Linguistics 105, winter 2016 assignment 8 Name: Section: Score: / 3 =



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LINGUISTICS 105, WINTER 2016 ASSIGNMENT 8


Name: Section: Score: / 3 =
I. (6 points) Negative forms in some African languages. Below are some sets of verbs in three African languages that pair affirmatives and negatives of several verb forms. Fula is a West Atlantic language spoken by mainly nomadic cattle herders across West Africa. Tamazhaq is a Berber language spoken in Niger. Bade is a Chadic language spoken in northeastern Nigeria. Data here are from the Western dialect. 1
Fula: Doubled vowels = long vowels; y = IPA [j]. The prefixed ’o is the third singular subject agreement morpheme.




Active Voice

‘he washes (it)’



Middle Voice

‘he bathes’



Passive Voice

‘he/it gets washed’



General Past

’o-lootii

’o-lootake

’o-lootaama

Emphatic Past

’o-lootu

’o-looti

’o-loota

Negative Past*

’o-lootaayi

’o-lootaaki

’o-lootaaka

General Future

’o-lootay

’o-loototo

’o-lootete

Negative Future

’o-lootataa

’o-lootataako

’o-lootataake

*The Negative Past is the negative counterpart of both General Past and Emphatic Past.
Tamazhaq: ə = IPA [ɨ], ă = IPA [ʌ]. Singular subject agreement affixes are given to help with identifying other morphemes, but you will not have to account for them.




Perfective

‘X went out’



Neg. Perfective

‘X didn’t go out’



Imperfective

‘X be going out’



Neg. Imperfective

‘X be not going out’



1 sg.

əgmăda

wurəgmeda

əgammăda

wurəgəmmăda

2 sg.

təgmăda

wurtəgmeda

təgammăda

wurtəgəmmăda

3 m.sg.

igmăd

wurəgmed

igammăd

wurəgəmmăd

3 f.sg.

təgmăd

wurtəgmed

təgammăd

wurtəgəmmăd


Bade: All forms are as they would appear with third person subjects. Doubled vowels = long vowels; grave accent (à) = low tone, no accent = high tone, acute accent (á) = downstepped high. you do not need to consider tone for this problem.




Perfective

‘he verbed



Neg. Perfective

‘he didn’t verb



Imperfective

‘he is verbing’



Neg. Imperfective

‘he is not verbing’



‘drink’

so

sàasam

à-sa

à-sam

‘catch’

gàfo

gàfàafam

à-gə̀fi

à-gə̀fím

‘hide’

də̀psu

də̀psàasam

à-dəpsà

à-dəpsám

‘turn’

mə̀skə̀tu

mə̀skə̀tàatam

à-məskətà

à-məskətám

For each language identify the morphemes requested below. do not give full lexical entries. Just list the morphemes and any allomorphs, using our structuralist notation /x ~ y/ or /x ∞ y/.


Fula
Verb root:
Separate negative morpheme, if any:
Verb morphology associated with negation:

Tamazhaq: Remember that Tamazhaq has a root-and-pattern system. Use the Semiticist system to describe verb morphology.
Verb root:
Separate negative morpheme, if any:
Verb morphology associated with negation:
Bade
Verb roots:
Separate negative morpheme, if any:
Verb morphology associated with negation:


II. (6 points total) Korean negatives and dependent verb forms
(a) (1.5 points) Negative. Korean has several ways to express negation. “Short” form negatives place a negative marker before the verb, which is inflected for tense and politeness level. There are two negative markers: an and mos. Ho-Min Sohn (The Korean Language, CUP, 1999:389) describes the difference as follows:

In general, simple negation or negative intent is expressed by an(i), whereas inability or impossibility is expressed by mos.

“Long” forms make the main verb into a dependent verb form (see course reader, bottom of page 72) followed by the negated verb ha-ta ‘do’. In the long form negative, an has contracted to a form that is now listed as a separate lexical entry, anh-ta.
In the table, the verbs are shown in the so-called “present” and “past” tenses with the polite suffix –yo.


Affirmative




an “short”

an “long”

mos “short”

mos “long”

capayo

X is catching

an capayo

capci anhayo

mos capayo

capci mos hayyo

capasseyo

X caught

an capasseyo

capci anhasseyo

mos capasseyo

capci mos haysseyo

pwayo

X sees

an pwayo

poci anhayo

mos pwayo

poci mos hayyo

pwasseyo

X saw

an pwasseyo

poci anhasseyo

mos pwasseyo

poci mos haysseyo

The negative imperative is expressed using the verb mal-ta ‘don’t do’. It works like the long form negatives in terms of the form of the main verb.




capayo

catch (it)!













capci malayo

don’t catch (it)!

*an capayo

*capci anhayo

*mos capayo

*capci mos hayyo

pwayo

look!













poci malayo

don’t look!

*an pwayo

*poci anhayo

*mos pwayo

*poci mos hayyo


another piece of important information: Korean has somewhat optional nominal relational morphemes (course reader, page 72): a case ending -ka that marks subject and a case ending -lul that marks the object. For example,
key-ka thokki-lul capasseyo ‘the dog caught the rabbit’

dog-subject rabbit-object caught


The object-marking –lul, but not the subject-marking -ka can be used in long form negation:
‘X doesn’t catch’ capci-lul anhayo capci-lul mos hayyo

‘X didn’t catch’ capci-lul anhasseyo capci-lul mos haysseyo

*capci-ka anhayo *capci-ka mos hayyo
In the box on the next page, make up a lexical entry (phonological form, category, combinatory potential, and meaning) for the dependent verb form suffix used with negatives.

(b) (4.5 points) More dependent verb forms. Here are some sentence sets, all in the “present” tense, polite form (see the present tense affirmative forms above). The sentence at the top of each column shows the verb used as a main verb, and the examples (i-iv) the same verb in various dependent verb forms.







say-lul capayo /cap-a-yo/

bird-object is catching



he is catching a bird

chek-ul pwayo /po-a-yo/

book-obj he is looking



he is looking at the book

i.

say-lul capki(-lul) cohahayyo

bird-obj catch(-obj) likes



he likes to catch/ catching birds

chek-ul poki(-lul) sicakhayyo

book-obj look at(-obj) starts



he starts to look at/ looking at the book

ii.

capum-ul kiekhayyo

catching-obj. remembers



he remembers catching

say-lul pom-ul alayo

bird-obj looking-obj knows



he knows [he is] looking at birds

iii.

say-lul capko (*-lul) sipheyo

bird-obj to catch (*obj) I want



I want to catch a bird

chek-ul poko (*-lul) isseyo

book-obj looking there is



he is looking at the book

iv.

say-lul capko (*-lul) wasseyo

bird-obj catch came



he caught a bird and came

say-lul poko (*-lul) kasseyo

bird-obj see went



he saw a bird and went

note: The impossibility of *-lul in (iii-iv) indicates that these forms must not be nouns.
Here are some ungrammatical sentences corresponding to (i-iv) in the left-hand column. (Assume that parallel modifications in the right-hand column would also be ungrammatical.)
(i) *say-lul capum-ul cohahayyo (iii) *say-lul capki(-lul) sipheyo

*say-lul capko cohahayyo *say-lul capum-ul sipheyo

(ii) *capki-lul kiekhayyo (iv) *say-lul capki(-lul) wasseyo

*capko kiekhayyo *say-lul capum-ul wasseyo


Make up lexical entries (phonological form, category, combinatory potential, and meaning) for the dependent verb form affixes used in (i-iv).
(i) (ii)

(iii-iv)


(c) Further uses of dependent verb forms. Here are some words that use the affixes seen in (i) and (ii) in part (b) above. You will use these to fill in the table in III.


Root




V+suffix of type (i)

Root




V+suffix of type (ii)

po-

see

poki

example

ilu-

tell

ilum

name

ilu-

tell

*iluki




po-

see

*pom




ppay-

extract

ppayki

subtraction

el-

freeze

elum

ice

el-

freeze

*elki




ppay-

extract

*ppaym




pala-

wish

hay-palaki

sun-wishing



sunflower

kel-

be fertile

kelum

fertilizer

kel-

be fertile

*kelki




pala-

wish

*palam2





III. (6 points) Categorizing morphology as inflectional or derivational. On page 82 of the course reader is a table comparing “canonical” inflectional and derivational morphology along several parameters. Very often, morphology does not conform 100% to the canonical types. In the table below, check the box for yes or no for each parameter for the morphologies listed in the left-hand column. (Some parameters in the table in the reader are omitted because they are indeterminant from the data here.)





Forms of the same word?

Form driven by grammar?

Change category?

Productive?

Compositional?




Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

I.Fula verb morphology































I Tamazhaq verb morphology































I Bade verb morphology































II(a) Korean neg. dependent V































II(b) Dep. V form type (i)































II(b) Dep. V form type (ii)































II(b) Dep. V form type (iii-iv)































II(c) Suff. forms of type (i)































II(c) Suff. forms of type (ii)

































IV. (3 points) English negation. As in all the languages described above, English has special constructions for negated verbs. An obvious change is adding not, usually contracted to –n’t, which is cliticized to the preceidng word.


affirmaive

negative

I have enough money.

I do-n’t have enough money.

I had enough money.

I did-n’t have enough money.

Describe the changes that take place in negation in addition to adding not/-n’t? A short phrase should be sufficient to answer these questions.


What syntactic alteration does negation trigger?

What change in tense marking morphology on the verb does negation trigger?





1 Fula data are from D.W. Arnott, The Nominal and Verbal Systems of Fula, Oxford University Press, 1970. Tamazhaq and Bade data are from my own field notes.

2 Palam exists in the meaning ‘wind’, but not in the meaning ‘wishing’.



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