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Configure TCP/IP Settings



Familiarization of network devices



To Configure the Wireless LAN



To plan Personal Area Network



To install any one Open Source Packet Capture Software like Wireshark



Configuring a Wireless Access Point



To Configure ADHOC Network



To develop programs for implementing/ simulating routing algorithms for ADHOC network



To configure Wireless local Loop.



Configure TCP/IP Settings

  • To configure TCP/IPv4

  1. Open the Network Connections folder and view available connections.

  2. Right-click the connection that you want to configure, and then click Properties.

  3. Do one of the following:

    • If the connection is a local area connection, on the General tab, in this connection uses the following items, click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4), and then click Properties.

    • If the connection is a dial-up, VPN, or broadband connection, on the Networking tab, in this connection uses the following items, click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4), and then click Properties.

    • If the connection is an incoming connection, see Configure an Incoming Connection to use TCP/IP.

  4. Do one of the following:

    • If you want IP settings to be assigned automatically by a DHCP server, VPN server, or other device that provides DHCP services that is installed on the network to which you’re connecting, click Obtain an IP address automatically, and then click OK.

  5. If you want to specify an IPv4 address or a Domain Name Service (DNS) server address, do the following: 

    Click Use the following IP address, and then in IP address, type the IP address, and an appropriate subnet mask and default gateway address.

  6. To configure DNS, Windows Internet Name Service (WINS), and IP settings, click Advanced.

  7. On a local area connection, selecting the Obtain an IP address automatically option enables the Alternate Configuration tab. Use this to enter alternate IP settings if your computer is used on more than one network. To configure DNS, WINS, and IP settings, click User configured on the Alternate Configuration tab.


  • To configure TCP/IPv6

  1. Open the Network Connections folder and view available connections.

  2. Right-click the connection you want to configure, and then click Properties.

  3. Do one of the following:

    • On a LAN, wireless, VPN, or dial-up connection, on the Networking tab, in This connection uses the following items, click Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6), and then click Properties.

    • If the connection is an incoming connection, see Configure an Incoming Connection to use TCP/IP.

  4. Do one of the following:

    • If you want IP settings to be assigned automatically, click Obtain an IPv6 address automatically, and then click OK.

    • If you want to specify an IPv6 address or a DNS server address, do the following: 

      Click Use the following IPv6 address, and then in IPv6 address, type the IP address, and an appropriate prefix length and default gateway address.

      Click Use the following DNS server addresses, and then in Preferred DNS server and Alternate DNS server, type the addresses of the primary and secondary DNS servers.

  5. To configure advanced IPv6 and DNS settings, click Advanced.

ipv6 test lab configuration



Familiarization of network devices

  • Network Hardware:Network hardware is a technical term, which is commonly

Associated with hardware devices used in setting up a computer network. These hardware devices are universal in nature (standardized to be used globally) and interconnected with each other with the help of a transmission/reception medium in normal network assemblies.

Routers are networking devices used to extend or segment networks by forwarding packets from one logical network to another. Routers are most often used in large internetworks that use the TCP/IP protocol suite and for connecting TCP/IP hosts and local area networks (LANs) to the Internet using dedicated leased lines.


Routers work at the network layer (layer 3) of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model for networking to move packets between networks using their logical addresses (which, in the case of TCP/IP, are the IP addresses of destination hosts on the network). Because routers operate at a higher OSI level than bridges do, they have better packet-routing and filtering capabilities and greater processing power, which results in routers costing more than bridges.

cisco router


A gateway is a device used to connect networks using different protocols. Gateways operate at the network layer of the OSI model. In order to communicate with a host on another network, an IP host must be configured with a route to the destination network. If a configuration route is not found, the host uses the gateway (default IP router) to transmit the traffic to the destination host. The default t gateway is where the IP sends packets that are destined for remote networks. If no default gateway is specified, communication is limited to the local network. Gateways receive data from a network using one type of protocol stack, remove that protocol stack and repackage it with the protocol stack that the other network can use.


A modem is a device that makes it possible for computers to communicate over telephone lines. The word modem comes from Modulate and Demodulate. Because standard telephone lines use analog signals, and computers digital signals, a sending modem must modulate its digital signals into analog signals. The computers modem on the receiving end must then demodulate the analog signals into digital signals.


Modems can be external, connected to the computers serial port by an RS-232 cable or internal in one of the computers expansion slots. Modems connect to the phone line using standard telephone RJ-11 connectors.

NICs (Network Interface Card):

Network Interface Card or NIC is a hardware card installed in a computer so it can communicate on a network. The network adapter provides one or more ports for the network cable to connect to, and it transmits and receives data onto the network cable.

Wireless Lan card
wireless lan card

Every networked computer must also have a network adapter driver, which controls the network adapter. Each network adapter driver is configured to run with a certain type of network adapter.

Network card


A bridge is used to join two network segments together; it allows computers on either segment to access resources on the other. They can also be used to divide large networks into smaller segments. Bridges have all the features of repeaters, but can have more nodes, and since the network is divided, there is fewer computers competing for resources on each segment thus improving network performance.


Bridges can also connect networks that run at different speeds, different topologies, or different protocols. But they cannot, join an Ethernet segment with a Token Ring segment, because these use different networking standards. Bridges operate at both the Physical Layer and the MAC sub layer of the Data Link layer. Bridges read the MAC header of each frame to determine on which side of the bridge the destination device is located, the bridge then repeats the transmission to the segment where the device is located.



Switches are a special type of hub that offers an additional layer of intelligence to basic, physical-layer repeater hubs. A switch must be able to read the MAC address of each frame it receives. This information allows switches to repeat incoming data frames only to the computer or computers to which a frame is addressed. This speeds up the network and reduces congestion.

ethernet hub swtich

Switches operate at both the physical layer and the data link layer of the OSI Model.

HUB: Hub is connection device which joins in a network. Hubs classified as the layer 1 device and small, simple and inexpensive device. Hub does not read data passing through it and does not know the source and. destination points. It simply receives the data packets, amplify the electric signal and then retransmit data packets on the network. Three types of hubs are exist in the network:

  1. Passive hubs: Passive hub receives data packet and retransmits them on the network without amplify the electrical signal. 

  2. Active hubs: Active hubs are also known as Repeaters. They receives the data packets amplify them and retransmit on the network. For amplification they need the electrical signal. 

  3. Intelligent hubs: Intelligent hubs includes remote management and basically used in the large scale companies where number of units can be placed one on the top of other as stack. 

name: hub network devices.jpg views: 3662 size: 24.7 kb

To Configure the Wireless LAN

A network adapter is a device that connects your computer to a network. To connect your laptop or desktop computer to your wireless network, the computer must have a wireless network adapter. Most laptops—and many desktop computers—come with a wireless network adapter already installed. To check if your computer has a wireless network adapter, follow these steps:

  1. Open Device Manager by clicking the Start button, clicking Control Panel, clicking System and Security, and then, under System, clicking Device Manager.‌ If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.

  2. Double-click Network adapters.

  3. Look for a network adapter that includes "wireless" in the name.

  • Device Manager showing a wireless network adapter

If your computer needs a wireless network adapter, you can purchase one from a computer or electronics store and install it yourself. The universal serial bus (USB) type is a nice choice because they are small, easy to install, and they can be moved around to different computers. Make sure you get the same type of adapters as your wireless router. The type of adapter is usually marked on the package, typically with a letter, such as G or A.

  • Setting up the modem and Internet connection

Once you have all of the equipment, you'll need to set up your modem and Internet connection. If your modem wasn't set up for you by your Internet service provider (ISP), follow the instructions that came with your modem to connect it to your computer and the Internet. If you're using Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), connect your modem to a phone jack. If you are using cable, connect your modem to a cable jack. For more information, see Set up a broadband (DSL or cable) connection.

  • Positioning the wireless router

Put your wireless router somewhere where it will receive the strongest signal with the least amount of interference. For the best results, follow these tips:

  • Position your wireless router in a central location. Place the router as close to the center of your home as possible to increase the strength of the wireless signal throughout your home.

  • Position the wireless router off of the floor and away from walls and metal objects, such as metal file cabinets. The fewer physical obstructions between your computer and the router's signal, the more likely that you'll be using the router's full signal strength.

  • Reduce interference. 802.11g networking equipment uses a 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) radio frequency. This is the same frequency as most microwaves and many cordless phones. If you turn on the microwave or get a call on a cordless phone, your wireless signal might be temporarily interrupted. You can avoid most of these issues by using a cordless phone with a higher frequency, such as 5.8 GHz.

  • Securing your wireless network

Security is always important; with a wireless network, it's even more important because your network's signal could go beyond the boundaries of your home. If you don't secure your network, people with computers nearby might be able to access the information stored on your network computers and use your Internet connection to get onto the web. To help secure your network, do the following:

  • Protect your router by changing the default user name and password. Most router manufacturers have a default user name and password on the router as well as a default network name. Someone could use this information to access your router without you knowing it. To avoid that risk, change the default user name and password for your router. Check the information that came with your device for instructions.

  • Set up a security key for your network. Just as file cabinets have keys and safes have combinations, wireless networks have a network security key to help protect them from unauthorized access. To set up a network security key, follow these steps:

    1. Open Network and Sharing Center by clicking the Start button, and then clicking Control Panel. In the search box, type network, and then click Network and Sharing Center.

    2. Click set up a new connection or network.

    3. Click Set up a new network, and then click next.

The wizard will walk you through creating a network name and a security key. If your router will support it, the wizard will default to WiFi Protected Access (WPA or WPA2) security. We recommend that you use WPA2, if possible, because it offers better security than WPA or Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) security. With WPA2 or WPA you can also use a passphrase, so you don’t have to remember a cryptic sequence of letters and numbers.

  • Create a network security key

  • Write down your security key and keep it in a safe place. You can also save your security key on a USB flash drive by following the instructions in the wizard.

  • Use a firewall. A firewall is hardware or software that can help protect your computer from hackers or malicious software. Running a firewall on each computer on your network can help control the spread of malicious software on your network, as well as help to protect your computers when you're accessing the Internet. Windows Firewall is included with this version of Windows.


To plan Personal Area Network

1) From the BlackJack II, press the Start button, and then locate the Internet Sharing icon. Select it, then in the PC Connection list box, choose Bluetooth PAN, and then click Connect. (Note to self: Make sure Bluetooth is turned on the computer, too.) You’ll need to have set up your computer to recognize your BlackJack II prior to this – so it knows the phone is an OK device to talk to.

2) On your computer, get to the Network and Sharing Center.

Either clicks on the network connections icon in the system tray


Then click on Open Network and Sharing Center.


Or, open the Control Panel; click All Control Panel Items, Network and Sharing Center.

2) Click on the Set up a new connection or network


3) Scroll to the bottom of the list and you’ll see Connect to a Bluetooth personal area network (PAN). Click on that, and then click the Next button.


5) Right click on your device, Join Personal Area Network > Access Point.


(Another way to get to the phone icon where you can take step #5 above, is go to Control Panel > View Devices and Printers. Your phone should be one of the devices listed. Right click on it and join the personal area network.)



To install any one Open Source Packet Capture Software like Wireshark

What is Wireshark?

Wireshark is a network packet analyzer. A network packet analyzer will try to capture network packets and tries to display that packet data as detailed as possible. You could think of a network packet analyzer as a measuring device used to examine what's going on inside a network cable, just like a voltmeter is used by an electrician to examine what's going on inside an electric cable (but at a higher level, of course). In the past, such tools were either very expensive, proprietary, or both. However, with the advent of Wireshark, all that has changed. Wireshark is perhaps one of the best open source packet analyzers available today.

Install Wireshark:

You may acquire a binary installer of Wireshark named something like: wireshark winxx- 1.11.x.exe. The Wireshark installer includes WinPcap, so you don't need to download and install two separate packages.

Simply download the Wireshark installer from: http://www.wireshark.org/download.html and execute it. Beside the usual installer options like where to install the program, there are several optional components.
Install WinPcap Page:

The Wireshark installer contains the latest released WinPcap installer.

If you don't have WinPcap installed, you won't be able to capture live network traffic, but you will still be able to open saved capture files.

Currently installed WinPcap version - the Wireshark installer detects the currently installed

WinPcap version.

Install WinPcap x.x - if the currently installed version is older than the one which comes with the Wireshark installer (or WinPcap is not installed at all), this will be selected by default.

Start WinPcap service "NPF" at startup - so users without administrative privileges can capture.

Command line options:

You can simply start the Wireshark installer without any command line parameters, it will show you

the usual interactive installer.

For special cases, there are some command line parameters available:

/NCRC disables the CRC check

/S runs the installer or uninstaller silently with default values. Please note: The silent installer won't

install WinPCap!

/desktopicon installation of the desktop icon, =yes - force installation, =no - don't install, otherwise

use defaults / user settings. This option can be useful for a silent installer.

/quicklaunchicon installation of the quick launch icon, =yes - force installation, =no - don't install,

otherwise use defaults / user settings.

Building and Installing Wireshark


/D sets the default installation directory ($INSTDIR), overriding InstallDir and InstallDirRegKey.

It must be the last parameter used in the command line and must not contain any quotes, even if

the path contains spaces.


wireshark-win32-1.11.0.exe /NCRC /S /desktopicon=yes

/quicklaunchicon=no /D=C:\Program Files\Foo


Configuring a Wireless Access Point

The physical setup for a wireless access point is pretty simple: You take it out of the box, put it on a shelf or on top of a bookcase near a network jack and a power outlet, plug in the power cable, and plug in the network cable.

The software configuration for an access point is a little more involved, but still not very complicated. It's usually done via a Web interface. To get to the configuration page for the access point, you need to know the access point's IP address. Then, you just type that address into the address bar of a browser from any computer on the network.

Multifunction access points usually provide DHCP and NAT services for the networks and double as the network's gateway router. As a result, they typically have a private IP address that's at the beginning of one of the Internet's private IP address ranges, such as or Consult the documentation that came with the access point to find out more.

Basic configuration options

When you access the configuration page of your wireless access point on the Internet, you have the following configuration options that are related to the wireless access point functions of the device. Although these options are specific to this particular device, most access points have similar configuration options.

  • Enable/Disable: Enables or disables the device's wireless access point functions.

  • SSID: The Service Set Identifier used to identify the network. Most access points have well-known defaults. You can talk yourself into thinking that your network is more secure by changing the SSID from the default to something more obscure, but in reality, that only protects you from first-grade hackers. By the time most hackers get into the second grade, they learn that even the most obscure SSID is easy to get around. So leave the SSID at the default and apply better security measures.

  • Allow broadcast SSID to associate? Disables the access point's periodic broadcast of the SSID. Normally, the access point regularly broadcasts its SSID so that wireless devices that come within range can detect the network and join in. For a more secure network, you can disable this function. Then, a wireless client must already know the network's SSID in order to join the network.

  • Channel: Lets you select one of 11 channels on which to broadcast. All the access points and computers in the wireless network should use the same channel. If you find that your network is frequently losing connections, try switching to another channel. You may be experiencing interference from a cordless phone or other wireless device operating on the same channel.

  • WEP — Mandatory or Disable: Lets you use a security protocol called wired equivalent privacy.

DHCP configuration

You can configure most multifunction access points to operate as a DHCP server. For small networks, it's common for the access point to also be the DHCP server for the entire network. In that case, you need to configure the access point's DHCP server. To enable DHCP, you select the Enable option and then specify the other configuration options to use for the DHCP server.

Larger networks that have more demanding DHCP requirements are likely to have a separate DHCP server running on another computer. In that case, you can defer to the existing server by disabling the DHCP server in the access point.


To Configure ADHOC Network

Using an Ad Hoc network — also called a computer-to-computer network — is a fairly easy thing to accomplish in Mac OS X Snow Leopard. Plus, you’re not limited to just Macs: With an Ad Hoc network, you can also swap niceties with PCs and PDAs that have 802.11b/g/n network interface cards (NICs) installed. This Ad Hoc network is great for setting up an impromptu network in a classroom, exchanging recipes and pictures at a family reunion in a park, or blowing your friend up while gaming across the aisle of a Greyhound bus at 70 mph.

To set up an Ad Hoc network, you first have to create the computer-to-computer network on one of your Macs. This takes advantage of the AirPort Software Base Station that’s built into Snow Leopard

To create a computer-to-computer network, follow these steps:

  1. Open the Network pane in System Preferences and choose the AirPort entry.

The AirPort entry is in the list at the left of the pane


  1. Enable the Show AirPort Status in Menu Bar check box.

Your AirPort status shows up in your menu bar, which makes the rest of this process easier.


  1. Close the System Preferences.

This saves your changes.


  1. Click the AirPort status icon on the menu bar.

Here you have the options to create a network.


  1. Click Create Network.

The Create a Computer-to-Computer network pane opens.

  1. Enter a name for your network.

Choose a name that is easy to remember.

  1. Mark they Require Password check box.

This turns on WEP encryption.

  1. Enter a password for your network and then enter it again to confirm it.

Note that the password must be an exact length (which is determined by whether you choose a 40-bit [5-character] key or a 128-bit [13-character] key).

In general, channels 1, 6, and 11 are the only ones that don’t overlap other channels and are therefore the best choices to use. If you’re close to other WAPs, AirPort Base Stations, or other Ad Hoc networks, try to find a channel that’s not being used, or performance can be degraded. (If you have only one access point, it doesn’t matter which channel you select; just allow Snow Leopard to automatically select a channel.)

  1. Click OK.

Creating a computer-to-computer network gives the illusion of having an AirPort Base Station. So for people to join your network, they would follow the same steps as those they would use to join any other AirPort network.

To develop programs for implementing / simulating routing algorithms for ADHOC network


Over the last few years, wireless computer networks have evoked great interest from the public. Universities, companies, armed forces, and governmental and nongovernmental organizations and agencies are now using this new technology.

We can generally classify wireless networks into two categories:

1) Wireless networks with fixed and wired gateways, and 2) wireless networks that can be set up in an “ad hoc” fashion, without the existence of fixed Access Point (AP) and where all nodes in the network behave as routers and take part in the discovery and maintenance of routes to other nodes in the network. A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless network in which all nodes can freely and arbitrary move in any direction with any velocity. Routing takes place without the existence of fixed infrastructure. The network can scale from tens to thousands of nodes in an ad hoc fashion, providing the nodes are willing to take part in the route discovery and maintenance process.


Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR)

a. Protocol Overview

Optimized Link State Routing [RFC 3626] is based on the link state algorithm and has been modified and optimized to efficiently operate MANET routing. The main concept of the protocol is to adapt the changes of the network without creating control messages overhead due to the protocol flooding nature. Thus, the designers of OSLR decided to have only a subset of the nodes, named Multipoint Relays (MPRs).

b. Packet and Messages Format

OLSR provides each node with one or more OLSR interfaces (an OLSR) interface is a network device participating in a MANET running OLSR). This is achieved by the design and implementation of a unified packet format in which each packet consists of one or more different types of messages. All the messages in a packet share a common header, so nodes are able to retransmit messages of an unknown type. OSLR uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as a transport-layer protocol for packet transmission in Port 698. Figure 2 shows the packet format of OLSR.


1. Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

Protocol Overview

Zone Routing Protocol [Haas, Z.J., Pearlman, M.R. and Samar, P. 2003] is a distributed routing protocol that combines both a proactive and a reactive scheme for route discovery and maintenance. The basic idea of the protocol is the creation of areas, or zones, where every node proactively maintains one route or multiple routes to any destination inside the zone and reactively obtains routing information for any node outside of the zone. The zone diameter may be defined in advance, before nodes form the network, or it may be optimized by every node, based on ZRP traffic measurements. The radius of a node’s zone plays a significant role in the proper behavior of the protocol. If the network consists of a large number of nodes with medium to low mobility or the demand for routes is high, a large value for the radius is preferable to avoid the frequent dissemination of routing requests and reply messages. On the other hand, if the network consists of a small number of nodes with high mobility or the demand for routes is small, the radius value should also be small to avoid overhead of periodic routing update messages.

Program for implementing / simulating routing algorithms for ADHOC network



int graph[12][12];

int e[12][12];

int ad[12];

int no,id,adc,small,chosen,i,j,ch1,ch2;

char nodes[12]={"abcdefghijkl"};

int main()



printf("Enter The Number Of Nodes: ");


printf("\nEnter The Values For Adjacency Matrix\n");





printf("Enter The Values For %d,%d Position: ",(i+1),(j+1));




printf("\nEnter The Initial Estimates\t");



printf("\nEstimate For Node %c:\n",nodes[i]);



printf("To Node %c : ",nodes[j]);







printf("\n2.ESTIMATED TABLE\n");

printf("Enter Your Choice: ");




case 1:

printf("\nWhich Node Should Routing Table Be Built? (1-a)(2-b)...");




printf("\nNeighbours For Particular Node ");


















int total=e[ad[j]][i]+e[id][ad[j]];

if(total <100)







printf("\nShortest Estimate To %c is %d",nodes[i],small);

printf("\nNext Hop Is %c",nodes[ad[chosen]]);






case 2:





printf("%d ",e[i][j]);





printf("\nDo You Want To Continue?(1-YES) (2-NO): ");




return 0;


$ cc simulation.c

$ ./a.out

Enter The Number Of Nodes: 2

Enter The Values For Adjacency Matrix

Enter The Values For 1,1 Position: 1

Enter The Values For 1,2 Position: 2

Enter The Values For 2,1 Position: 3

Enter The Values For 2,2 Position: 4

Enter The Initial Estimates

Estim ate For Node a:

To Node a : 1

To Node b : 2

Estimate For Node b:

To Node a : 1

To No de b : 2




To configure Wireless local Loop.

  1. You can prevent this issue by configuring the Loopback Adapter on your DHCP machine prior to installing Oracle products. This document will detail the setup and configuration on Windows hosts in particular this install was done on Windows 7 Ultimate.Run the Command Prompt using Run as Administrator and enter hdwwiz.exe to start the Add Hardware Wizard.


Click the Next button to continue.

  1. Select the “Install the hardware that I manually select from a list (Advanced)” and click the Next button to continue.

Scroll down and select Network adapters and click the Next button.

On the Select Network Adapter screen select Microsoft for the Manufacturer and select Microsoft Loopback Adapter for the Network Adapter. Click the Next button to continue.

On the confirmation screen click the Next button to install the Microsoft Loopback Adapter.

Once the installation is complete click the Finish button to exit the Add Hardware Wizard.


Now we need to configure the adapter. In the Control Panel open the Network and Sharing Center. Click the Change adapter settings on the left hand side of the panel.

On the Network Connections screen select Local Area Connection with the type of Microsoft Loopback Adapter. Right click the adapter and select properties.

On the Properties pages select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and click the Properties button.

On the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties page enter IP information for an IP address in one of the private address space (10.x.x.x , 172.16.x.x or 192.168.x.x). Care should be taken when choosing your address that it is also not in the same address range as your work or home network settings.

Once you have entered the IP information click the OK button to continue. You will be taken back to the Properties page for the Local Area Connection, click the Close button to finalize the changes.

The last thing we need to do to complete this to add an entry to the hosts file. The hosts file in Windows can be found inC:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\. Back in the command prompt that was opened as the administrator bring up Notepad like below.

C:\Windows\system32>notepad.exe c:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts

Add a line at the bottom that includes the IP address you added for the Loopback Adapter along with the name of the machine.

# For example:

# rhino.acme.com # source server

# x.acme.com # x client host

# localhost name resolution is handled within DNS itself.

# localhost

# ::1 localhost wrath.oracledistilled.com wrath

Once you are done, save and exit notepad. With all of that complete you should now be able to ping by name successfully.

C:\Windows\system32>ping wrath

Pinging wrath.oracledistilled.com [] with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Ping statistics for

Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),

Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:

Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms


Having the Loopback Adapter installed and configured on a machine that used DHCP prior to installing Oracle products will save you a lot of headache when the IP or host name of the machine changes when you change networks.

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