1 Study Figure (a) Describe the level of earthquake hazard risk along the west coast and the south coast (2)



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January 2009

Section A

1 Study Figure 1.

(a) Describe the level of earthquake hazard risk along the west coast and the south coast (2)

(b) Why are earthquakes common in some parts of the world? (4)

(c) Which of the following can be physical causes of disasters? Put a cross in the two correct boxes. (2)



A El Niño

B Deforestation

C Population growth

D Cyclone

(d) With reference to a named example, explain what is meant by a disaster hotspot. (4)



2 Study Figure 2. (a) How much ice has been lost between 2000 and 2007? Put a cross in the correct

box. (1)



A 4.1 billion m3

B 4.5 billion m3

C 5.2 billion m3

D 8.3 billion m3

(b) What has happened to the rate of ice loss since 2002? (2)

(c) Suggest reasons for the loss of ice taking place in most Arctic areas. (4)

(d) Describe two ecological impacts of climate change in the Arctic. (4)



3 Study Figure 3. (a) Identify the height of the flood wall defence in the 1880s and 1930s. Put a cross in

the correct boxes. (2)



1880s 1930s

2 metres 3 metres

3 metres 4 metres

4 metres 5 metres

5.4 metres 5.4 metres

(b) State three economic consequences of widespread flooding for a major city such as London. (3)

(c) Suggest reasons why flood defences, such as those in London, have been raised and improved over time. (5)

4 Study Figure 4. (a) Name the global region that received the biggest flow of manufactured goods

from China. (1)

(b) Which of the following statements correctly describes the flows of manufactured goods between China and Western Europe? (1)

Overall profit of $45 bn for China

Overall profit of $77 bn for China

Overall profit of $35 bn for Europe

Overall profit of $77 bn for Europe

(c) Suggest three additional global flows that connect China with the rest of the world. (3)

(d) Explain why newly industrialised countries (NICs), such as China, have become important centres for manufacturing and investment. (5)



5 Study Figure 5. (a) Describe the changes in the number of foreign players between 1992 and 2007. (2)

(b) Which of the following best describes the migrant status of foreign footballers?

Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A Asylum seeker

B Economic migrant

C Illegal migrant

D Refugee

(c) Describe the positive impacts of foreign migrants living in countries such as the UK. (4)

d) Explain why the number of European migrants entering the UK has risen sharply in recent years. (4)

6 Study Figure 6.

(a) Define the term transnational corporation (TNC). (1)

(b) State two benefits gained by McDonalds from using local suppliers. (2)

(c) Suggest reasons why TNCs sometimes alter their products for sale in different countries and cultures.



(4)

d) Explain how TNCs may bring economic benefits to the countries they invest in. (4)



SECTION B

*7 Study Figure 7.

(a) Suggest why droughts, such as the one shown, have severe impacts on people and the environment. (10)

(b) Explain the increasing frequency of hydro-meteorological hazards (such as cyclones, storms, droughts or floods). (15)

(Total 25 marks)

*8 Study Figure 8.

(a) Suggest why action needs to be taken at different scales to reduce the rate of global warming. (10)

(b) Explain why some governments are more willing than others to help tackle climate change. (15)

(Total 25 marks)

*9 Study Figure 9. (a) Suggest reasons why the distribution of world billionaires is changing. (10)

(b) Explain why the moral and social consequences of globalisation may be a cause for concern. (15)



(Total 25 marks)

*10 Study Figure 10. (a) Suggest why there is an urgent need to improve residential slums such as Dharavi. (10)

(b) Explain why many megacities are currently experiencing rapid rates of growth. (15)



(Total 25 marks)

June 2009

1. Study Figure 1.

(a) Write the Risk Equation below, using the words provided in Figure 1. (2)

RISK =. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) Which two major natural hazards are missing from the table below? Write your answers in the two spaces provided. (2)

The six main types of: natural hazard; Floods; Earthquakes; Droughts; Landslide / avalanche

(c) Identify the natural hazard risks in a named local area. (5)



2 Study Figure 2.

(a) Which natural hazard affects most people in Africa? (1)

(b) Suggest how famine in Africa may result from (4) 1 floods 2 drought

(c) Describe some possible impacts of climate change on farming in Africa. (3)

(d) Suggest reasons why increasing numbers of the world’s people are affected by floods. (4)

3 Study Figure 3.

(a) What was the observed ice loss between 1950 and 2000? (1)

Put a cross in the correct box.

A 2.4 million square kilometres

B 3.8 million square kilometres

C 4.0 million square kilometres

D 4.2 million square kilometres

E 42 million square kilometres

(b) Describe differences between the recorded and predicted changes in summer sea ice from 1950. (3)

(c) Suggest reasons for the differences you have described in (b). (4)

(d) Identify some natural causes that have led to past climate change. (4)



4 Study Figure 4.

(a) Describe the distribution of rapidly-growing urban areas. (3)

(b) Suggest reasons why rapid urbanisation is taking place in countries such as China. (4)

(c) Using examples, explain why recent arrivals in megacities often live in very poor conditions. (4)



5 Study Figure 5. (a) (i) Identify the largest capacity flow. (1)

Put a cross in the correct box.



A North America – Africa

B Europe – Africa

C North America – Europe

D South America – North America

E South America – Europe

(ii) Explain why some places shown in Figure 5 are better connected than others. (4)

(b) In what ways do transport and communications technology create a ‘shrinking world’? (4)

6 Study Figure 6. (a) What is the projected increase in the UK’s population size? (1) Put a cross in the correct box.

A 1.2 million

B 4.0 million

C 8.0 million

D 10.0 million

E 12.5 million

(b) Suggest reasons why the increase shown is most likely to come from economic migration. (4)

(c) Identify two reasons why some areas of the UK are more attractive than others for economic migrants. (2)

(d) Describe the economic consequences of migration for eastern European source countries. (5)



SECTION B

*7 Study Figure 7. (a) Suggest reasons why these earthquakes had such varied consequences. (10)

(b) Explain the distribution of the world’s major geophysical hazards. (15)



(Total for Question 7 = 25 marks)

*8 Study Figure 8. (a) Suggest reasons why a larger temperature rise is likely to increase the severity of

environmental impacts. (10)

(b) Explain how different players can attempt to limit greenhouse gas emissions. (15)

(Total for Question 8 = 25 marks)

*9 Study Figure 9. (a) Suggest why different groups of people may have different views about the need

for a ‘greener Christmas’. (10)

(b) Explain how ethical purchasing strategies, such as Fair Trade, can play a part in creating a more equitable (equal) world. (15)

(Total for Question 9 = 25 marks)

*10 Study Figure 10. (a) Suggest what this survey shows about changes in the structure and characteristics of British families after 1960. (10)

(b) Explain the geographical challenges resulting from a greying population. (15)



(Total for Question 10 = 25 marks)

January 2010

1 Study Figure 1.

(a) Which region has experienced the greatest number of category 5 tropical cyclones? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



South Pacific

South Atlantic

East Pacific

West Pacific

North Atlantic

(b) Describe the global distribution of tropical cyclones. (3)

(c) Give reasons for the distribution of tropical cyclones. (3)

(d) Explain how tropical cyclones contribute to the risk of living in the Philippines disaster hotspot. (4)



2 Study Figure 2. (a) Describe1. the long term variations in CO2 level, and 2. the recent trend. (2)

(b) Name one source of evidence for the long term CO2 data. (1)

(c) Describe two recent environmental changes that provide evidence for global warming. (4)

(d) Explain why the majority of scientists believe humans are responsible for today’s high level of CO2. (4)



3 Study Figure 3. (a) Which one of the following five statements is correct? Put a cross in the correct box.

(1)

Belgium has the highest target to meet by 2020

France has made most progress to meet its target

The UK has made most progress to meet its target

Ireland has made least progress to meet its target

Ireland has the lowest target to meet by 2020

(b) Suggest how the use of renewable energy sources can help tackle climate change. (2)

(c) Suggest why progress towards meeting renewable energy targets is so slow. (3)

(d) Using examples, explain how adaptation strategies can help people cope with the impacts of climate change. (5)

4 Study Figure 4 (a) What global grouping does Ethiopia belong to? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

OECD nations

The NICs

The LDCs


OPEC states

NAFTA


(b) State the evidence, in Figure 4, of a two speed world. (2)

(c) What are newly industrialised countries (NICs)? (3)

(d) Explain why the OPEC nations have become a wealthy and powerful global grouping. (4)

5 Study Figure 5. (a) (i) State which age group is found in unusually high numbers along the south

coast. (1)

(ii) Suggest reasons why this age group is found in unusually high numbers along the south coast. (2)

(b) Many large urban areas have unusually high numbers of young people (under 25). Suggest reasons for this. (3)

(c) Explain how 20th Century improvements in health and hygiene have brought increased life expectancy to the UK. (4)

6 Study Figure 6. (a) What is a megacity? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A city with more than one million residents

The capital city of a G8 nation

A city with a major stock exchange

A country’s capital city

A city or urban region with more than ten million residents

(b) Using the photographs and your own knowledge, complete the table to contrast the characteristics of the two megacities shown in Figure 6. (6)

A – Lagos Developing world megacity B - New York Developed world megacity

Average building height

Quality of housing

Economic functions

(c) Explain how the growth of megacities threatens the sustainability of the urban environment. (5)


SECTION B

Answer ONE question in this section.

Use the evidence provided in the Resource Booklet and your own ideas and examples.

You are advised to spend approximately 30 minutes on Section B.

*7 Study Figure 7.

(a) Suggest why many megacities could face increased vulnerability to natural

disasters.

(10)

(b) Explain how global warming and El Niño events may lead to increasing natural

hazards.

(15)

(Total for Question 7 = 25 marks)

*8 Study Figure 8.

(a) Suggest ways in which climate change might affect Africa’s physical environment.



(10)

(b) Examine the possible economic impacts of projected climate change for the

African continent.

(15)

(Total for Question 8 = 25 marks)

*9 Study Figure 9.

(a) Suggest reasons why the membership of trade blocs, such as the EU, has changed

over time.

(10)

(b) Explain how transport improvements have helped build a more interconnected

world.

(15)

(Total for Question 9 = 25 marks)

*10 Study Figure 10.

(a) Suggest why the UK government welcomes some migrants but not others.



(10)

(b) Examine the impact of UK retirement migration to the Mediterranean on source

and host regions.

(15)

(Total for Question 10 = 25 marks)


June 2010

1 Study Figure 1.

(a) Describe the distribution of areas at risk from two or more hazards. (2)

(b) Distinguish between a natural hazard and a natural disaster. (2)

(c) Identify the Philippines disaster hotspot in Figure 1. Put a cross in the correct box.(1)



A, B, C, D, E

(d) Explain how physical and human factors have made the Philippines a disaster hotspot. (5)



2 Study Figure 2. (a) What is the main cause of the current global rise in sea-level? Put a cross in the

correct box. (1)

A change in the Earth’s orbit

The melting of Antarctic ice

Undersea plate movement

Thermal expansion of the oceans

A decrease in sun-spot activity

(b) Suggest how the physical geography of some coastal areas makes them more at risk from rising sea levels than others. (3)

(c) Suggest how the human geography of areas such as Bangladesh or the Maldives makes them especially vulnerable to sea-level rise. (3)

(d) Explain why it is difficult to predict future sea-level rise. (4)



3 Study Figure 3. (a) Identify the country or region showing the greatest reduction in total greenhouse

gas emissions. Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

USA

Europe


China

Russia


Japan

(b) What is meant by the term ‘total greenhouse gas emissions’? (2)

(c) Describe how human activity contributes to the increased level of emissions of one named greenhouse gas. (3) Named greenhouse gas

(d) Explain why some countries lack enthusiasm for implementing global agreements to manage climate change. (5)



4 Study Figure 4. (a) Describe the distribution of eastern European migrants living in London. (2)

(b) Suggest reasons why some rural parts of the UK have attracted high numbers of eastern European migrants. (4)

(c) Name two eastern European EU countries that could be source regions for these migrants. (2)

(d) Explain the positive and negative impacts of out-migration for eastern European source countries. (5)



5 Study Figure 5. (a) What is meant by sustainable urban living? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

Allowing urban sprawl to continue

Managing a city for the welfare of future generations

The conversion of farmland into housing areas

Shanty town growth on the edges of developing cities

Banning new economic activity from city centres

(b) Choose two of the methods shown in Figure 5 and describe how each might contribute towards sustainable urban living. (4)

(c) Explain why some megacities are making greater progress than others towards the goal of sustainable urban living. (5)



6 Study Figure 6. (a) State two pieces of evidence that this is an ethical purchase. (2)

(b) Describe the limitations of ethical purchasing strategies for producers and consumers. (3)

(c) Explain how globalisation has led to the exploitation of workers in some countries. (5)


SECTION B

*7 Study Figure 7. (a) Using Figure 7 and your own knowledge, explain why some places have a high

level of landslide and avalanche hazard risk. (10)

(b) Explain why the economic losses caused by natural hazards have generally risen over time whereas the number of lives lost has fallen. (15)

(Total for Question 7 = 25 marks)

*8 Study Figure 8. (a) Suggest why some groups and communities view the melting of Greenland’s ice

sheet as an opportunity rather than a threat. (10)

(b) Examine the ecological impacts of global warming for Arctic areas. (15)

(Total for Question 8 = 25 marks)

*9 Study Figure 9. (a) Suggest reasons why the ‘globalisation scores’ shown vary so greatly. (10)

(b) Explain how globalisation affects internal and international migration flows. (15)



(Total for Question 9 = 25 marks)

*10 Study Figure 10. (a) Using Figure 10 and your own knowledge, suggest why people in Britain often

need to consult a wide range of records when studying their roots. (10)

(b) Explain how social and economic factors have led to changes in the UK’s population age structure. (15)

(Total for Question 10 = 25 marks)


January 2011

1 Study Figure 1.

(a) Identify two types of major hydro-meteorological hazard other than different types of storm. (2)

(b) Which is the correct statement of the disaster risk equation? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A

Hazards x Capacity to cope

Vulnerability

B

Hazards x Vulnerability

Capacity to cope

C

Capacity to cope x Vulnerability

Hazards

D

Coping potential x Vulnerability

Risk capacity

(c) How might global warming increase hurricane disaster risk? (3)

(d) Explain how human factors have contributed to the increased reporting of earthquake disasters. (5)

2 Study Figure 2. (a) Identify which three of the following actions are examples of climate change

mitigation. (3)



A building higher flood walls

B constructing wind turbines

C improving flood warning systems

D improving hurricane monitoring

E using recycling schemes

F greater use of nuclear power

(b) Describe the strengths and weaknesses of adaptation as a way of managing climate change. (4)

Strengths...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Weaknesses...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

(c) Suggest reasons why the economic impacts of climate change in the continent of Africa are complex.

(5)

3 Study Figure 3. (a) Which region has most areas showing a predicted decrease in flood risk? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A South-east England

B South-west England

C North-east England

D Midlands

E Wales

(b) Explain two ways in which climate change may lead to an increase in river flooding. (4)

(c) Explain why future changes in global sea level are hard to predict. (5)

4 Study Figure 4. (a) Which European country has the largest number of Tesco stores outside the UK? (1)

(b) Identify two continents which have no Tesco stores. Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



A Asia and Africa

B Asia and Europe

C North America and South America

D South America and Africa

E North America and Africa

(c) Suggest reasons why Tesco stores have not been opened in some continents. (3)

(d) Using examples, describe the strategies that TNCs use to expand their global businesses. (5)

5 Study Figure 5. (a) Identify the year in which net migration (the difference between immigration and

emigration) was at its greatest. Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



A 2006

B 2004

C 2002

D 2000

E 1998

(b) State the reason immigration to the UK rose sharply in 2004. (1)

(c) Compare the immigration and emigration trends shown. (3)

(d) Explain why some retired British people have chosen to live overseas in recent years. (5)



6 Study Figure 6. (a) Identify which two of the following statements are most likely to apply to the

1901 family. (2)



W The mother describes herself as ‘Asian British’

X Three generations live in the same house

Y The eldest child works full time in a local textile factory

Z All the children aspire to study at university

(b) State one reason for falling fertility in the UK since 1901. (1)

(c) What research sources could be used to investigate social and economic changes in a local population? (4)

(d) Explain why many European nations, such as the UK, have experienced large-scale immigration from their former colonies since the 1950s. (5)



SECTION B

Answer ONE question in this section.

*7 Study Figure 7. (a) Suggest why some places are at more risk than others of experiencing a major

volcanic disaster. (10)

(b) Explain why the Philippines and California multiple hazard hotspots are affected by disasters in different ways. (15)

(Total for Question 7 = 25 marks)

*8 Study Figure 8. (a) Suggest reasons for the differences in carbon dioxide emissions shown. (10)

(b) Examine the evidence used to investigate long, medium and short-term climate change. (15)



(Total for Question 8 = 25 marks)

*9 Study Figure 9. (a) Explain how technological innovations have contributed to a ‘shrinking world’ for

many people. (10)

(b) Using examples, examine how nations are classified into different types of global groupings. (15)

(Total for Question 9 = 25 marks)

*10 Study Figure 10. (a) Suggest reasons for the changes shown in the size and distribution of megacities. (10)

(b) Using examples, explain the challenges of rapid megacity growth. (15)



(Total for Question 10 = 25 marks)

June 2011

1 Study Figure 1. (a) Match two of the different types of plate boundary with a place where they are

found by putting the letters X, Y or Z into the table provided. (2)



Place Which boundary type

(X, Y or Z)

Philippines

Californian coast

(b) Describe the processes at boundary type Z that cause earthquakes. (3)

(c) Which of the following is an additional natural hazard sometimes associated with earthquakes?

Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



A building collapse

B firestorm

C tsunami

D famine

E ozone depletion

(d) Explain why volcanic hazards are common in the Philippines but not on the Californian coast. (5)



2 Study Figure 2. (a) How high must the sea-level rise for Dhaka to flood? Put a cross in the correct box.

(1)

A 5.1 metre

B 4.8 metre

C 3.5 metre

D 2.7 metre

E 0.3 metre

(b) What best describes eustatic sea-level rise? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



A a global decrease in the volume of ocean water

B a local rise in sea-level due to land subsidence

C a widespread melting of Arctic Ocean sea ice

D a global increase in the volume of ocean water

E a local fall in sea-level due to uplifting of the land

(c) Explain how global warming leads to rising sea levels. (4)

(d) Explain why some nations will suffer more than others from the impact of predicted sea-level rises. (5)

3 Study Figure 3. (a) What is the minimum temperature rise the world can expect by 2100? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A 0.0 °C

B 2.1 °C

C 2.9 °C

D 3.2 °C

E 5.5 °C

(b) Why does temperature rise in ‘projection D’ even though action has been taken to decrease emissions? (3)

(c) Which of the following groups of gases is responsible for the enhanced greenhouse effect? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen

B carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, hydrogen

C carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrous oxide

D carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide

E methane, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen

(d) Explain why the ‘business as usual’ projection shown in Figure 3 may bring irreversible ecological and environmental impacts to Arctic areas. (5)



4 Study Figure 4. (a) Which two global groupings do these countries belong to? Put one cross in the correct box for Group 1 and for Group 2. (2)

Group 1…………… Group 2……………….

Newly industrialised countries (NICs)

OPEC members

Least developed countries (LDCs)

G8 members

OECD members

(b) Suggest reasons for the difference shown in ICT use between Group 1 and Group 2 countries. (4)

(c) Explain how connectivity can be affected by: physical factors and political factors. (4)



5 Study Figure 5. (a) Describe the changes shown in the centenarian population. (3)

(b) Suggest reasons for the changes you have described. (4)

(c) Explain the factors that have caused fertility rates to vary over time in the UK. (4)

6 Study Figure 6. (a) Why does in-migration often lead to higher rates of natural increase for developing world megacities? (2)

(b) Outline the rural problems that cause migrants to leave rural areas in the developing world. (3)

(c) Identify three ways in which the growth model for a developed world megacity might differ from the one shown in Figure 6. (3)

(d) Explain why megacities usually attract more migrants than smaller cities. (4)



SECTION B

*7 Study Figure 7. (a) Suggest why many countries find El Niño weather anomalies very challenging. (10)

(b) Explain why the human and economic costs of global hazards have increased rapidly over time. (15)



(Total for Question 7 = 25 marks)

*8 Study Figure 8. (a) Suggest why changes such as these make global warming a difficult challenge to

tackle. (10)

(b) Explain the natural causes of climate change. (15)

(Total for Question 8 = 25 marks)

*9 Study Figure 9. (a) Suggest why some people and not others benefit from the growth of

Transnational Corporations (TNCs). (10)

(b) Examine the main factors that have accelerated globalisation. (15)

(Total for Question 9 = 25 marks)

*10 Study Figure 10. (a) Suggest why the reasons for people migrating into and out of the UK may differ.

(10)

(b) Explain why the numbers of migrants entering the UK has varied over time. (15)



(Total for Question 10 = 25 marks)

January 2012

1 Study Figure 1. (a) Identify which location is likely to have the lowest disaster risk and give a reason

for your choice.(2)

Location ..............................................................Reason

(b) Suggest two reasons why cities in California sometimes suffer from flooding. (4)

(c) Explain why California often experiences geophysical hazard events. (5)

2 Study Figure 2. (a) What change in albedo results from the melting of Arctic sea ice? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A 82% fall

B 82% rise

C 58% fall

D 17% rise

E 7% fall

(b) Explain how changes in albedo in the Arctic may contribute to accelerated global warming. (3)

(c) Identify two direct impacts of Arctic sea ice melting. (2)

W Disruption to Arctic food chains

X Ocean temperature change

Y Global sea-level rise

Z Release of methane gas

(d) Explain why some people could benefit from climatic change in the Arctic region. (5)



3 Study Figure 3. (a) Using data from Figure 3, compare the economic impact of a 3°C rise with a 7°C

rise in global mean temperature.(2)

(b) With reference to Figure 3, suggest why some groups of people may experience greater economic losses than other groups of people. (4)

(c) Explain why the costs of climate change adaptation strategies keep rising. (5)



4 Study Figure 4. (a) (i) Describe how levels of connectivity vary for the countries shown. (3)

(ii) Suggest reasons for the variations you have described. (3)

(b) What term best describes a highly-connected place? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A Suburb

B Megacity

C Shanty town

D Million city

E Global hub

(c) Explain how physical factors may have contributed to the growth of ‘switched-on’ and ‘switched-off’ places. (5)



5 Study Figure 5. (a) Which two non-eastern EU nations had below-average earnings in 2005? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A Spain and Latvia

B Spain and Portugal

C Poland and Portugal

D Latvia and Romania

E Romania and Bulgaria

(b) What term best describes the movement of eastern European workers to the UK? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



A Post-colonial labour flow

B Refugee flow

C Retirement migration

D Post-accession labour flow

E Internal migration

(c) Suggest reasons why many eastern Europeans migrated to the UK in 2005 instead of to other countries. (4)

(d) Explain the social impacts of migration within Europe for host nations. (4)

6 Study Figure 6. (a) What will the gap between pension payouts and pension contributions be in

2060? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



A £80 billion

B £62 billion

C £52 billion

D £30 billion

E £28 billion

b) Explain why the impacts of an ageing population vary from place to place in the UK. (4)

(c) Why does the UK’s ageing population bring many economic challenges? (5)


SECTION B

*7 Study Figure 7. (a) With reference to the factors shown, suggest how hazard vulnerability in a local

area can be assessed. (10)

(b) Explain the global distribution of two major hydro-meteorological hazard types. (15)

(Total for Question 7 = 25 marks)

*8 Study Figure 8. (a) Examine how historical data such as this can provide evidence for natural climate

change. (10)

(b) Explain why many scientists believe that human, rather than natural causes, may be more to blame for recent climate change. (15)

(Total for Question 8 = 25 marks)

*9 Study Figure 9. (a) Suggest why increasing numbers of people support green strategies such as this.

(10)

(b) Examine how globalisation can have both positive and negative effects on people. (15)



(Total for Question 9 = 25 marks)

10 Study Figure 10. (a) Suggest why the arrival of newcomers can result in severe housing problems for

megacities. (10)

(b) Using examples, explain the causes of rural to urban migration that feed megacity growth. (15)

(Total for Question 10 = 25 marks)*


June 2012

1 Study Figure 1. (a) (i) Identify the city where the disaster risk from drought is greatest. (1)

(ii) Explain your answer to (i). (2)

(iii) Identify another natural hazard in Australia that is frequently associated with drought. Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A Positive feedback

B Famine

C Wildfires

D Landslides

E Loss of livestock

(b) Explain how El Niño cycles can lead to drought. (5)



2 Study Figure 2. (a) (i) What is the long-term climatic effect of the changes shown? (1)

(ii) Identify a related factor that also contributes to long-term climate change. Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



A Major asteroid strikes on the Earth

B Changing polarity of the Earth’s magnetic field

C The movement of tectonic plates

D Removal of the Amazon rainforest

E Changes in the tilt of the Earth’s axis

(b) Explain how natural changes in the Earth’s climate can be caused by: (4)

1 changes in solar output

2 volcanic eruptions.

(c) Explain how human activity has led to enhanced greenhouse gas emissions. (5)

3 Study Figure 3. (a) (i) Identify the season with the greatest predicted change in temperature. (1)

(ii) Suggest why the predicted rainfall changes shown are so varied. (3)

(iii) Suggest possible economic impacts across Africa of the changes shown. (4)

(b) Explain how increasing climate risk contributes to rising food insecurity at a global scale. (5)



4 Study Figure 4. (a) Based on the information given which items are most likely to have been sourced

from inside the USA? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



A Serviette and bread

B Bacon and beans

C Mushroom and egg

D Egg and beans

E Bread and bacon

(b) Why do many TNCs source what they need from a wide range of places? (4)

(c) Explain why TNCs adapt their products for different markets. (5)

5 Study Figure 5. (a) What category will the majority of the migrants shown belong to? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A Urban-rural migrants

B Retirement migrants

C Earthquake refugees

D Economic migrants

E Climate change refugees

(b) Suggest why: (6)

1 the migration flows vary in size

2 the recorded out-migration and in-migration numbers differ.

(c) Explain why Europe’s Mediterranean coastline attracts migrants from within the EU. (5)

6 Study Figure 6. (a) State two reasons why waste disposal by landfill (shown in Figure 6) can create

concerns. (2)

(b) Suggest how one alternative strategy to landfill might reduce environmental concerns. (3)

Named strategy …………………………………………………………………………….

(c) Explain how globalisation has led to increasing levels of consumption around the world. (5)


SECTION B

7 Study Figure 7. (a) Suggest reasons why the strongest earthquakes are not always the most costly. (10)

(b) Explain how physical factors lead to a range of hazard risks in the Philippines. (15)



(Total for Question 7 = 25 marks)

8 Study Figure 8. (a) Suggest reasons why the populations of different countries vary in their attitudes

towards climate change. (10)

(b) Explain why the impacts of global warming are predicted to be uneven and unfair. (15)

(Total for Question 8 = 25 marks)

9 Study Figure 9. (a) Suggest how globalisation increases migration flows towards megacities such as

Shanghai. (10)

(b) Explain how technology and trade blocs have contributed to globalisation. (15)

(Total for Question 9 = 25 marks)

10 Study Figure 10. (a) Suggest how recent international migration has changed the structure and

characteristics of the UK’s population. (10)

(b) Examine the changing pattern of migration into the UK since the 1950s. (15)

(Total for Question 10 = 25 marks)


January 2013

1 Study Figure 1. (a) (i) Identify the year when: (2)

1. human activity was entirely to blame for a major insurance loss.

2. a geophysical hazard was the cause of a major insurance loss.

(ii) Suggest why the insurance losses shown in Figure 1 frequently relate to the USA. (3)

(b) Which of the following describes a disaster hotspot? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A A place that experiences many different types of natural hazard event

B A place where high numbers of deaths occur each year due to disasters

C A place where a vulnerable population is exposed to two or more hazard types

D A place that often experiences severe earthquakes

E A place where a vulnerable population is unable to pay for hazard protection

(c) Describe the natural hazards that threaten a named local area you have studied. (5)

Named local area ...............................................................................................

2 Study Figure 2. (a) (i) Describe the trend in recorded differences compared to the long-term average temperature in Figure 2. (3)

(ii) Suggest why data uncertainty decreases over time. (3)

(b) Explain the processes involved in the natural greenhouse effect. (5)

3 Study Figure 3. (a) (i) Which government strategy are people shown to be most satisfied with? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)

A Developing renewable energy sources

B Afforestation schemes

C Increasing taxes on fossil fuels

D Carbon trading schemes

E Water conservation schemes

(ii) State one example of an international agreement on climate change. (1)

(iii) Identify a possible adaptation strategy included in Figure 3. (1)

(iv) Explain how afforestation might help tackle global warming. (3)

(b) Explain why some climate change mitigation strategies are often unpopular. (5)

4 Study Figure 4. (a) (i) Compare Facebook connectivity in Africa with that in Europe. (3)

(ii) Suggest how physical factors might contribute to the pattern of connectivity shown. (3)

(b) Explain how political factors both help and hinder the growth of global connections. (4)

Help…………………..

Hinder……………………….

5 Study Figure 5. (a) In which year would you expect Elsie Stevens to have first been recorded by a UK

census? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



A 1910

B 1911

C 1928

D 1931

E 1945

(b) A greater number of people aged 100 or over were recorded in the 2011 UK census than in previous censuses. Which of the following explains most of this increase? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



A The retirement age has fallen

B The UK has a falling birth rate

C Retired people are moving to the UK

D Fewer people are retiring to Spain

E Health and hygiene have improved

(c) Suggest three reasons why census data may sometimes be incomplete or inaccurate. (3)

(d) Explain how personal and local data sources can be used to study population changes and people’s roots. (5)

6 Study Figure 6. (a) Which two megacities show an acceptable level of SO2 pollution by WHO

recommended maximum levels? Put a cross in the correct box. (1)



A Tokyo and Sao Paulo

B Tokyo and Mexico City

C Mexico City and Sao Paulo

D Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

E Rio de Janeiro and Mexico City

(b) Suggest three reasons why air pollution is often higher in developing world megacities than in developed world megacities. (3)

(c) Megacities in different countries develop in contrasting ways. Arrange the following characteristics of megacities into two groups by putting the letters A to F into the table provided. (3)

A Large numbers of car-owning commuters travel in from the countryside

B Many people employed in the informal sector

C Large scale rural to urban migration

D Low rate of natural increase

E Rapid shanty town growth

F Very high per capita ecological footprint

Megacities in the developed world Megacities in the developing world

(d) Using examples, explain how cities can become more sustainable. (5)


SECTION B

*7 Study Figure 7. (a) Explain how El Niño cycles affect the frequency of floods and droughts in the Pacific region. (10)

(b) Examine the global patterns of cyclone and storm risk. (15)



(Total for Question 7 = 25 marks)

*8 Study Figure 8. (a) Suggest why it is difficult to predict future climate change in the Arctic. (10)

(b) Examine how the economic impacts of climate change may vary within the African continent. (15)



(Total for Question 8 = 25 marks)

*9 Study Figure 9. (a) Suggest why different groups of people disagree about the need for trade blocs

such as NAFTA. (10)

(b) Examine how globalisation has resulted in economic winners and losers. (15)

(Total for Question 9 = 25 marks)

*10 Study Figure 10. (a) Suggest why some countries have a higher percentage of foreign citizens than

others. (10)



(b) Explain the benefits of migration within Europe for host nations. (15)

(Total for Question 10 = 25 marks)

June 2013








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