1. 01 Evolution of Computers



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1.01 Evolution of Computers


  1. Mechanical Devices

    1. Characteristics

      1. Used gears

      2. First devices could only do arithmetic

      3. Unreliable

      4. Many were never built

    2. Examples

      1. Pascaline (1642)

      2. Stepped Reckoner

      3. Charles Babbages’ Difference Machine (1822)

      4. Analytical Machine (1833)

  2. Electro-Mechanical Devices

    1. Characteristics

      1. Used punched cards to input data

      2. Tabulated US Census data

    2. Examples

      1. Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine

      2. The Mark I

  3. First-Generation Computers

    1. Characteristics

      1. Used Binary number system/machine language

      2. Vacuum tubes

      3. WWII was a major thrust behind development

      4. Processed larger amounts of data and solved more complex problems

      5. Stored programs--instructions stored on paper tape

      6. First computer language—C-10

    2. Examples

      1. Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) (1939-1942)

      2. ENIAC (1943)

      3. EDVAC (Von Neumann, Mauchly and Eckert)

      4. UNIVAC—Mauchly & Eckert; US Census 1951

  4. Second-Generation Computers

    1. Characteristics

      1. Magnetic tape and reel-to-reel tape replaced punched cards

      2. Ability to read and write data quickly and reliably

      3. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes

    2. Examples

      1. Bell Lab (1947)

      2. Model 650

  5. Third-Generation Computers

    1. Characteristics

      1. Integrated circuits replaced transistors

      2. Mainframes

      3. Used terminals to communicate with mainframe

    2. Examples

      1. IBM 360

  6. Fourth-Generation Computers

    1. Characteristics

      1. Microprocessors (1970, Intel)

      2. Enabled building of microcomputers (PCs)

      3. K-12 schools could have desktop computers in class/lab

    2. Examples

      1. Altair (1975)

      2. Apple Computer (Wozniak and Jobs, 1976)

      3. IBM PC (1981)


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