Master of science thesis aparna vijaya

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Supporting the automatic test case and oracle generation using system models

Thesis supervisor: Antonio Cicchetti

Thesis examiner: Mikael Sjödin

June, 2009

Making this master’s thesis has in many ways been a great journey for me; especially having hands on experience in various modeling and model based testing tools.
First of all I would like to thank my supervisor Antonio Cicchetti for giving me this opportunity as well as excellent guidance and much needed pointers and advices during the course of the thesis.
I would like to thank Daniel Flemström, Sigrid Eldh and Malin Rosqvist whose discussions and input have been inspiring.
Last but not the least I would like to express my sincere gratitude to MDH, Ericsson and TATA Consultancy Services (TCS) for giving me this opportunity for pursuing the Master degree.

Thank you all.


In the current scenario, the software systems which are developed are becoming highly complex. So there arises a need for providing a better way for correctness and efficiency for them. In November 2000, the Object Management Group (OMG) made public the MDA (Model-Driven Architecture) initiative, a particular variant of a new global trend called MDE (Model Driven Engineering). MDE is presently making several promises about the potential benefits that could be reaped from a move from code-centric to model-based practices which may help in this era of rapid platform evolution.
In model-based testing the tester designs a behavioral model of the system under test. This model is then given to a test generation tool that will analyze the model and produce the test cases based on different coverage criteria. These test cases can be further run on the system or test harness in an automatic or manual way.
This master thesis investigates the various approaches that can be used for automatic test case generation from the behavioral model. The advantages with these new approaches are that it gives a better overview of test cases, better coverage of the model and it helps in finding errors or contradictions in minimum time.

Table of Contents



Supporting the automatic test case and oracle generation using system models 1


Acknowledgment 3

Abstract 4

Table of Contents 4

Definitions and Acronyms 6

List of figures 7

List of tables 8

Table 1 8

Table 2 8

Comparison of tools using ISO/IEC 9126 standard 8

1. Introduction 9

1.1 Motivation for selecting the topic 9

1.2 Goals 9

1.2.1 Challenges 9

1.3 Disposition 10

2. Technical Information 11

2.1 Introduction to Model Driven Development 11

2.2 Introduction to Model based testing 13

2.3 Importance of Model based testing 15

2.4 Different scenarios in MBT 16

3. Comparison and Analysis of Existing MBT Tools 16

4. Model Based Testing At Ericsson 20

5. Approach for automatic test case generation 22

5.1 Different Coverage Criteria 23

5.1.3 Requirements-based criteria 25

6. Existing Methods 26

6.1 The Combinatorial Design Paradigm 26

6.2 Usecase approach 27

6.2.1 Adding Contracts to the Use Cases 29

6.3 Approach in LEIRIOS Tool 29

7. Overview of Bridgepoint, TTCN and Tefkat 31

8. Preferred Approaches for automatic test generation 33

8.1 Method for supporting test case generation using “Tefkat” from class diagrams in Bridgepoint 33

8.1.1 Tefkat transformation 34

8.1.2 MOF Script 34

8.1.3 An example for MOFScript generation 35

8.1.4 Test Generation Procedure 36

8.1.5 Enhancements 38

8.2 Method for supporting test case generation from sequence diagrams in Bridgepoint 39

8.2.1 Example for test generation using sequence diagram approach 41


9. Evaluation Method 44

9.1 The Work Process 44

9.1.1 Initiation (phase 1) 45

9.1.2 Defining goals (phase 2) 45

9.1.3 Data acquisition (phase 3) 45

9.1.4 Analysis (phase 4) 46

9.1.5 Prototype Implementation (phase 5) 46

9.1.6 Closure (phase 6) 46

10. Validity and Reliability 46

11. Analysis 48

12. Related Work 49

13. Results and Conclusions 50

13.1 Recommendations and Future Work 50

14. References 51

[1]Curt Schwaderer , “Pioneering Model Driven Development”,,10.pdf Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[2]Reiko Heckel, Marc Lohmann , “Towards Model-Driven Testing” , Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 82 No. 6 (2003), URL: Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[3]Franck Fleurey, Jim Steel, Benoit Baudry, “Validation In Model-Driven Engineering: Testing Model Transformations” Model, Design and Validation, 2004. Proceedings. 51

[4]Jan Peleska, M. Oliver Moller, “Model-Based Testing For Model-Driven Development With UML 2.0 – Extended Abstract”, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[5]Marc Born, Ina Schieferdecker, Hans-Gerhard Gross, Pedro Santos, “Model-Driven Development And Testing – A Case Study”, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[6]Pierre-Henri , “Top-Down Model-Driven Testing Reduces Risk ”, http://www.Cotsjournalonline.Com/Home/Article.Php?Id=100171 Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[7]Joseph Hofstader , “Model-Driven Development”http://Msdn.Microsoft.Com/En-Us/Library/Aa964145.Aspx 51

[8]Michael Azoff, "The Benefits Of Model Driven Development" - White Paper, http://www.Ca.Com/Files/Industryanalystreports/The_Benefits_Of_Model_Driven_Development.Pdf Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[9] 233&CFTOKEN=30689758 Last Accessed On 25/11/2008 51

[10]Douglas C. Schmidt , “Model-Driven Engineering”, Published by IEEE Computer society, February 2006 51

[11]IBM Webcast, “A Model Driven Approach To Software Development Of Systems” Last Accessed On 16.12.2008 51

[12]http://Planet-Mde.Org/ , Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[13]Tony Clark, Andy Evans, Paul Sammut, James Willans, “Applied Metamodelling - A Foundation For Language Driven Development”, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[14]Stephen J. Mellor, Anthony N. Clark, Takao Futagami , “Model-Driven Development” 51

[15] Jean Bézivin , “On The Unification Power Of Models”, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[16]Tommy Lennhamn, “Model Driven Development: Are MDD Models Assets Or Liabilities?”,, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[17]International Workshop On Models And Model-Driven Methods For Enterprise Computing (3M4EC), http://www.Inf.Ufes.Br/~Jpalmeida/3m4ec2008 51

[18]Antonio Cicchetti, Davide Di Ruscio, Romina Eramo, Alfonso Pierantonio, “Automating Co-Evolution In Model-Driven Engineering”, 12th international IEEE Entreprise Distributed Object Computing Conference 51

[19]Markus Scheidgen, “Model Patterns For Model Transformations In Model Driven Development” 51

[20]Margarida Afonso, Regis Vogel, Jose Teixeira, “From Code Centric To Model Centric Software Engineering: Practical Case Study Of MDD Infusion In A Systems Integration Company” 51

[21]Cecilia Hasluns, “Model Driven Deve1opment:Integrating Tools With Practices”, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[22]Colin Atkinson, Thomas Kühne, “Model-Driven Development: A Metamodeling Foundation”, http://Homepages.Mcs.Vuw.Ac.Nz/~Tk/Publications/Papers/Mda-Foundation.Pdf Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[23]Bran Selic, “The Theory And Practice Of Modeling Language For Model Based Software Engineering”, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[24]http://www.Mdh.Se/Ide/Eng/Msc/Index.Php?Choice=Show&Id=0883 Last Accessed On 26/12/2008 51

[25]Composition With Guarantees For High-Integrity Embedded Software Components Assembly (CHESS) Document. 51

[26]Guest Talk Presentation Given At The UML-2003 Conference In San Francisco And Entitled: "MDA™: From Hype To Hope, And Reality" , Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[27]Jean Bézivin, “On The Unification Power Of Models”, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[28]S. R. Dalal, A. Jain, N. Karunanithi, J. M. Leaton, C. M. Lott, G. C. Patton B. M. Horowitz, “ Model-Based Testing In Practice”, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[29] Mark Blackburn, Robert Busser, Aaron Nauman , “Why Model-Based Test Automation Is Different And What You Should Know To Get Started ”, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[30]Pierre-Henri STANEK, “Top-Down Model-Driven Testing Reduces Risk”, IBM Rational Software, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 51

[31]“Model-Driven Testing”, Last Accessed On 27.05.2009 51

[32]“Model Driven Testing Tutorial At TTCN-3 User Conference”, Last Accessed On 15.01.2009 51

[33]“Model-Based Testing”, Last Accessed On 27.05.2009 51

[34]Henry Muccini, “Model-Based Testing Principles” 52

[35]“Model Based Testing An Introduction”, Last Accessed On 27.05.2009 52

[36]A. Hartman And K. Nagin, “The AGEDIS Tools For Model Based Testing”, IBM Haifa Research Laboratory, Last Accessed 27.05.2009 52

[37]Alexander Pretschner1 And Jan Philipps, “Methodological Issues In Model-Based Testing” 52

[38]The AGEDIS Project, “”, Last Accessed On 27.05.2009 52

[39]Scott.W.Ambler, Agile Model Driven Development (AMDD): The Key To Scaling Agile Software Development, Last Accessed On 27.05.2009 52

[40]“Practical Model Based Testing- A Tools Approach”, Mark Utting, Bruno Legeard. 52

[41]An Evaluation On Model Based Testing At Ericsson, Master Thesis By Jenny Florin 52

[42]Staffan Andersson, Toni Siljamäki, “Performance Benchmarking Of Real Time Critical Function Using Bridgepoint Xtuml” 52

[43]Evaluation Of Model-Based Testing On A Base Station Controller, Master Thesis By Stefan Trimmel 52

[44]David M. Cohen, Siddhartha R. Dalal, Jesse Parelius, and Gardner C. Patton,” “The Combinatorial Design Approach to Automatic Test Generation”, IEEE Software September 1996, pp. 83-87 52

[45]Clementine Nebut, Franck Fleurey, Yves Le Traon, and Jean-Marc Jezequel, “Automatic Test Generation: A Use Case Driven Approach”, IEEE Transcations on software Enginerring, March 2006 52

[46] last acessed on 27.05.2009 52

[47] Last Accessed on 27.05.2009 52

[48] Last Accessed on 27.05.2009 52

[49]Bill Venners,“Design by contract”, Last Accessed on 27.05.2009 52

[50]Jim Steel And Michael Lawley, “Model-based test driven development of the tefkat model-transformation engine” 52

[51]T.H. Tse Zhinong Xu, “Test Case Generation for Class-Level Object-Oriented Testing,” 52

[52]Amit Paradkar, “Plannable Test Selection Criteria for FSMs Extracted From Operational Specifications” 52

[53]C. Grandpierre, B. Legeard, F. Peureux , F. Bouquet , “A Test Generation Solution to Automate Software Testing” 52

[54]Bernhard Rumpe, “Model-based Testing of Object-Oriented Systems ” 52

[55]Philip Samuel, Rajib Mall, Pratyush Kanth, “Automatic test case generation from UML communication diagrams” 52

[56]Alexandre David, Paul Pettersson, “ Uppaal Tutorial- Modeling Patterns”, RTSS’05 52

Definitions and Acronyms

AI Artificial Intelligence Framework
ATS Abstract Test Suites
DSL Domain-Specific Language
DSML Domain Specific Modeling Language
ETS Executable Test Suites
MBT Model Based Testing
MDA Model Driven Architecture
MDD Model Driven Development
MOF MetaObject Facility
OMG Object Management Group
SUT System Under Test
TPTP Eclipse Test & Performance Tools Platform
TTCN Testing and Test Control Notation
UML Unified Modeling Language
UCTS Use Case Transition System
EMF Eclipse Modeling Framework
CTL Computation Tree Logic
UTG UML Behavioral Test Case Generator

List of figures

Figure 1

Relationship between a system and a model

Figure 2

Basic MBT process

Figure 3

Model based testing technique-steps

Figure 4

Data flow hierarchy

Figure 5

Transition hierarchy

Figure 6

Method for testing based on requirements

Figure 7

Bridgepoint tool

Figure 8

MOF Transformation

Figure 9

Steps for automatic test generation using class diagrams

Figure 10

Steps for automatic test generation using sequence diagrams

Figure 11

Work process

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