Interest Groups



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Chapter 11

Interest Groups

1. In the United States, unlike Great Britain, interest groups can easily gain access to government because

A) political parties are relatively powerful.

B) power is centralized in the legislative branch.

C) important decisions are made in only a few places.

D) our constitutional system is so limited.

E) political authority is widely dispersed.

2. Interest group activity is protected under the U.S. Constitution by the

A) First Amendment.

B) Fourth Amendment.

C) Fourteenth Amendment.

D) Twenty-second Amendment.

E) None of the above
3. One type of interest group whose representation in Washington has skyrocketed since 1970 is the

A) professional organization.

B) trade association.

C) corporate lobby.

D) union lobby.

E) public-interest lobby.


4. Which of the following is not a reason for the proliferation of interest groups in this country?

A) Social diversity or faction

B) Multiple access points to government officials

C) Ideological leadership

D) The weakness of political parties

E) Federalism

5. An organization that seeks to influence public policy is most accurately referred to as a(n)

A) interest group.

B) lobby.

C) institutional interest.

D) membership interest.

E) referenced interest.


6. The U.S. tobacco industry is represented in Washington by a strong lobby that seeks to influence public policy regarding the use of tobacco. This lobby is most accurately referred to as a(n)

A) membership interest.

B) solidary group.

C) institutional interest.

D) public-interest lobby.

E) referenced interest.

7. An example of a typical activity that an institutional interest might conduct on behalf of a client would be

A) lobbying for laws to protect the client from foreign competition.

B) forming small local chapters to raise campaign funds.

C) offering life insurance at reduced rates for its members.

D) offering a cash payment to legislators in exchange for a crucial vote.

E) offering a cash payment to legislators to appear at a public meeting.


8. The reason Americans participate in civic associations more frequently than do citizens of other countries is

A) their greater dissatisfaction with the government.

B) their more intense attachment to parties.

C) their European heritage.

D) the fact that they are less sensitive to the free-rider problem.

E) their sense of political efficacy and civic duty.

9. People who join the parent-teacher associations (PTAs) are most likely to do so as a result of ________ incentives.

A) solidary

B) material

C) purposive

D) party

E) tangible

10. A major function of local chapters of national membership organizations is to

A) pursue political objectives at the national level.

B) represent individual clients to the national organization.

C) lobby politicians to oppose other groups.

D) lobby politicians to enact specific laws.

E) lure members and raise money from them.

11. Which of the following is not an example of a material incentive?

A) The opportunity for members to market their products through cooperatives

B) Low-cost life insurance

C) The appeal of the organization's stated goals

D) Free assistance in preparing tax returns

E) Free assistance in estate planning

12. Purposive incentives are most likely to motivate people who join the

A) Illinois Farm Bureau.

B) National Organization for Women (NOW).

C) parent-teacher associations (PTAs).

D) American Association of Retired Persons (AARP).

E) Rotary Club.

13. Organizations that attract members by appealing to a coherent set of usually controversial beliefs are called

A) political parties.

B) pressure groups.

C) splinter groups.

D) ideological interest groups.

E) out-party groups.


14. A government official might leave her position and join a corporation to which she previously awarded government contracts. This is a clear example of

A) agency lacing.

B) government operating on its own inner logic.

C) a conflict of interest.

D) double-dipping.

E) the revolving door.

15. Which of the following is probably not a conservative public-interest law firm?

A) The Atlantic Legal Foundation

B) The Criminal Justice Legal Foundation

C) The Landmark Legal Foundation

D) The Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights

E) The Washington Legal Foundation

16. Which of the following is probably not a liberal public-interest law firm?

A) The Center for Individual Rights

B) The American Civil Liberties Union

C) The NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund

D) The Women's Legal Defense Fund

E) The Natural Resources Defense Council

17. The policies of interest group organizations are predominantly shaped by

A) the elites who dominate them.

B) concerned citizens who are not members.

C) their membership.

D) corporate sponsors.

E) B and C

18. Which of the following statements about a social movement is generally true?

A) The more extreme its position, the smaller its size.

B) The more liberal its position, the larger its size.

C) The more moderate its position, the smaller its size.

D) The more purposive its membership incentives, the smaller its size.

E) It can only take place when courts are open to the prospect of radical change in the law.

19. The League of Women Voters is an example of a feminist organization whose membership incentives are primarily

A) material.

B) purposive.

C) concurrent.

D) ideological.

E) solidary.

20. The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an example of a feminist organization whose membership incentives are primarily

A) material.

B) purposive.

C) solidary.

D) sociological.

E) concurrent.

21. Each of the following is an source of funds for lobbying organizations except

A) foundation grants.

B) membership dues.

C) government grants.

D) direct-mail solicitations.

E) income tax exemptions


22. The nonprofit and other organizations that receive the lion's share of federal grants and contracts are rarely if ever

A) influential in congressional policy-making.

B) the same organizations from year to year.

C) large organizations.

D) subject to performance audits or independent research evaluations.

E) religious organizations.

23. Most of the money in federal contracts is received by

A) businesses oriented groups.

B) nonprofit groups.

C) social organizations.

D) community-based clubs.

E) local leaders.

24. Of the three major sources of funds available to interest groups, the one that is unique to modern interest groups is

A) foundation grants.

B) federal grants and contracts.

C) low-interest loans from the political parties.

D) public funding via the personal income tax return.

E) computerized direct-mail solicitations.

25. The Americans who are most likely to join interest groups can be described as

A) religious people.

B) people in small communities.

C) people from the lower socioeconomic classes and members of minority groups.

D) people in economic distress.

E) people with better-than-average incomes.


26. To say that “the interest system has an upper-class bias” is to

A) state an important principle of lobbying.

B) state an incorrect view of lobbying.

C) say much about the people who join groups, but nothing about the positions the groups will take.

D) say much about the positions groups take, but nothing about the people who join these groups.

E) say much about the people who join groups, but nothing about their talents and skills.

27. Although knowing that the oil industry, for example, is represented by more than 170 interest groups may be useful, this fact is important only if these groups

A) represent different interests.

B) are all membership groups.

C) are all lobbying organizations.

D) always protect the oil industry.

E) are representative of the population of oil interests.

28. Probably the most effective commodity at the command of interest groups is

A) money.

B) allegiance.

C) persuasiveness.

D) media access.

E) information.

29. Lobbyists are restrained from misrepresenting facts or misleading legislators by

A) the 1984 Truth-in-Lobbying Law.

B) the open nature of the lobbying process.

C) governmental regulatory agencies such as the FTA.

D) the fear of losing legislators' trust and confidence.

E) supervision of the federal courts.

30. In addition to seeking technical information from lobbyists, public officials often look to them for

A) help in persuading uncommitted voters.

B) assistance in their personal lives.

C) legal expertise.

D) political cues on particular issues.

E) inside tips on campaigning slogans.

31. Which notable interest group issues "ratings" regarding which legislators are pro-labor?

A) The AFL-CIO

B) Americans for Democratic Action

C) Americans for Constitutional Action

D) The Consumer Federation of America

E) The League of Conservation Voters

32. Ratings that are generated by interest groups are sometimes problematic because

A) they are statistically complex.

B) they are provided in very lengthy reports.

C) of bias in measures.

D) no one takes credit for their calculations.

E) All of the above

33. “Astro turfing” interest groups frequently appear as grassroots lobbyists, but in reality they are adopting a strategy referred to as

A) insider.

B) wholesale.

C) collective.

D) outsider.

E) end-run.

34. One method used by lobbyists to convince undecided legislators that public opinion on an issue is inclined toward their direction is to

A) encourage local citizens to send telegrams.

B) supply the legislators with recent ratings.

C) supply the legislators with technical information.

D) cultivate the goodwill of government officials.

E) threaten a lawsuit.


35. The Dirty Dozen consisted of the

A) least ethical interest groups in Washington.

B) midwestern states most responsible for acid rain.

C) most deeply bureaucratized federal agencies.

D) most anti-industry legislators in the Senate.

E) most anti-environment legislators in the House.

36. The campaign finance reforms of 1973

A) encouraged a rapid growth in PACs.

B) led to a slight decrease in the number of PACs.

C) led to a significant decrease in the number of PACs.

D) had no impact on the number of PACs.

E) reduced PAC spending.

37. The scholarly evidence that political action committee (PAC) money buys votes in Congress

A) is sketchy at best.

B) is fairly strong but still inconclusive.

C) is substantial.

D) is conclusive.

E) clearly documents that there is absolutely no relationship between contributions and votes.

38. The text suggests that the Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946

A) had considerable effect.

B) had a slight impact on lobbying activities.

C) had little practical effect.

D) was effective with respect to registration of lobbyists.

E) resulted in accurate reporting of interest group finances.


39. All of the following activities are specifically forbidden by the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 except

A) bribery.

B) refusal of a president to disclose income from stocks and bonds.

C) employment of a former government official by a lobbying group.

D) outside employment by a government official if such employment might create a conflict of interest.

E) solicitation of funds for the performance of duties.

40. The Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946 required groups and individuals seeking to influence legislation to

A) limit their activities to seven pieces of legislation.

B) limit their activities to either the House or the Senate.

C) prepare and publish written statements of intent.

D) register and file quarterly financial reports.

E) register, file statements of intent, and limit their activities to one legislative chamber.

41. 42. In practice, the reforms of Democrats have allowed reimbursements for travel from lobbyists if the

A) travel is for one-day trips.

B) lobbyists do not initiate the trip.

C) lobbyists do not make the reservations.



D) lobbyists do not pick up incidental expenses unrelated to the visit.

E) All of the above


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