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Berlin Conference



570

meeting of European powers in 1884 to set the ground rules for the Scramble for Africa – colonizing Africa in a way that would limit European bloodshed; if a European nation claimed an area of Africa, then it had to set up a government office there

Spheres of influence in China:

567

590


form of economic imperialism in which European powers claimed exclusive investment, trading and mining rights in a region of China

The Opium War



587

(1839) war fought when Britain refused to stop selling opium in China; Britain won easily, resulting in “unequal treaties” that forced China to make concessions to Western powers, such as extraterritoriality (the right to be subject to their own laws, not China’s); Britain also was awarded the island of Hong Kong and five new ports for trade

Suez Canal


579

built in the mid-1800s in Egypt to link the Mediterranean and Red seas, which greatly decreased travel time from Europe to the Indian Ocean, which was a boost to trade with the East; the British bought a controlling interest in it and then made Egypt a protectorate to secure swift communication with its “jewel in the crown,” its colony of India

Chapter 25 New Global Patterns

Tokugawa Shogunate


598

the Tokugawas, a family of shoguns (supreme military dictators), seized power in Japan in 1603 and re-imposed centralized feudalism, closed Japan to foreigners and forbade travel overseas; the only contact with the wider world was through the port of Nagasaki, where the Dutch were allowed very limited trade

Meiji Restoration


600

(1868-1912) the return, or restoration, of power to the emperor in Japan; followed nationalist unrest created by U.S. demands to open Japanese ports to American ships; quickly adopted Western-style technology and bureaucracy, which led to rapid modernization and industrialization of Japan as a rising imperialist nation in the Pacific

Chapter 26 World War I and Russian Revolution

Total War


643

modern, mechanized warfare that requires the channeling of a nation’s entire resources to the war effort; includes universal military conscription (the draft), economic warfare, propaganda, women working on the home front

Role of Propaganda


644

propaganda is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause; in World War I, it was used to motivate military mobilization before conscription … in France and Germany, it was used to encourage people to loan money to the government … Allies played up the brutality of Germany’s invasion of neutral Belgium and exaggerated or made up tales of German atrocities

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare


644

policy of the Germans to sink any ship carrying goods to Britain; included the infamous sinking of the British ocean liner Lusitania, which killed 1,200 passengers

Stalemate


636

a deadlock in warfare where neither side is able to defeat the other; this was the case on the Western Front in France, where battle lines between France and Germany remained virtually unchanged for four years

Rationing


643

the limiting or restriction of the amount of certain consumer goods (leather boots, gasoline) available to civilians so that they can be reserved for and used by the military

Western Front


636

involved deadly trench warfare in a stalemate between the Allies and Germans inside French territory

Treaty of Versailles


650

the Allies forced Germany to sign this following World War I; Germany had to accept full blame for the war (the so-called “war-guilt clause”), pay massive reparations, dismantle its military, give back land to France, and give up its overseas colonies; resentment over the treaty fueled the later rise of Hitler and paved the way toward World War II

Causes of World War I


660

long-term causes included nationalism, militarism, imperial competition among European countries, and a tangled system of alliances; short-term cause was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne

Causes of Russian Revolution


653-654

1) Czar Nicholas II was weak, ineffective and unwilling to give up his power; 2) workers were dissatisfied with low pay, grueling working conditions and poor standard of living; 3) Russia’s resources were badly strained by World War I, with food shortages leaving many on the brink of starvation; 4) rise of Marxists, including the revolutionary Bolsheviks, who eventually seized power and executed Czar Nicholas II and the rest of his Romanov family

Vladimir Lenin


655

leader of the Bolsheviks, who wanted to establish a “dictatorship of the proletariat” in Russia based on the ideas of Karl Marx; led the transformation of Russia into the communist Soviet Union and set the precedent that Stalin followed to imprison or even murder his political enemies within the Soviet Union; his New Economic Policy (NEP) temporarily allowed some capitalism to bring back the Soviet economy from the brink of collapse, but later under Stalin pure communism was re-established

Chapter 27 Nationalism and Revolution Around the World

Mahatma Gandhi


679

leader of India’s independence movement; preached the doctrine of nonviolence and civil disobedience, or the quiet refusal to obey unjust laws; fought to end the harsh treatment of untouchables, India’s lowest caste; famously led the Salt March in protest of Britain’s monopoly on salt, which also symbolized British oppression

Boycott


680

Gandhi called on Indians to boycott, or refuse to buy, British goods (especially cotton textiles) and made the spinning wheel a symbol of his nationalist movement

Chapter 28 Rise of Totalitarianism

Government Reactions to the Great Depression

(Britain/France/United States




709-710

Britain set up a coalition government to provide some unemployment benefits but failed to take decisive action to alleviate the tough economic times (unemployment reached 25% in 1931); leftists in France (which was in better shape initially but was hurt by the depression by the mid-1930s) united behind socialist leader Leon Blum, whose government passed some social legislation but failed to provide strong leadership; Americans in 1932 elected Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who introduced his New Deal, a massive package of economic and social programs (including Social Security) that greatly expanded the scope of the federal government.

Joseph Stalin



718

totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union, who rose to power after Lenin’s death in the 1920s; like Lenin but even more forcefully, used terror against his own people and sent critics to the Gulag, a brutal labor camp where many died; after the Soviet Union recaptured much of Eastern Europe from Germany in defeating Hitler, he kept firm control of this land behind the “iron curtain” as a defense against future invasions

Five-Year Plans



718

Stalin’s programs for building heavy industry, improving transportation and increasing farm output by bringing all economic activity under government control in a command economy (all economic decisions made by communist government officials); led to significant industrial gains but a shortage of consumer goods

Adolf Hitler


726

leader of Germany’s Nazi party; rose to power by vowing to end reparations, create jobs and defy the Treaty of Versailles by rearming the country; believed that the German master race would dominate Europe for a thousand years

Benito Mussolini


712

fascist dictator of Italy who rose to power in the 1920s amid the chaos of World War I’s aftermath; used intimidation and terror to glorify the state and restrict the rights of citizens

Francisco Franco


740

conservative general who led a revolt that brought civil war in Spain; became fascist dictator with help from Hitler and Mussolini, but Spain remained neutral in WWII

Totalitarian State/totalitarianism


714

form of government with one-party dictatorship, regulation of every aspect of citizens’ lives and use of terror to glorify the state and restrict challenges to authority; can be fascist or communist

Inflation in Germany


727

Germany printed money during and after WWI without the wealth to back it up, resulting in hyperinflation; prices and salaries skyrocketed (an item that cost 100 marks in 1922 cost 944,000 marks a year later); this economic crisis contributed to the rise of Hitler and the Nazis

Fascism


715

centralized, authoritarian government that is not communism; featured extreme nationalism, propaganda, blind loyalty to the state, rejection of democratic values like liberty and equality; charismatic leaders like Mussolini and Hitler glorified war as noble; main difference with totalitarian communism of Soviet Union was the continued existence of a capitalist class of industrialists who supported and benefitted from their ties to fascist leaders

Third Reich’s influence over German life


729-730

Nazis controlled all areas of German life, from government to religion to education; Hitler used the black-uniformed SS and the secret police (Gestapo) to eliminate opposition voices

Chapter 29 World War II and its Aftermath

Appeasement


739

a policy of giving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace and avoid war; pursued by Western democracies (such as Britain and France) toward Hitler as they allowed him, at the Munich Conference, to take the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia

Blitzkrieg


744

Hitler’s “lightning war” tactic of using overwhelming tank and airpower technologies to deliver a swift and decisive strike against enemies, such as Poland

Genocide


865

the deliberate attempt to destroy an entire religious or ethnic group; Hitler pursued this as his “Final Solution” against Jews, killing 6 million of them during the Holocaust

Anti-Semitism


729

Hatred and prejudice against Jews; in Hitler’s Nazi Germany, this was seen in the Nuremberg Laws that deprived Jews of citizenship, the Kristallnacht (or Night of Broken Glass) mob attacks against Jewish communities and businesses, and finally the Holocaust

Lebensraum





German for “living space”; Hitler called for all Germans (including those in neighboring countries) to unite into one great nation, which was his justification for invading Poland, annexing Austria, etc.

Causes of

World War II




772

1) failure of peace settlement of World War I, including the Treaty of Versailles; 2) the Great Depression, which helped the rise of fascism; 3) militarism and imperial aggression by Japan, Germany and Italy (the Axis Powers); 4) British and French appeasement toward Hitler.

Invasion of Poland


744

Hitler invaded Poland on Sept. 1, 1939, launching World War II; the Soviets then attacked from the east, taking land promised them as part of the Nazi-Soviet pact

The Holocaust



748

the organized murder of 6 million Jews by Hitler, beginning in 1941; initially Jews were rounded up, executed and buried in mass graves … but later they were sent to death camps where they were worked to death or gassed; the Holocaust also involved the killing of millions of others, including gypsies, homosexuals and the mentally handicapped; worldwide outrage helped lead to the creation of Israel following WWII

Causes and effects of Japan’s quest for natural resources



751

Japan lacked natural resources (which it needed for industrial purposes) in its homeland, so it conquered lands across East and Southeast Asia; nationalist groups in the Philippines, Indochina and elsewhere waged guerilla warfare against the Japanese invaders; the U.S. banned the sale of war materials (including iron, steel and oil)

Atomic bombs



765

first developed by the U.S. with its massive and ultra-secret research effort called the Manhattan Project; successfully tested and then used on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945; President Truman decided to use them to bring the war against Japan to a quick end and avoid a land invasion of the country, which he reasoned would save up to a million lives

NATO



770

North Atlantic Treaty Organization: a military alliance of the U.S., Canada and 10 other countries; members pledged to help each other if any was attacked; created in 1949 in the early days of the Cold War

Warsaw Pact



770

the military alliance of the Soviet Union and seven satellite nations in Eastern Europe; formed in 1955 as a Cold War response to the earlier creation of NATO

Chapter 30 Cold War

Ho Chi Minh



807

the communist and nationalist leader who fought for independence from French colonial rule in Vietnam; was determined to united North and South Vietnam under communist rule; aided the Viet Cong rebels trying to overthrow South Vietnam’s government (the supply line from North Vietnam was called the Ho Chi Minh Trail)

Berlin Wall



780

East Germany built a massive concrete barrier topped with barbed wire and patrolled by guards in 1961 to keep East Germans from fleeing to West Germany; this was an early sign of the weakness of communism and the dissatisfaction of people living under it

Revolts in Eastern Europe (East Berlin,

Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia)




817

nationalism inspired revolts in Eastern Europe after Mikhail Gorbachev introduced glasnost (“openness” and an end to censorship) and perestroika (restructuring of the Soviet government and economy to improve efficiency); Poland’s Solidarity movement led the Eastern Europe rebellion against the Soviet empire’s policies, finally holding free elections in 1989 and electing Solidarity leader Lech Walesa president; Hungary introduced modest reforms; East Germany resisted Gorbachev’s calls for change, but East Germans could watch West German television and see greater prosperity there … so when Hungary opened its border with Austria in 1989, many East Germans fled to West Germany via Hungary and Austria
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