

While Saab could offer good industrial participation and technology, "some of the key components included in the Gripen NG such as the engine and AESA radar are not made by Saab or a Swedish company thereby making full technology transfer impossible."

The Gripen's engine is made by US company General Electric, and therefore subject to US export controls, while the advanced active-array, multi-targeting radar is made by Italian firm Selex.”

ii. Saab’s economic situation


  1. Saab - Gripen history (not nec related, but just in case you need it) – see here: http://www.gripen.com/en/GripenFighter/TheGripenFighter.htm

  2. Saab problems starting in 2008: GM decided to sell Saab this year due to financial problems. They are still in talks and there is certain that there is pressure on the future of Saab… with all that it can mean for its financial stability. The Swedish government has announced (Jan. 2009) plans to provide up to $3.19 billion in credit guarantees and emergency loans to Saab and Volvo, which Ford Motor Co. put up for sale last month in a bid to raise additional funds. (http://www.thelocal.se/16808/20090109/) That's all I could find on the guarantees part.

Last details on the deal:

  • The buy-out of Saab Automobile by the Koenigsegg Group hangs in the balance after co-owner Bård Eker states the company could withdraw if business is not concluded in the next few days. According to an article in business daily Dagens Industri the deal is at risk of caving in. "If things aren't in place by September 30, then we are out," Eker told Norwegian newspaper Dagens Næringsliv. They include negotiations with the European Investment Bank (EIB) over a loan of around four billion Swedish crowns as well as discussions with Sweden's National Debt Office (Riksgälden) to secure the EIB loan. Saab intend to use the money to develop new technology in the areas of environment and security. - http://www.thelocal.se/22312/20090926/

  • GM has agreed to put money in to assure it gets rid of Saab - http://www.thelocal.se/22098/20090915/

  • In August GM talked about the sale to Koenigsegg Group. But the problem is that Koenigsegg must prepare for 4 billion kronor or 500 million dollars to take over. The report says that Beijing Automotive Industry Holdings, BAIC has written a letter of memorandum with Koenigsegg to become a small owner with capital.  http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/90884/6755109.html

 

Figures:

With the collapse of the auto market, it has become a particularly weak division, selling less than 94,000 cars in 2008, down from a peak of 133,000 in 2006. http://gm-volt.com/2009/02/20/saab-becomes-independent-from-gm-and-declares-bankruptcy/

Under GM's stewardship, Saab rarely posted a profit and last year lost 3.0 billion kronor ($496.9 million at the time).

Saab's financial woes eased a bit Jan. 17 when a Swedish court approved an application to write down 75 percent of the automaker's debts -- previously some 10 billion kronor. http://www.asiaone.com/Motoring/News/Story/A1Story20090618-149231.html

 

Nice talk on how sweet Saab is if it gets the deal:

"The Swedish government and the Saab motor company are 100 percent committed to making the technology transfer," Swedish State Secretary for Defense Håkan Jevrell said at a press conference, accompanied by a Saab representative. (http://www.thelocal.se/22150/20090918/)

iii. Gripen NG Sales
a. It appears that no nation has purchased the Gripen NG model since Saab began trying to make sales in 2008.

:

As of early 2009, Saab claims to have Gripen tenders for:



- Denmark

- India


- Romania

- Brazil

- Switzerland
In addition, Saab has responded to requests for information from Bulgaria, Croatia, and the Netherlands.

The Gripen NG was being considered by the Netherlands and Norway, but these nations have elected to go with the JSF.


Denmark is still considering an offer for the Gripen NG.
Gripen NG’s are being considered for a huge purchase by the Indian airforce (100+ aircraft), but no decision is likely for some time.
Brazil is the only other country that is currently considering the NG.

a. Gripens currently in service:


Gripen is in service with the Swedish, Czech Republic, Hungarian and South African Air Forces and has also been ordered by Thailand. The UK Empire Test Pilots’ School (ETPS) is also operating Gripen as its advanced fast jet platform for test pilots worldwide.

  • Gripen was declared operational in the Swedish Air Force in 1997, and 204 aircraft, including 28 two seaters, have been delivered.



  • Gripen is in full operational service with the Czech Republic Air Force, which has taken delivery of all of its 14 aircraft (12 single-seat and 2 two-seaters) to meet its national, European and NATO defence needs.



  • Gripen is also in full operational service with the Hungarian Air Force, which has taken delivery of all of its 14 aircraft (12 single-seat and 2 two-seaters) to meet its national, European and NATO needs.



  • South Africa, Gripen’s first export customer, has ordered a fleet of 26 aircraft (9 two-seat and 17 single seat aircraft) to replace its existing front-line aircraft. Deliveries started in 2008 and will be completed by 2012.



  • The United Kingdom’s (UK) Empire Test Pilots’ School (ETPS) is also operating Gripen as its advanced fast jet platform for test pilots worldwide.



  • In October 2007, the government of Thailand approved the procurement of Gripen fighters to replace the Royal Thai Air Force’s ageing F-5 fleet, and in February 2008 Thailand and Sweden signed contracts for the supply of the initial six Gripen aircraft for the Royal Thai Air Force (RTAF) with aircraft delivered during 2011.



Sources:

Gripen NG for Brazil


Gripen offers Brazil a complete solution. Gripen NG is the world’s most technologically advanced multi-role fighter aircraft with built in Net centric warfare (NCW) technologies and capabilities developed specifically for Brazil.
The Gripen NG for Brazil in short:

  • A powerful and proven engine

  • AESA radar

  • Advanced Communication systems

  • Tactical Data Link

  • Supercruise

  • Advanced Electronic warfare

  • Strategic reach

  • Advanced Weapons Capacity

Why Brazil should choose Gripen


  • Gripen NG is the world’s most technologically advanced multi-role fighter aircraft with built in Net centric warfare (NCW) technologies and capabilities developed specifically for Brazil.

  • Gripen will meet or exceed every operational requirement raised by the Brazilian Air Force in all roles - Air to Air Fighter BVR/WVR, Air to Surface land and sea, and recce.

  • Gripen will provide exceptional autonomous multi and swing role capability in normal and hostile FOB operations, and act as a perfect force multiplier.

  • Gripen will, over life, have a substantially lower real Life Cycle Cost than its nearest single engined competitor, and is able to operate at a fraction of the cost of its twin engined competitors.

  • Gripen NG is the only option for Brazil delivering next generation technical and military capabilities.

  • Gripen NG will allow Brazil to become a significant partner in the development programme and become a platform for future technology programmes.

  • In combination with the Industrial Cooperation program, Gripen’s program for FAB, Brazilian Defence and industrial establishment will make Brazil by 2020 completely independent of the need to purchase combat aircraft from other countries and make it an exporter of aircraft like Sweden.



Operational capability


As a Next Generation multi-role fighter Gripen NG has the operational range, payload and built-in Net Centric Warfare (NCW) capability to meet all the roles as defined by the Brazilian Air Force; both national and regional expeditionary. Brazil’s NCW capability will be significantly enhanced by operating the Gripen NG in combination with the Embraer E-99 ERIEYE system.

Advanced Weapons System


Gripen NG has a fully integrated sensor suite with total weapon flexibility and is able to carry weapons sourced from suppliers worldwide. Survivability is assured through a balance between low radar, Infra-Red and visible signatures and a highly advanced modular Electronic Warfare and Self-Protection system.

Support solution


The logistics concept is designed to meet the requirements of the Brazilian Air Force and makes maximum usage of existing Brazilian infrastructure.

The training programme utilizes the existing infra-structure together with synthetic training aids and the Gripen system in order to maximize the training benefit.


Partnership


COMAER and Brazilian industry would become partners with the Swedish Air Force and Saab in the design, development and integration of future technology programmes for the Gripen NG.

Early Brazilian involvement in the Gripen NG design and development will give the Brazilian Air Force and industry unrivalled access to all levels of technology now and for the future.


Offset


The proposal will deliver Offset equal to the contract value. The Offset programme will transfer unique and advanced technologies and know-how to appropriate Brazilian industrial and institutional parties with the objective of developing national capabilities.

Production and Maintenance


The commitment to Brazilian aerospace includes the option for manufacturing of Gripen NG parts and assemblies and Gripen NG Final assembly in Brazil.

The maintenance concept is tailored to meet the requirements and


capabilities of the Brazilian Industry and the FAB through:

  • Establishment of a Gripen NG maintenance centre in
    Brazil ensuring national autonomy

  • Extensive usage of existing Brazilian infra-structure securing cost savings and ensuring commonality

Transfer of Technology


The Transfer of Technology (ToT) programme will guarantee full involvement in future capability development and maximize Brazilian industrial autonomy through the transfer of unique and highly advanced competencies.

The ToT will include:



  • Design, development and integration of hardware, avionics, software and systems on the Gripen NG

  • Transfer of Advanced Technologies and key High-Tech competencies for example Sensor Fusion, Low-Observability (LO) and Stealth.

Saab guarantees unrivalled access to all levels of technology, including full access to Gripen NG source codes.

Continued Enhancement


Gripen Next Generation (NG) is a considerably enhanced version of the already proven and in-service Gripen C/D multi-role fighter.

Designed for combat in the 21st Century Net Centric Warfare (NCW) environment Gripen’s flexible and modular design makes continuous development and enhancement both low risk and cost effective. The Gripen NG programme covers development of all major sensors and avionics including data communication, self-protection systems, weapons integration, as well as airframe and propulsion enhancements.


Continued Growth


Gripen NG is a ’low risk’ platform with a funded ongoing development programme and guaranteed enhancements. The Gripen NG has substantial growth capability which will ensure that Gripen NG meets all future requirements.

Brazil – F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Aircraft  


(Source: US Defense Security Cooperation Agency; dated Aug. 6, web-posted Aug. 10, 2009)
 
  WASHINGTON --- Today the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) notified Congress of a possible Foreign Military Sale to the Government of Brazil of 28 F/A-18E Super Hornet Aircraft, eight F/A-18F Super Hornet Aircraft, 72 F414-GE-400 installed engines, a host of spare parts and munitions at an estimated value of $7.0 billion.

The Government of Brazil has requested proposals from several foreign suppliers, including the United States, to provide the next generation fighter for the Brazilian Air Force. In this “FX-2” competition, the Government of Brazil has yet to select the United States Navy-Boeing proposal.

This notification is being made in advance of receipt of a letter of request so that, in the event that the US Navy-Boeing proposal is selected, the United States might move as quickly as possible to implement the sale.

If the Government of Brazil selects the U.S. Navy-Boeing proposal, the Government of Brazil will request a possible sale of:

-- 28 F/A-18E Super Hornet Aircraft,
-- eight F/A-18F Super Hornet Aircraft,
-- 72 F414-GE-400 installed engines,
-- four F414-GE-400 spare engines,
-- 36 AN/APG-79 Radar Systems,
-- 36 M61A2 20mm Gun Systems,
-- 36 AN/ALR-67(V) three Radar Warning Receivers,
-- 144 LAU-127 Launchers,
-- 44 Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing Systems (JHMCS),
-- 28 AIM-120C-7 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM),
-- 28 AIM-9M Sidewinder Missiles,
-- 60 GBU-31/32 Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM),
-- 36 AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapons (JSOW),
-- 10 AGM-88B HARM Missiles, and
-- 36 AN/ASQ-228 (V2) Advanced Targeting Forward-Looking Infrared (ATFLIR) Pods.

Also included are 36 AN/ALQ-214 Radio Frequency Countermeasures. 40 AN/ALE-47 Electronic Warfare Countermeasures Systems, 112 AN/ALE-50 Towed Decoys, Joint Mission Planning System, support equipment, spare and repair parts, personnel training and training equipment, ferry and tanker support, flight test, software support, publications and technical documents, U.S. Government and contractor engineering, technical and logistics support services, and other related elements of logistics and program support.

This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping to improve the security of a friendly country that has been, and continues to be, an important force for political stability and economic progress in South America.

Brazil needs these aircraft to meet current and future threats. The proposed sale of F/A-18E/F aircraft will enhance Brazil’s tactical aviation capabilities. An increase in capability will be accrued primarily due to the larger number of aircraft and the larger range and endurance of the F/A-18E/F. Brazil will have no difficulty absorbing these aircraft into its aircraft inventory. The proposed sale of this equipment and support will not alter the basic military balance in the region.

The principal contractors will be:
--The Boeing Company St. Louis, Mo.
--General Electric Aircraft Engines Lynn, Mass.
--Northrop Grumman Corporation El Segundo, Calif.
--Raytheon Corporation El Segundo, Calif.
--Lockheed Martin Bethesda, Md.

Offsets agreements associated with this proposed sale are expected; however, specific agreements are undetermined and will be defined during negotiations between the purchaser and contractor.

Implementation of this sale will require approximately eight contractor representatives to provide technical and logistics support in Brazil for two years. U.S. Government and contractor representatives will also participate in program management and technical reviews for one-week intervals twice semi-annually.

There will be no adverse impact on U.S. defense readiness as a result of this proposed sale.



This notice of a potential sale is required by law and does not mean the sale has been concluded.

-ends-


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