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Chapter 19 Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution:


the switch to machine-made goods begun in Britain, mid-1700s

Causes and effects of Enclosure Movement:


Causes: 1) desire of large landowners to cultivate larger fields more efficiently; 2) legislation of British Parliament encouraging it. Effects: 1) rise in profitable farm output and therefore a rise in population; 2) farm laborers put out of work, small farmers forced off land; 3) shrinking farming villages, increasing population migrating to towns and cities (urbanization)

Causes and effects of Agricultural Revolution:


Causes: 1) improved farming methods (fertilizer from livestock, crop rotation, turnips to restore nitrogen to the soil) 2) Jethro Tull’s mechanical seed drill. Effects: 1) population growth; 2) better health; 3) urbanization



the movement of people to cities, caused by soaring population, demand for workers in factories; a key result of industrialization



the process of converting the production of goods from the simple and handmade to the more complex and machine-made; textiles was the first industry to undergo this process; begun in Britain because it had: plenty of natural resources (coal, iron), ports and navigable rivers, a skilled class of mechanics, capital, a supportive government that promoted and protected trade; led eventually to rising middle class and expansion of democracy

Working Conditions during the Industrial Revolution


harsh working conditions initially included a rigid schedule, long hours, low pay, no safety devices, poor ventilation; in mines it was worse (breathing coal dust led to lung disease, threat of explosions, flooding, collapse of tunnels



new machine innovations that led to factories

Factories :


built to accommodate larger spinning and weaving machines, which could no longer fit inside peasant cottages, where they had been during the days of the “putting-out system”; first located near fast-moving streams, where waterwheels could harness the power … later, machines were powered by steam engines

Spinning jenny:


invented by James Hargreaves, 1764; enabled the spinning of many threads at the same time

Flying shuttle:


invented by John Kay, 1733; led to faster weaving of cloth

Water frame:


invented by Richard Arkwright, 1769; a spinning machine that could be powered by water

Child labor:


children as young as 5 were employed in factories and mines, where their small size was an asset; laws were eventually passed to outlaw child labor and require they be educated

Factors of production


the inputs of production: land, labor and capital (money to invest in enterprises)



work stoppage caused by workers refusing to work; tactic used by labor unions to demand better working conditions, pay and other benefits


the organized refusal to buy goods or services from a particular business or country, in protest, such as Gandhi’s boycott of British textiles in India

Collective bargaining


the power won by labor unions to bargain with employers for better wages, hours and working conditions for employees

Worker’s compensation


pay for workers gradually increased over time, allowing them to afford some luxuries; Workers’ Compensation is a government program that requires employers to pay workers if they are injured on the job

Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto


Marx, a German philosopher, wrote The Communist Manifesto (with Friederich Engels) in 1848; theorized that there was a history of class struggle between the “haves” (bourgeoisie) and “have nots” (proletariat, or working class), and eventually the proletariat would take control of the means of production and set up a classless, communist society.

Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations


Smith was an economist who argued that a free market – the unregulated exchange of goods and services – would help everyone, not just the rich. His book The Wealth of Nations was published in 1776 and remains the foremost defense of laissez-faire capitalism and the idea that economic decisions should be left to market forces – the laws of supply and demand.

Chapter 20 Revolutions in Europe and Latin America

Simon Bolivar


creole Latin American leader, inspired by the Enlightenment, who liberated much of northern regions of South America from Spanish rule in the early 1800s

Jose de San Martin:


creole leader who helped Bolivar liberate Argentina, Chile and Peru

Causes and effects of Latin American Independence


Causes: 1) spread of Enlightenment ideas; 2) American, French revolutions; 3) spread of nationalism; 4) Napoleon’s invasion of Spain. Effects: 1) colonial rule ends in much of Latin America; 2) numerous independent nations emerge in Latin America; 3) continuing challenge to achieve political stability, economic independence



valued peace and stability over change; included monarchs, noble landowners, church leaders; felt natural rights and constitutional government would lead to chaos; were opposed to the French Revolution



spoke out against the divine right of kings and wanted government based on written constitutions and separation of powers; believed in natural rights of individuals to liberty, equality and property; included business owners, bankers, lawyers



those who favor extreme change

Chapter 22 Nationalism Triumphs in Europe

Count Camillo Cavour


prime minister of Sardinia in the mid-1800s; with Garibaldi unified Italy

Giuseppe Garibaldi


nationalist who led red-shirted volunteers who fought to take control of Sicily; with aid from Cavour, helped create a unified republic of Italy

Otto von Bismarck


prime minister and then chancellor of Prussia, the strongest of Germany’s confederation of states; with warlike “blood and iron” policies and Realpolitik (realistic politics based on the needs of the state, which might involve trickery such as his editing of the “Ems dispatch” to induce France to declare a war on Prussia it could not win) he led Germany to unification



a strong feeling of pride and devotion to one’s country; led to the unification of Germany and Italy in the late 1800s; contributed to Latin American wars for independence in early 1800s

Chapter 24 New Imperialism

Causes and effects of imperialism (Africa, India, Asia


Causes: 1) weakness of non-Western states, including the declining Ottoman, Mughal and Qing empires; 2) strong European economies and competing demand for raw materials, strategically located islands to refuel ships, and new markets for factory-made goods; 3) superior European technology (better guns, riverboats, telegraph, the anti-malarial drug quinine); 4) the “civilizing mission” to spread Christianity; 5) the racist justification of Social Darwinism. Effects: 1) Africans, Asians fought back, sometimes with nationalist movements; 2) anti-imperialist protests in the West; 3) dependent, cash-crop economies are set up as European countries control trade; 4) Christianity spreads further in Africa, India and Asia.
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