Review Package unit 2: Expansion, Nationalism, and Sectionalism (1800-1865)

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Susan Wagner High School
US History and Government Regents

Review Package
UNIT 2: Expansion, Nationalism, and Sectionalism (1800-1865)

Course Wide Compelling Questions

  • How do challenges force or shape the evolution of a democratic society?

Essential Questions  

  • What were the causes & effects of the American revolution?

  • What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

  • Why was the Constitution of 1787 written?

  • How does federalism impact or shape American society?

  • What are the basic components of and systems of the US Federal Government?


  • Political and economic tensions between Great Britain and the Colonies led to colonists declaring independence from Great Britain

  • The new nation faced challenges while trying to become a new stable independent federal republic

Content Knowledge - Years: 1763 - 1800
Impact of French and Indian War

Pre-Revolutionary war tension between England & the Colonies

Revolutionary movement - evolution of self-governance

The Declaration of Independence

Revolutionary War

Articles of Confederation

The Constitutional Convention

The United States Constitution

GW Presidency

The Marshall Court

Election of 1800

Course Wide Compelling Questions

  • How does the United States balance national and regional interests?

  • Is there one American experience?

Essential Questions  

  • How did territorial expansion impact economic growth in America between 1800 and 1865?

  • Why did feelings of sectionalism arise in America between 1800 - 1865?

  • What were the causes and effects of the Civil War?


  • National expansion resulted in a growth of nationalism & the national economy, but had grave impacts on the native populations of the Americas

  • National expansion resulted in dividing the nation, politically, socially, and economically [especially over slavery]

  • Political and constitutional crises culminated into a Civil War

Content Knowledge - Years: 1790 - 1865
The Virginia Presidential Dynasty: Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe

American Nationalism, Expansion, and Economic Growth

Louisiana Purchase

War of 1812

Monroe Doctrine

Jacksonian era

Broken treaties and Indian removal

Manifest Destiny

Sectionalism: The Constitution in Jeopardy

Slavery & the abolition movement

The American Civil War

Multiple Choice Practice

1. Which event was the immediate cause of the secession of several Southern states from the Union in 1860?

  1. the Dred Scott decision, which declared that all prior compromises on the extension of slavery into the territories were unconstitutional

  2. the Missouri Compromise, which kept an even balance between the number of free and slave states

  3. the raid on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, which was led by the militant abolitionist John Brown

  4. the election of President Abraham Lincoln, who opposed the spread of slavery into the territories

2. Which statement about the results of the Civil War is most accurate?

  1. Federal supremacy was strengthened.

  2. Constitutional government was proven ineffective.

  3. Universal suffrage was generally accepted.

  4. Sectional disputes ceased to exist.

3. The constitutional amendment reading: "The right of citizens of the United States who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age." restricted the

  1. reserved powers of the States.

  2. delegated powers of Congress.

  3. powers assumed by the Supreme Court.

  4. powers retained by the people.

4. Which statement about the westward movement in the United States during the nineteenth century is most accurate?

  1. The frontier discouraged interest in the expansion of voting rights.

  2. The frontier experience tended to decrease social class difference.

  3. Western expansion slowed the rate of industrialization.

  4. The West was settled mostly by immigrants from Asian nations.

5. In 1823, the Monroe Doctrine was established mainly because the United States wanted to

  1. keep control of Alaska and Hawaii.

  2. establish more colonies in Latin America.

  3. support England's attempt to keep its empire in Central America.

  4. warn Europe against any further colonization in Latin America.

6. The main goal of the Seneca Falls Convention (1848) was to

  1. obtain equal rights for women.

  2. make the public aware of environmental problems.

  3. correct the abuses of big business.

  4. organize the first labor union in the United States.

7. The Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall was similar to the Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren in that both

  1. strengthened the power and influence of business.

  2. increased the President's war powers.

  3. changed public policy through broad interpretation of the Constitution.

  4. increased the rights of the accused under the fifth and sixth amendments.

8. In 1794, President George Washington sent Federal troops into western Pennsylvania to deal with an uprising known as the Whiskey Rebellion. The significance of President Washington's action is that it

  1. strengthened the power of local and state governments.

  2. forced Congress to pass the Bill of Rights.

  3. showed the strength of the Federal Government under the Constitution.

  4. weakened the power of the Federal Government to collect sales taxes.

9. Which long-term tradition finally became part of the United States Constitution through an amendment?

  1. the two-party system

  2. the appointment of a Presidential Cabinet

  3. restricting the President to two terms of office

  4. the election of Federal judges

10. Which issues were controversial in national politics during the period 1800–1850?

  1. racial prejudice, territorial expansion, immigration policy

  2. tariff policy, nullification, rights of neutrals

  3. regulation of railroads, overseas acquisitions, federal income tax policy

  4. states' rights policy, control of the Northwest Territory, recognition of United States independence by France

11. In the period between 1820 and 1860, Southerners wanted slavery extended to the Western territories so that the South could

  1. continue to elect Southern Presidents.

  2. continue to dominate the Supreme Court.

  3. keep enough strength in the Senate to protect Southern interests.

  4. use slave labor to expand Southern industries.

12. The reason for ending the importation of enslaved persons to the United States after 1807 was the

  1. success of the American colonial revolution against Britain.

  2. rapid industrialization of the South.

  3. replacement of slave labor by immigrant workers from eastern Europe.

  4. passage of legislation that forbids the practice.

13. At the beginning of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln maintained that the war was being fought to

  1. uphold national honor.

  2. prevent foreign involvement.

  3. free all slaves.

  4. preserve the Union.

14. In the United States, the widespread disregard of the fugitive slave laws and of the Prohibition laws most clearly indicated that

  1. strongly held values are difficult to regulate.

  2. the federal government is generally unable to enforce its own laws.

  3. little respect is given to the legal system.

  4. the judicial system is too lenient in its treatment of offenders.

15. The legal basis for the United States purchase of the Louisiana Territory was the

  1. power granted to the President to make treaties.

  2. President's power as Commander in Chief.

  3. authority of Congress to declare war.

  4. Senate's duty to approve the appointment of ambassadors.

16. Which means for redressing grievances is applicable to American Indians but is usually not applicable to other minority groups?

  1. nonviolent marches to draw attention to injustices

  2. equal educational and employment opportunity laws

  3. economic boycott of all products manufactured in the United States

  4. collective lawsuits to recover ancestral lands

17. The tariff issue of 1828, the secession of the Southern states in the 1860s, and school desegregation in the 1950s dealt with the constitutional issue of

  1. the federal-state relationship.

  2. popular sovereignty.

  3. checks and balances.

  4. representation in Congress.

18. Once an amendment has been added to the United States Constitution, which process must be used to change that amendment?

  1. ratifying a new amendment

  2. convincing states to ignore the amendment

  3. having Congress pass a law repealing the amendment

  4. having the President issue an executive order canceling the amendment

19. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott were best noted for their struggle to

  1. prohibit the manufacture and sale of alcohol.

  2. abolish slavery.

  3. secure the right of women to vote.

  4. expose government corruption.

20. The executive branch of the United States government has traditionally gained power during periods when

  1. the presidency has been occupied by a high-ranking military officer.

  2. the Republican Party was in the majority in Congress and the President was a Democrat.

  3. there has been a serious domestic or international problem facing the United States.

  4. the Supreme Court and Congress have been in conflict over constitutional issues.

21. Alexander Hamilton's argument that the government has the power to create a National Bank is based on which part of the Constitution?

  1. the Preamble

  2. the elastic clause

  3. guarantees to the States

  4. the Bill of Rights

22. In the United States, the significant change represented by the Supreme Court's decisions concerning Dred Scott (1857) and Brown v. Board of Education (1954) best illustrates the

  1. ability of government to revise tax laws.

  2. desire of minority groups to be recognized.

  3. disappearance of prejudice and discrimination.

  4. continuing struggle of African Americans to achieve equality.

23. Which statement best reflects the political philosophy of Alexander Hamilton regarding the power of a federal government?

  1. The government which governs least governs best.

  2. The central government should cede most of its authority to local governments.

  3. The government may exercise all powers necessary and proper to meet its responsibilities.

  4. The executive branch may exercise only those powers specifically given to it by the Supreme Court.

24. During the period 1820–1860, the major concerns in the United States dealt with issues related to

  1. determining the future of slavery.

  2. increasing public funding of political campaigns.

  3. decreasing the number of elective offices.

  4. decreasing voter registration drives.

25. The power relationship that changed most as a result of the Civil War was the increase in the power of the

  1. individual over the state.

  2. military over the civilian population.

  3. Congress over the President.

  4. Federal Government over the states.

26. A similarity between the pre-Civil War abolitionist movement and the Progressive movement is that both

  1. were mainly concerned with improving the status of African Americans.

  2. worked to reduce income taxes.

  3. contributed directly to the start of a major war.

  4. sought to improve the conditions of poor or oppressed peoples.

27. Before the Civil War, one example of increased democracy was the

  1. elimination of property ownership as a requirement for voting in national elections.

  2. granting of the right to vote to women.

  3. elimination of the electoral college system for electing the President.

  4. extension of suffrage to most African Americans.

28. Under Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court

  1. stimulated the States rights movement by supporting the idea that states could reject acts of Congress.

  2. helped create a sense of national unity by strengthening the federal government.

  3. weakened the judiciary by refusing to deal with controversial issues.

  4. became heavily involved in foreign affairs.

29. The significance of the case Marbury v. Madison (1803) is that it

  1. established the principle of judicial review.

  2. declared the Alien and Sedition Acts to be legitimate laws.

  3. demonstrated the supremacy of the national government over the states.

  4. attempted to place the judiciary outside the impeachment power of the House of Representatives.

30. The United States Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) was important because it

  1. strengthened the determination of abolitionists to achieve their goals.

  2. caused the immediate outbreak of the Civil War.

  3. ended the importation of slaves into the United States.

  4. increased the power of Congress to exclude slavery from the territories.

31. In the United States during the late 1780s, the Federalists were most likely to support

  1. continued loyalty to the British Government.

  2. establishment of a weak national government.

  3. strengthening of States rights.

  4. ratification of the United States Constitution.

32. Alexander Hamilton believed that a major role of the Federal Government was to

  1. establish and control public schools.

  2. support and encourage business and industry.

  3. promote the superiority of the agrarian way of life.

  4. limit its activities by allowing the states to make important national decisions.

33. In the United States, third-party movements occur most often when

  1. there is clear danger of foreign attack.

  2. the President is inconsistent in foreign policy.

  3. major political parties ignore vital public interests.

  4. interests in overseas trade and possessions intensifies.

34. Actions and policies of the government under President George Washington generally resulted in the

  1. establishment of strong political ties with other nations.

  2. liberation of many enslaved persons.

  3. failure to create a sound financial program for the country.

  4. strengthening of the federal government.

35. Adherence to a strict interpretation of the Constitution would have prevented President Thomas Jefferson from

  1. making the Louisiana Purchase.

  2. writing the "State of the Union" messages.

  3. receiving ambassadors.

  4. commissioning military officers.

Regents Questions

2e- Age of Jackson

1. At times, the United States Government has passed protective tariffs to

  1. encourage foreign trade

  2. help the nation’s manufacturers

  3. reduce the cost of consumer goods

  4. improve the quality of goods

2. “. . . the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers. . . .” — President James Monroe, 1823 Which President later built on the idea expressed in this quotation? 

  1. Abraham Lincoln

  2. Theodore Roosevelt

  3. Harry Truman

  4. Richard Nixon

3. A major reason for the issuance of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) was to

  1. discourage United States trade with Latin America

  2. defend the Panama Canal from Great Britain

  3. prevent further European colonization in the Caribbean region

  4. provide economic aid to Latin American nations

4. During the presidency of Andrew Jackson, the spoils system resulted in

  1. federal laws being nullified by the states

  2. elected officials rewarding their supporters with government jobs

  3. all free males being given the right to vote

  4. the end of political corruption in the federal government

5. One way in which the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798) and the South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification (1832) are similar is that each

  1. claimed that individual states have the right to interpret federal laws

  2. formed part of the unwritten constitution

  3. supported the federal government’s power to declare war

  4. provided a way for new states to enter the Union

6. During the early 1800s, which factor contributed the most to the start of the Industrial Revolution in the United States?

  1. a restriction on European immigration

  2. the end of the slave labor system

  3. an abundance of natural resources

  4. the availability of electricity

7. What was an immediate effect of the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825?

  1. Prices increased for food products along the Atlantic Coast.

  2. Farmers could more easily ship grain to eastern markets.

  3. A territorial conflict began with Canada over the Great Lakes.

  4. Railroads were forced to reduce their shipping rates.

2f. Manifest Destiny

1. The legal basis for the United States purchase of the Louisiana Territory was the

  1. power granted to the President to make treaties

  2. President’s power as Commander in Chief

  3. authority of Congress to declare war

  4. Senate’s duty to approve the appointment of ambassadors

2. "Compromise Enables Maine and Missouri To Enter Union" (1820)
"California Admitted to Union as Free State" (1850)
"Kansas-Nebraska Act Sets Up Popular Sovereignty" (1854)
Which issue is reflected in these headlines?

  1. enactment of protective tariffs

  2. extension of slavery

  3. voting rights for minorities

  4. universal public education

3. The Louisiana Purchase had great geographic significance for the United States because it

  1. reduced British control of North America

  2. focused the United States on westward expansion

  3. extended United States control over Mexico

  4. decreased tensions with Native American Indians

4. The phrase “by military conquest, treaty, and purchase” best describes the

  1. steps in the growth of American industry

  2. methods used to expand the territory of the United States

  3. major parts of President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points

  4. causes of the United States entry into the Korean War

5. When President Thomas Jefferson acquired the Louisiana Territory from France, he demonstrated that he had modified his belief that

  1. the Constitution should be strictly interpreted

  2. the federal government should limit individual rights

  3. adding territory would lead to regional rivalries

  4. commercial development was the main goal of the federal government

6. During the early 1800s, the United States placed few restrictions on immigration because

  1. the Constitution did not allow restrictions

  2. labor unions welcomed the new workers

  3. southern landowners needed additional workers

  4. the industrial economy was creating new jobs

7. Before the Civil War, the principle of popular sovereignty was proposed as a means of

  1. allowing states to secede from the Union

  2. permitting voters to nullify federal laws

  3. deciding the legalization of slavery in a new state

  4. overturning unpopular decisions of the Supreme Court

8. Which geographic advantage did the United States gain by purchasing the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803?

  1. warm-water ports on the Atlantic coast

  2. rich fishing areas in the Great Lakes

  3. full control of the Mississippi River

  4. vast coal reserves in the region west of Pennsylvania

9. As the United States acquired more land between 1803 and 1850, controversy over these territories focused on the

  1. need for schools and colleges

  2. failure to conserve natural resources

  3. expansion of slavery

  4. construction of transcontinental railroads

10. The Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 was mainly concerned with

  1. ending slavery in all the states

  2. reducing consumption of alcoholic beverages

  3. improving treatment of the mentally ill

  4. expanding women’s rights



A. Nullification crisis

B. Kansas-Nebraska Act
C. Dred Scott v. Sanford
D. Election of Lincoln (1860)

Which heading best completes the partial outline?

  1. Foreign Policies of the United States

  2. Government Policies Toward Native American Indians

  3. Consequences of Manifest Destiny

  4. Causes of Sectional Conflict

12. In 1862, the Homestead Act and the Pacific Railway Act were passed primarily to

  1. achieve Northern victory in the Civil War

  2. develop the Midwest and western parts of the country

  3. improve the lives of freed slaves

  4. expand overseas markets to Asia and Europe

13. The Louisiana Purchase initially presented a dilemma for President Thomas Jefferson because he believed it would

  1. lead to war with Great Britain

  2. bankrupt the new nation

  3. force Native American Indians off their lands

  4. violate his strict constructionist view of the Constitution

14. The rapid westward migration caused by the discovery of gold in California led directly to

  1. the start of the Civil War

  2. the adoption of the Compromise of 1850

  3. increased trade through the Panama Canal

  4. control of the United States Senate by the slave states

15. Manifest Destiny was used to justify an American desire to

  1. limit the number of immigrants entering the country

  2. control the area located east of the Appalachian Mountains

  3. expand the United States to the Pacific Ocean

  4. warn European countries against colonizing Latin America

16. In the 1850s, the phrase “Bleeding Kansas” was used to describe clashes between

  1. proslavery and antislavery groups

  2. Spanish landowners and new American settlers

  3. Chinese and Irish railroad workers

  4. Native American Indians and white settlers

2g: The Civil War

1. Which argument did President Abraham Lincoln use against the secession of the Southern States?

  1. Slavery was not profitable

  2. The government was a union of people and not of states.

  3. The Southern States did not permit their people to vote on secession.

  4. As the Commander in Chief, he had the duty to defend the United States against foreign invasion.

2. The abolitionist movement, the women’s suffrage movement, and the 1960’s civil rights movement are all examples of reform efforts that

  1. succeeded without causing major controversy

  2. developed significant popular support

  3. achieved their goals without government action

  4. failed to affect the nation as a whole

3. Which statement best explains President Abraham Lincoln’s justification for the Civil War?

  1. As an abolitionist, President Lincoln wanted to end slavery in the United States.

  2. President Lincoln wanted to keep the South economically dependent on the industrial North.

  3. President Lincoln’s oath of office required him to defend and preserve the Union.

  4. To keep the support of Great Britain and France, President Lincoln had to try to end slavery immediately.

4. A major result of the Civil War was that the

  1. economic system of the South came to dominate the United States economy

  2. Federal Government’s power over the States was strengthened

  3. members of Congress from Southern States gained control of the legislative branch

  4. nation’s industrial development came to a standstill

5. Sectional differences developed in the United States largely because

  1. the Federal Government adopted a policy of neutrality

  2. economic conditions and interests in each region varied

  3. only northerners were represented at the Constitutional Convention

  4. early Presidents favored urban areas over rural areas

6. "By the 1850’s, the Constitution, originally framed as an instrument of national unity, had become a source of sectional discord."

This quotation suggests that

  1. vast differences of opinion existed over the issue of States rights

  2. the Federal Government had become more interested in foreign affairs than in domestic problems

  3. the Constitution had no provisions for governing new territories

  4. the Southern States continued to import slaves

7. Early in his Presidency, Abraham Lincoln declared that his primary goal as President was to

  1. enforce the Emancipation Proclamation

  2. preserve the Union

  3. end slavery throughout the entire country

  4. encourage sectionalism

8. The rulings of the Supreme Court in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857), Plessy v. Ferguson(1896), and Korematsu v. United States (1944) all demonstrate that the Supreme Court has

  1. continued to extend voting rights to minorities

  2. protected itself from internal dissent

  3. sometimes failed to protect the rights of minorities

  4. often imposed restrictions on free speech during wartime

9. "Compromise Enables Maine and Missouri To Enter Union" (1820)

"California Admitted to Union as Free State" (1850)
"Kansas-Nebraska Act Sets Up Popular Sovereignty" (1854)

Which issue is reflected in these headlines?

  1. enactment of protective tariffs

  2. extension of slavery

  3. voting rights for minorities

  4. universal public education

10. Before the Civil War, slavery expanded in the South rather than in the North because

  1. the Constitution contained a clause that outlawed the importation of slaves into the Northern states

  2. Congress passed a law forbidding slavery in the North

  3. Northern states passed affirmative action legislation

  4. geographic conditions in the South encouraged the development of large plantations

11. Which phrase best completes the title for the partial outline shown below? I. Reasons for the ______________________ A. Increasing sectionalism B. Disagreements over states’ rights issues C. Breakdown of compromise D. Election of 1860 

  1. Start of the Revolutionary War

  2. Adoption of the Bill of Rights

  3. Failure of the Whiskey Rebellion

  4. Secession of Southern States from the Union

12. "A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.” -Abraham Lincoln, 1858 According to this quotation, Abraham Lincoln believed that 

  1. slavery was immoral and should be abolished immediately

  2. sectional differences threatened to destroy the Union

  3. the Southern states should be allowed to secede

  4. to save the nation, the North should compromise with the South on slavery

13. "A house divided against itself cannot stand. . . . I do not expect the Union to be dissolved; I do not expect the house to fall; but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other. . . .” -Abraham Lincoln, 1858 The “divided house” referred to in this speech was caused primarily by 

  1. expansionism

  2. war with Mexico

  3. slavery

  4. the suffrage movement

14. The election results shown on this map most clearly reflect the influence of

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