1.Characteristics of Neutrophils
Ans: Neutrophils are a type of microphages, non-specific active phagocytes that form the predominant cell type in inflammation. They have a characteristic multilobed nucleus, with 3 to 5 lobes joined by slender strands of genetic material. The cytoplasm of neutrophils contains numerous purplish granules called azurophilic or primary granules that contain microbicidal agents. Nucleus can be of two types, rod shaped nucleus or Lobulated nucleus.
2. How do neutrophils remove target pathogen
Ans: Neutrophils remove bacterial and fungal pathogens through a process known as phagocytosis. Recognition of invading microbial pathogens is mediated by receptors present on the neutrophil surface, such as PRRs (e.g., TLRs) and opsonic receptors, which recognize host proteins that are deposited on the microbial surface.
3. How to tell the difference between activated lymphocytes and inactivated lymphocytes.
Answer: Lymphocyte activation occurs when lymphocytes (B cells or T cells) are triggered through antigen-specific receptors on their cell surface. This causes the cells to proliferate and differentiate into specialized effector lymphocytes.
4.How to dye the neutrophils in this experiment:
1. Drip the wright’s stain for the blue one first, soon after dripping the buffer solution (Hyaline) to mix with them, Which the final ratio is 1:1.
2. Keep the stain slide for 3 minutes.
3. Wash it with water.
4. Dry it with the bibulous paper
Wright's stain is a hematologic stain that facilitates the differentiation of blood cell types. It is classically a mixture of eosin (red) and methylene blue dyes. It is used primarily to stain peripheral blood smears, urine samples, and bone marrow aspirates, which are examined under a light microscope.
5. How long to immerse the sample mixed with blood and staphylococcus.
Answer: Immerse the sample mixed with blood and staphylococcus up to 30. minutes at a temperature of 37 degrees.
5.Why does the cedar oil may amplify the field of microscope
Answer: In microscopy, more light = clear and crisp images. By placing a substance such as immersion oil with a refractive index equal to that of the glass slide in the space filled with air, more light is directed through the objective and a clearer image is observed.