Know Word formation Know issues around structural grammar i e
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Exam Preparation guide
Old question papers with sample answers
Please know everything in the study guide.
Parameters to describe consonants
Place of articulation
Know Word formation
Know issues around structural grammar i.e.
Niklaas borrowed s some money from Selma
Subject Predicator Object
Study the sentences below and indicate why they are ungrammatical
*The kick man
NP (det) (adj) N (PP). Therefore the sentence is ungrammatical. Noun Phrase is headed by a noun and not a verb. Verb is not an optional element in the noun Phrase.
* Our Friend drives Mondays on
VP V (NP) (PP). Student should use the PS rule as basis of the argument
*JanJapan Motors is in
PP P NP. This example only has P
Indicate whether the underlined VP followed a traditional or transformational
view for analyses
We expect our grandparents to arrive in about an hour. Transformational
My cousin watches television almost as much as you do. Traditional
The weatherman says it will rain all day. Traditional
Your brother plays soccer . Transformational
better than my brother does
Our friend drives on Mondays. Transformational
Underline the prepositional phrases in these sentences.
After school, the boys played a game of baseball at the park .
We hid our canoe in the bushes and set up camp by the river .
Candy signed her name on and passed the paper the line across the table .
Without any warning, the dog dashed to and barked loudly.
The storm caused the tree in our front yard to fall against the house .
Analyze the sentences below following
Phrase Structure Rules, and then draw a labelled tree diagram.
The Story of God with Morgan Freeman
NP Det N PP
PP P NP
NP N PP
PP P NP
The best team won the tournament
S NP VP
NP Det Adj N
VP V NP
NP Det N
The Man left .
S NP VP
NP Det N
Traditional and modern grammar
Traditional grammar was not descriptive, it was prescriptive
Traditional grammar imposed latin models over English which made it difficult to explain the structure of some sentences. It consisted of parts of speech.
Saussure is the father of modern linguistics and he articulate the four dichotomies
Chomsky formulated Transformational generative grammar. LAD, Deep and surface structure.
Language is consistently changing, sentences can be transformed and generated infinitely
Phonetics and Phonology.
Phonetics is a branch of linguistic that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status.
Articulatory phonetics: the study of the production of speech sounds by the articulatory and vocal tract by speaker
Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener
Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener
Phonology, on the other hand is concerned with the abstract, grammatical, characterisation of systems of sounds or signs
Tools of articulation, , phonemes, allophones, suprasegmental features of language
difference between syntax and semantics
Syntax has to do with the form and order of words within the sentence.
Semantics on the other hands has to do with the meaning.
Syntax is language specific/dependent.
Semantics (meaning) remains the same when the same sentence is expressed in another language.
value and importance of syntax in language study
Syntax is the central component of the analysing device of any language.
It is the level of analysis that helps us to relate what we perceive from the speech or writing of others to the meaning they intend to convey.
In performing this role, syntax relates an interface to morphological component.
Syntax helps us to construct grammatically correct sentences and to express ourselves eloquently and effectively.
It is the means by which we answer question, extract information and translate meaning from one language to the other. It helps us to express ourselves in countless ways and with varying meanings.
It is syntax that allows speakers and writers to communicate complicated thoughts by arranging small, simple units in meaningful ways.
Syntax also shows us that human language is unlimited because we can generate countless sentences and new ones to express new ideas, experiences and developments within the rules of syntax.
Syntax is employed by writers to create both daring and subtle differences in meaning and to avoid ambiguity.
Study of meaning
It focuses on the relationship between signifiers, like words, phrases, signs and symbols, and what they stand for, their denotation
Study of meaning that is used for understanding human expression through language
Semantics is the subfield that is devoted to the study of meaning, as inherent at the levels of words, phrases, sentences, and larger units of discourse (text)
Closely linked to subjects of representation, reference and denotation.
Know Polysemy and Metonymy
Five different levels in Linguistics are:
Phonetics and phonology, at level of sound
Morphology, at the word level
Syntax, at the level of phrases, clauses and sentences
Semantics, at the level of meaning
Pragmatics, at the level of context ad situation
Theories on language acquisition
The innateness hypothesis
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