Member State fact sheet: France Integrated coastal management and climate change adaptation



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Member State fact sheet: France

Integrated coastal management and climate change adaptation


I. Summary
Legislative and institutional framework
France is a Party to the Barcelona convention on the Mediterranean and has ratified the Protocol on ICZM. France’s legal framework addresses Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) as well as Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) through several pieces of legislation. The Law n° 2009-967 from 3rd August 2009, also ‘Grenelle I’ sets an overarching basis for a national strategy on ICM; more specific laws set out administrative structures and coordination processes across policy sectors and different levels of goverment.
The main responsibility for ICM and MSP policies is entrusted to the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable development and Energy. In addition, several Ministries contribute to aspects of coastal zone management and maritime affairs in their respective areas of competences. The formulation of the national policy on coastal and maritime questions and the national level coordination is led by The National Council of the Sea (Comité Interministérial de la mer - CIMer), and by the General Secretariat for the Sea (Secrétariat Général de la Mer - SGMer). Both bodies are directly under the responsibility of the Prime Minister.
Policy and planning
The national strategic guidance document on coastal zones and maritime planning is the Blue Book for a Maritime Strategy about Seas and Oceans (2009), which sets main strategic principles. Currently work is on-going in the National Council of the Sea and Coastal Areas to elaborate a national maritime strategy. The current framework document on climate change – the National Adaptation Plan for Climate Change (PNACC) for the period 2011-2015 - was adopted in July 2011.
At least two regions have worked on ICM plans recently. Detailed planning for ICM is carried out at local level and through coordinating plans.
ICM and CCA links
The Blue Book addresses adaptation to climate change, in particular in terms of risk reduction, and the National Adaptation Plan for Climate Change includes among its topics fisheries and aquaculture and planning in coastal areas.
Transboundary cooperation
France cooperates at regional sea basis via OSPAR for the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) in the Mediterranean. Through its Overseas territories France is a party to many other international conventions concerning protection and use of the sea and the coastal zones. Further regional cooperation with the countries of the Mediterranean takes place under the Union for the Mediterranean.


II. Legislative and policy framework
II.1 Legislative structure
The most important laws related to ICM include:

  • The Law on National Commitment to the Environmenti, also ’Grenelle 2’ (No 2010-788, Portant Engagement National pour l’Environnement – ENE, last amended in March 2012) provides the overarching legal and institutional framework for France’s national commitment to the environment. It covers a broad range of issues including energy efficiency, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, transport, urban planning, waste and sustainable development. Chapter V contains dispositions concerning the sea. The law ensures the transposition of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.




  • Law n° 2009-967 of 3rd August 2009, also called ‘Grenelle I’ (Loi de programmation relative à la mise en œuvre du Grenelle de l'environnement, last amended in December 2012)ii sets out programming relative to the implementation of the elements agreed under the Grenelle de l'environnement, a national multi-stakeholder process. The most relevant chapters are Chapter I on Climate Change and Chapter IV on Integrated Management of the Sea and Coasts. Chapter IV emphasizes the need for a global approach in the management of coasts and seas, and the need to integrate socio-economic concerns and an ecosystem based approach into state policies.




  • The Environmental Codeiii (Code de l’environment, last amended in November 2013) contains provisions related to planning and institutional organisations on environmental issues and defines the general rules applicable for monitoring and environmental impact assessments, access to environmental data, protected zones. Specific provisions stating the strategic guidelines on sea and coastal management in articles L219.1-6.iv




  • The Code on Urban Planning (Code l’urbanisme, last amended in October 2013)v sets the overarching framework for urban planning. Chapter VI, articles L146.1-9,vi contain specific provisions on the construction and use of coastal areas.




  • Law n° 86-2 of 3rd of January 1986 on the planning, protection and valorisation of the coast (Loi relative à l'aménagement, la protection et la mise en valeur du littoral, last amended in December 2010)vii.


Detailed legislation related to ICM:

  • Decree n° 2011-637 of 9 June 2011 on the functions, composition and functioning of the National Council of the Sea and Coastal areas.viii

  • Decree n° 2011-492 of 5 May 2011 on the action plan for the marine environment (last amended in February 2012)ix.

  • Decree n° 2004-309 of 29 March 2004 (Last amended in December 2011) on the procedure for delimitation of the sea shore, the lands reclaimed from the sea and the transverse boundaries of the sea at river mouths.x

  • Decree n° 2010-130 of 11 February 2010 (last amended in February 2012)xi. This Decree provides for the administrative organization and the missions of France’s Inter-regional Sea Directorates.

  • Decree n° 2009-235 of 27 February 2009 on the organization and tasks of the regional offices of Environment, Planning and Housing (Last amended in September 2012)xii.

  • Decree n° 95-1232 of 22 November 1995 on the Inter - ministerial Committee for the Sea and the General Secretariat for the Sea (last amended in April 2013)xiii. Provides the tasks and the administrative organization of the Ministerial Committee for the Sea and the General Secretariat for the Sea.

  • Decree n° 86-1252 from 5th of December 1986 on the elaboration of Schemes for the Development of the Sea (Le décret N° 86-1252 relatif au conetenu et á l’élaboration des schemas de mise en valeur de la mer - SMVM) xiv, fixes the rules concerning the content and making of SMVM, defines the conditions to make the use of the sea and coast area compatible and aims at providing a coherent global planning.


Relevant legislation on administrative organisation:

  • Law n° 83-8 from 7th of January 1983 on the division of competences between communes, departments and regions. (Loi relative à la répartition des compétences entre les communes, les départements, les régions et l’Etat, last amended in December 2011)xv.


II.2 Administrative structures
National level:

At the central level, the competent authority for addressing ICM is the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy. This Ministry is also in charge of MSP. In addition, several other ministries contribute to the elaboration of nation-wide policy on sea and maritime affairs through their respective areas of competence.1


In 2012, the Prime Minister formed The National Council of the Sea and Coastal areas (Conseil national de la mer et des littoraux - CNML), working under the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy. The Council is in charge of preparing Government policy on maritime and coastal issues and is comprised of Members of the Parliament, representatives of the territorial bodies and stakeholders from bodies engaged in activities in coastal zones. In addition, several bodies and agencies working directly under or linked to the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy provide input for the elaboration of strategic documents and help the Ministry in its tasks on implementation, monitoring and follow-up. The most important bodies dealing with ICM include the Coastal Conservatory (Le Conservatoire du Littoral) and the Marine Protected Area Agency (L’Agence des Aires Marines Protégées). France’s maritime and coastal policies are coordinated under the National Council of the Sea and Coastal Areas (Comité Interministérial de la mer - CIMer), and by the General Secretariat for the Sea (Secrétariat Général de la Mer - SGMer). Both bodies are directly under the responsibility of the Prime Minister.
The responsibility for adaptation to climate change policy lies with the National Observatory of the Effects of Global Warming (ONERC), operating under the authority of the Directorate General for Energy and Climate, within the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy. In addition, the Ministry of Territorial Equality and Housingxvi ensures that climate change is taken into account it territorial planning activities.xvii
Regional level

ICM: In all France’s coastal regions, under the authority of the prefect of the region, the Regional Directorate of the Environment, Planning and Housing (La direction régionale de l’environnement, de l’aménagement et du logement - DREAL) is responsible for developing and implementing national policies that relate to the management and protection of the coastal area and marine environments. Each Marine Sub-Region in France has a maritime coastline Council which helps with the elaboration of the coastline strategic documents and the implementation of the MSFD Conseils Maritime de façade).
At regional level, the responsibility for elaborating regional adaptation strategies is shared between the Regional Councils and the Prefectures. Regions are supported by The National Observatory and The National Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME), which provide overall guidance and technical support. According to the ‘Grenelle II’ Law of June 2010, regions are required to set up Regional Air, Climate, Energy Schemes (SRCAE), defining mitigation and adaptation measures up to both 2020 and 2050. At present (October 2013), most regions have already set up or are finalizing such schemes.xviii
Coordination mechanisms

National-level coordination on maritime policies, including coastal management, is ensured through the National Council of the Sea (Comité Interministérial de la mer - CIMer), and the General Secretariat for the Sea (Secrétariat Général de la Mer - SGMer). These two bodies are responsible for deliberating on government policy in the area of the sea in its various national and international aspects. They are responsible for setting the direction of governmental action in all areas of the maritime industry, including environmental protection and sustainable management of marine resources and sea coast. The Inter-ministerial Committee for the Sea is chaired by the Prime Minister and brings together the Ministers of Economy and Finance, Foreign Affairs, Defence, Industry, the Environment, the Ministers responsible for overseas territories, the budget, infrastructure and transport, fishing, tourism, planning and research.


Issues related to maritime spatial planning and ICM are coordinated through the Inter-ministerial Delegation for Spatial Planning and Regional attractiveness (DATAR), operating under the auspices of the Ministry of Territories and Housing.xix
France’s Inter-regional Sea Directorates (Directions interrégionales de la mer - DIRM) were created by the Decree 2010-130 in February 2010 to assure the implementation and coordination of state coastal and maritime policies on the regional level. France’s territory is divided into four Directorates grouping the coastal regions: Manche orientale-Mer du Nord, Nord-Atlantique-Manche Ouest, Sud-Atlantique and Méditerranée. In France’s Oversea Territories the entities are called Directorate of the Sea (Direction de la mer).xx


II.3 Policies and strategies
National level: ICM

In 2006 the General Commission in charge of Strategic Planning published the Poseidon report "Politique maritime de la France", which aimed at analysing and renewing the French maritime strategy.xxi


As a follow-up and next step, the Government published its strategy on maritime and coastal issues the Blue Book on National Strategy for the Sea and Oceans in 2009 (Le Livre Bleu « la stratégie nationale pour la mer et les océans »)xxii. The document emphasises the need to use a coherent approach to maritime and coastal management and to integrate it in the overall goals of sustainable development.xxiii The Blue Book sets out the main national strategic directions for the sea and coastline and lists the country’s four priorities: investing in the future; development of a sustainable economy of the sea; promote the maritime dimension of the Overseas territories; affirm France’s place in the international context.xxiv The document addresses adaptation to climate change as an integrated part of future coastal zone development, adaptation is mainly addressed in the context of risk prevention. The Blue Book foresees the development of a specific national strategy on sea-related risks on coastal zones as well as a national strategy on coastal erosion.xxv
In 2013, the National Council of the Sea and Coastal areas (CNML) is in charge of preparing a nation-wide strategy for the management of the seas and coastal areas. In July 2013 the wide-scale stakeholder consultation was finished. The National Council of the Sea and Coastal aresa held a national meeting in 2013 (“Assises de la mer et du littoral: Une ambition française pour la politique maritime intégrée”) where the French integrated maritime policy was discussed, the synthesis is available (http://www.dirm-memn.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Recueil_Assises_Mer_Littoral.pdf, February 2014). The national marine and coastal strategy is expected to be adopted in 2014.
National level: adaptation

France published its first National Adaptation Strategy in 2006xxvi. The current framework document on climate change adaptation - National Adaptation Plan to Climate Change (PNACC) for the period 2011-2015 - was adopted on 20 July 2011.xxvii This plan is part of the implementation of the Law Grenelle I and defines concrete operational adaptation measures up to 2015. It comprises 80 actions and 230 measures especially focusing on water management, health, forests and agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture, biodiversity, tourism, and spatial planning (including management of coastal zones, infrastructure etc.). An evaluation of the PNACC was conducted in July 2013 and will be completed by a review of the measures adopted in the regional Plans for Climate, Air and Energy.xxviii


Other key national level strategies

The National Biodiversity Strategy and its Sea Action Plan was first adopted in 2005 and revised in 2008. The strategy sets the framework for nationwide policy on biodiversity, defines and prioritizes objectives in key sectors (fishing, professional or leisure maritime transport, research and training, overseas, industry).


Regional and local levels: ICM

Examples of regional implementation of coastal areas include the Britanny Coast Charter, published in December 2007xxix. The Charter was compiled after a long process of stakeholder consultations and provides the common goals and ways of achieving ICM priorities, looks at the ICM management in holistic sustainable development logic.


Through the ERDF 2007-2013 program (No. 9 Grand Littoral Contract Project), the Aquitaine Region is involved in sustainable coastal development. This coastal objective is focused in implementing integrated coastal management, as defined by the Public Interest Group (Groupement d’Intérêt Public - GIP).
Regional coordination of the state coastal and maritime policies is ensured through the France’s Inter-regional Sea Directorates (DIRM). France’s territory is divided into four Directorates grouping together the coastal regions.
To ensure that local territorial plans are coherent, Schemes for Territorial Coherence (Schéma de coherence territorial - SCoT) are to be prepared. These Schemes are intended to ensure that environmental objectives are followed, including in coastal areas. The SCoTs are to be prepared across France; while their development has lagged, they have been prepared or are underway in most coastal territories. The Schemes for the Development of the Sea (Schémas de Mise en valeur de la Mer - SMVM) have a similar coordinating function.


III. Knowledge base and information dissemination on climate change impacts on coastal areas
III.1 Overview of key projects and programmes
EU: cf. annex
Regional sea and other transboundary projects/programmes: cf. section IV
National

The national research programme LITEAU on sustainable maritime and coastal development, performs research to support the Ministry for Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy in the elaboration of policies and strategic goals. Since 1998 LITEAU has carried through over 70 research projects with financing amounting to 7.5 Million Euros.xxx


ONERC (Observatoire National sur les Effets du Rechauffement Climatique) is the institution responsible for collecting data on climate change and providing the Government with research to support the work on climate change and adaptation policies.
III.2 National web portals relevant for ICM and adaptation

Web-site on climate change adaptation made available at:

http://wiklimat.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/index.php/Portail:Wiklimat.
The web portal specifically addresses adaptation in coastal areas.
III.3 Awareness raising activities for ICM and adaptation

In the Grenelle process, extensive public consultations took place on the regional and national level.xxxi More recently, in October 2013, the International Marine Protected Areas Congress (IMPAC) took place in Marseille.


On the regional level, the elaboration of the Charter for the Coastal areas of Brittany a Regional Conference on the Sea and Coast involved stakeholders in the coordination of public action in the coastal area.xxxii




IV. Transboundary cooperation
IV.1 Regional sea level

France is a party to the Barcelona Convention and has signed and ratified the ICZM Protocol. France is collaborating on ICM with other countries of the Mediterranean under the Priority Actions Programme Regional Activity Centre (PAP-RAC) framework. Aspects of climate change, energy and maritime planning are treated in the framework of the Union for the Mediterranean.


France is a member of MedPAN (Network of Marine Protected Area Managers in the Mediterranean). During July 2010 until June 2013 France participated together with Greece, Italy, Spain, Malta and Slovenia in the MedPAN North Project, which aimed to enhance management effectiveness of marine protected areas in the Northern Mediterranean,
France is a party to the OSPAR Convention (OSPAR, protecting and conserving the North-East Atlantic and its resources) and under the OSPAR Commission cooperates with 15 countries on the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic.
IV.2 Bilateral and other transboundary initiatives

France is a party to the Ramoge Agreement for Coastal Protection and Management, which covers the coast of the Liguria Region (Italy) and the neighbouring French Mediterranean coast as well as that of Monaco.


The Mediterranean Small Islands Initiative is led by the French Coastal Protection Agency (Conservatoire du Littoral). The Initiative brings together partners from Algeria, Italy, Morocco, Spain and Tunisia.
French officials take part in meetings of the North Sea Coastal Managers Group (NSCMG).xxxiii
Due to its overseas territories (Territoires d’Outre-Mer) France is a signatory to a number of international Conventions regulating the protection and use of sea in a wide area all over the world. Examples of such conventions include Cartagena Convention on the protection of the maritime environment in the Carribean region, The Nairobi Convention for the East-African region, and the Nouméa Convention for the Indian ocean.


Sources and further information
The official website of the French Government: http://www.gouvernement.fr/
The Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy: http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/
The official database of the French legal acts: http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/





1 Ministries having responsibilities related to Sea and Maritime affairs include the Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Economy and Finance, the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, Ministry for the Outre-Mer, Ministry for Research, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry for Agriculture.

i Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000022470434&fastPos=1&fastReqId=1572943380&categorieLien=cid&oldAction=rechTexte accessed on 11 November 2013

ii Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do;jsessionid=7F593D22295878A4C642610452B366A6.tpdjo04v_1?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000020949548&dateTexte=20130812 accessed on 11 November 2013

iii Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do;jsessionid=F71C1EC475ED51A4567D6E4C4BA14DB4.tpdjo03v_3?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006074220&dateTexte=20131111 accessed on 11 November 2013

ivAvailable in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do;jsessionid=3FAE6352EEA0A43C1A6B97798C8E4086.tpdjo04v_1?idSectionTA=LEGISCTA000022494810&cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006074220&dateTexte=20131112 accessed on 12 November 2013

v Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do?dateTexte=20131112&cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006074075&fastReqId=1757595527&fastPos=1&oldAction=rechCodeArticle accessed on 12 November 2013

vihttp://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do;jsessionid=3FAE6352EEA0A43C1A6B97798C8E4086.tpdjo04v_1?idSectionTA=LEGISCTA000006158562&cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006074075&dateTexte=20131112

vii Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000317531&fastPos=1&fastReqId=1099067973&categorieLien=cid&oldAction=rechTexte accessed on 12 November 2013

viii Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000249388&fastPos=1&fastReqId=866388232&categorieLien=cid&oldAction=rechTexte accessed on 12 November 2013

ix Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000023950589&fastPos=1&fastReqId=290827515&categorieLien=cid&oldAction=rechTexte accessed on 12 November 2013

x Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000249388&fastPos=1&fastReqId=866388232&categorieLien=cid&oldAction=rechTexte accessed on 12 November 2013

xi Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000021817062&fastPos=1&fastReqId=69074769&categorieLien=cid&oldAction=rechTexte accessed on 12 November 2013

xii Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000020318222&fastPos=1&fastReqId=326170431&categorieLien=cid&oldAction=rechTexte accessed on 12 November 2013

xiii Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000357112&fastPos=1&fastReqId=1970185138&categorieLien=cid&oldAction=rechTexte accessed on 12 November 2013

xiv Ministry of the Ecology, Sustainable development and Energy. ‘Les schémas de mise en valeur de la mer (SMVM)’ available at http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/Les-schemas-de-mise-en-valeur-de.html accessed on 12 November 2013

xv Available in French at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000320197&fastPos=1&fastReqId=1936635&categorieLien=cid&oldAction=rechTexte accessed on 12 November 2013

xvi Ministère de l'Egalite des territoires et du Logement, official website, http://territoires.gouv.fr/

xvii Ministère de l'Egalite des territoires et du Logement, http://www.territoires.gouv.fr/spip.php?article39

xviii Milieu Ltd., Developing a process for stakeholder involvement following the adaptation of the EU Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change: Adaptation at Regional Level, 2013. (Interview in the context of another research project carried out by Milieu

xix La Délégation interministérielle à l’aménagement du territoire et à l’attractivité régionale (DATAR), official website, http://www.datar.gouv.fr/

xx http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/Les-Directions-interregionales-de.html accessed on 14 February 2014

xxi Rapport Poseidon 2006, p.118

xxii Le Livre Bleu « la stratégie nationale pour la mer et les océans », available online at http://www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/var/storage/rapports-publics/104000028/0000.pdf accessed on 12 November 2013

xxiii Le Livre Bleu « La stratégie nationale pour la mer et les océans » http://www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/var/storage/rapports-publics/104000028/0000.pdf p. 6

xxiv Ibid. p7-29

xxv Ibid.

xxvi « La stratégie nationale pour la mer et les océans » available at: http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Strategie_Nationale_2-17_Mo-2-2.pdf

xxvii National plan available at : http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/ONERC-PNACC-complet.pdf

xxviii Milieu, 2013.

xxix For the Durable development of the Breton Coastal Region: The Britanny Coast Charter. Available in English at http://www.bretagne.fr/internet/upload/docs/application/pdf/2008-10/charte_gizc_angl-web.pdf accessed on 12 November 2013

xxx Ministry of the Ecology, Sustainable development and Energy. More information on the Liteau programme available at http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/L-esprit-du-programme.html

xxxi More information on the process and stakeholder inclusion available at http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/Retour-sur-le-processus-du.html accessed on 12 November 2013

xxxii France Member State Report, 2010, p.28

xxxiii http://www.nscmg.org/

This draft fact sheet has been prepared by the consortium led by Milieu Ltd, contracted by the European Commission (DG Environment) for the project on Sharing of Best Practices on Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) in a Context of Adaptation to Climate Change in Coastal Areas. Information was gathered via a questionnaire to Member State officials, plus desk research. The fact sheet is intended to present a summary on the approach to coastal management, in particular with regard to adaptation to climate change, with the goal of sharing information on Member State practices. No assessment is intended. The information contained in the fact sheets has not been reviewed by the European Commission and should not be considered a reflection of its official views. Please send any comments or corrections regarding this draft to: mari.tepp@milieu.be




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