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2.3Building Requirements


In the past decades, the building envelope of modern buildings has improved significantly. Therefore, buildings with a comparatively low heating and cooling demand - the cornerstone of a sustainable energy concept - can be realized in Mid-European climates. Those buildings aim to establish a pleasant interior environment without costly building service equipment and without an excessive energy use. While the heating demand in non-residential buildings could be reduced significantly, the cooling demand is growing because of increased internal loads by office appliances and increased glazed areas on modern commercial buildings. This trend has been amplified by recent warmer summers in many areas and an increased demand for comfort.

Cooling demand for comfort purpose in buildings is mainly due to climatic conditions. Other important factors are building standards, the cooling system installed, and occupant behavior [ECOHEATCOOL 2006].



  • Regional climatic conditions: temperature and humidity differences depending on geographical position. The predominating factor is usually the outdoor air temperature.

  • Urban climatic conditions: the climate in densely built area can differ from surrounding climate as for example the temperature wind speed, and humidity.

  • Building design: the architectural and structural design features of the building have a strong impact on the indoor climate (building layout, insulation, window orientation, shading, ventilation, daylighting concept, and micro-climate around the building.

  • Building use: Furthermore internal heat gains from people, lighting, and equipment account for the cooling demand.

  1. Comfort requirements and use: working hours, vacation period, and the required indoor temperature have a major impact on the cooling demand and consumption.

2.4References


[Adnot et al. 2003] Adnot, J. et al. (2003) Energy Efficiency and Certification of Central Air Conditioners (EECCAC). Final Report, Volume 1-3. Study for the D.G. Transportation-Energy (DGTREN) of the Commission of the E.U. Paris, France.

[Aebischer 2007] Aebischer, B., Catenazzi, G. and Jakob, M. (2007) Impact of climate change on thermal comfort, heating and cooling energy demand in Europe. Proceedings ECEEE Summer Studies. Saving Energy – Just do it!, 4-9 June 2007, La Colle Sur Loup, France.

[Ala-Juusela, Annex 37] Ala-Juusela, M. (xxxx) LowEx-Guidebook: Low Exergy Systems for Heating and Cooling of Buildings”. Guidebook to IEA ECBCS Annex 37 ow Exergy Systems for Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Editor, edition

[Brown et al. 2005] Brown, M. A., Southworth, F. and Stovall, T. K. (2005) Towards a climate-friendly built environment. Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. http://www.pewclimate.org/technology-solutions/pubs, July 2011.

[Com 2008] Communication from the commission to the European Parliament, the Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. “20 20 by 2020: Europe’s climate change opportunity”. COM (2008) 30 final, Brussels 23.1.2008.

[Directive 2002/91/EC] Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on the energy performance of buildings. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 1/65. http://eur-lex.europa.eu.

[ECOHEATCOOL 2006] ECOHEATCOOL The European Cold Market, Final Report, Work package 2, Ecoheatcool and Euroheat & Power 2005-2006. Brussels, Belgium.

[EEA 2006] European Environment Agency (2006) Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe. ISSN 1725-9177. Copenhagen. www.eea.europa.eu/environment/ecoinovation2007/, July 2011.

[Jochem and Schade 2009] Jochem, E. and Schade, W. (2009): ADAM 2-degree scenario for Europe – policies and impacts. Deliverable D3 of work package M1. ADAM Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies: Supporting European Climate Policy. Fraunhofer Institute Systems and Innovation Research (Fraunhofer-ISI).

[Henning 2004] Henning, H.-M. (2004) Solar-Assited Air-Conditioning in Buildings- A Handbook for Planners. Springer-Verlag, 1st ed., Wien, Austria. Editor, edition

[McKinsey 2007] McKinsey & Company (2007) Reducing U.S. greenhouse gas emissions: How much at what cost. http://www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/ccsi/pdf/US_ghg_final_report.pdf, March 2009.

[Pfafferott 2004] Pfafferott, J. (2004) Enhancing the Design and Operation of Passive Cooling Concepts. Dissertation University of Karlsruhe. Fraunhofer IRB Verlag.

[Riviere et al. 2008] Riviere, P., (2008) Preparatory study on the environmental performance of residential room conditioning appliances (airco and ventilation). Final Report. ECODESIGN Lot 10. Contract TREN/D1/40-2005/LOT10/S07.56606.

[Riviere et al. 2010] Riviere, P., Adnot, J., Spadaro, J. , Hitchin, R., Pout, C., Kemna, R., van Elburg, M. and van Holsteijn, R. (2010) Sustainable Industrial Policy – Building on the Ecodesign Directive – Energy-Using Product Group Analysis; LOT 6: Air-conditioning and ventilation systems. ENTR/B1/35-2009/LOT6/S12.549494.

[Santamouris 2007] Santamouris, S. (2007) Advances in Passive Cooling. EarthScan, London, UK. Editor, edition

[Stern 2006] Stern, N., Peters, S., Bakhshi, V., Bowen, A., Cameon, C., Catovsky, S., Crane, D., Cruickshank, S., Dietz, S., Edmonson, N., Garbett, S.-L., Hamid, L., Hoffman, G., Ingram, D., Jones, B., Patmore, N., Radcliffe, H., Sathiyarajah, R., Stock, M., Taylor, C., Vernon, T., Wanjie, H., and Zenghelis, D. (2006) Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change. HM Treasury London. http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/stern_review_report.htm, July 2011.

[Weiss and Biermayr 2009] Weiss, W. and Biermayr, P. (2005) Potential of Solar Thermal in Europe. Final Report. RESTMAC. Bruxelles, Belgium.
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