2004 Terrapin Invitational Tournament Round 3 by Virginia Commonwealth University (Matt Weiner)
Toss-Ups: 1) He was a vocal opponent to Siger of Brabant’s endorsement of the Averroan “two truths” doctrine, but he also fought with the strict Augustinians who denied natural law entirely, contending that man sits at the “horizon of the corporeal and spiritual.” At the urging of Raymond of Peñafort, he wrote Against All Pagans, and his other major works include On the Truth of the Catholic Faith, Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics and Commentary on Aristotle’s Physics. For ten points, name this student of Albertus Magnus and Dominican Scholastic who wrote Summa Teologica.
ANSWER: Saint Thomas Aquinas [or San Tommaso d’Aquino; prompt on Doctor Angelicus; prompt on Angelic Doctor]
2) Structurally, it is a chain of 129 amino acids folded onto itself at four points, where cysteines form disulfide bridges. The fold forms a cleft in its shape, which fits six of its target’s hexoses, twisting the fourth and causing a strain on the link between the number one carbon in NAG and the number four carbon in NAM. By this means, it causes hydrolysis of peptidoglycan, thus decomposing bacterial cell walls and ultimately causing bacteria to burst. For ten points, name this antibiotic enzyme discovered before penicillin by Alexander Fleming, found in a waste-disposal organelle of similar name.
3) This play’s concluding crash of vases, picture frames, and the fireplace mantel echoes the events of the morning after the Bradman’s visit, when one character’s presence is confirmed by the movement of a bowl of flowers. When a ladder collapses and the maid Edith slips on greased stairs, the designs of the protagonist’s first wife come into question. The victim of a subsequent car accident turns out to be Ruth, who was perturbed from the start at Madame Arcati’s conjuring of Elvira, Ruth’s dead predecessor as husband of Charles Condomine. For ten points, name this comedy by Noel Coward, which takes its title from Percy Shelley’s presumptuous address to a skylark.
ANSWER: “Blithe Spirit”
4) One member of this group exiled Sugawara Michizane to Kyushu in order to rule from the post of “minister of the left.” Their power was finally broken by the insei system begun by Sanjo II. The group’s founder, Kamatari Nakatomi, plotted with Tenchi to kill Iraku Soga. Yoshifusa began their time as sessho regents, and Mototsune created the kampaku, the public face of the emperor and real power in government. One member, Michinaga, was the de facto ruler during the period described in The Tale of Genji. For ten points, name this family that controlled Japan from the ninth to eleventh centuries.
5) Pivotal lines in this play include Essie’s defense of bluefish and the main character’s realization that “it didn’t make me happy…but I’m glad I tried it once.” The protagonist is contrasted with Sid Davis, who has earned Aunt Lily’s love but cannot marry her due to his alcoholism. At the start, a young couple plans a July Fourth boat trip, but an angry letter from Dave spurs the protagonist to seek out “swift ones” at the bar of the Pleasant Beach Hotel. By the end of the play, both the newspaper publisher Nat and the neighbor girl Muriel McComber receive their deserved affection from a reformed Richard Miller. For ten points, name this comedy, the only work in that genre by Eugene O’Neill.
ANSWER: “Ah, Wilderness!”
6) Ionic compounds can show it in the Spinel crystal structure, and it is exhibited by terbium and dysprosium at very low temperatures. A solid with this property exists in the Weiss molecular field and exhibits it at different strengths in different surface domains, until an external field causes saturation and aligns all domains. It occurs when a material’s atoms have large, parallel, and permanent magnetic moments, and it is lost above the Curie temperature. For ten points, name this kind of magnetism exhibited by cobalt and iron.
ANSWER: ferromagnetism [prompt on magnetism before “Weiss”]
7) It unfurls your tongue when playing the bonus frog level in Glover, engages the “turbo” effect in Gauntlet Legends, and taunts the opponent in Rakuga Kids. It lets you use the shield in the last level of single-player mode in Super Smash Brothers. It can also bank your car to the left in F-Zero X, reset the camera or target an enemy in Ocarina of Time, and fire a weapon in numerous games including Perfect Dark and Goldeneye. For ten points, name this “trigger” button found on the bottom of the Nintendo 64 controller.
ANSWER: Z button
8) It has been interpreted as implying a “proportionality” standard ever since Weems v. U.S. and barring “status” crimes since Robinson v. California. It does not apply to civil cases not involving the government, under Browning-Ferris v. Kelco, and the Court also declined to apply its last portions to schools in Ingraham v. Wright. Perhaps the most famous use of this amendment began with a rebuff in McGautha v. California and ended with a relaxation, in Gregg v. Georgia, of a ruling using this amendment in Furman v. Georgia. For ten points, name this Constitutional amendment banning excessive bail and fines as well as cruel and unusual punishment, such as many forms of the death penalty.
ANSWER: Eighth Amendment
9) Josef Stalin once said that one of this man’s characters, the revolutionary ex-priest Cimourdain, inspired him to enter politics. After this author clashed with censors over the portrayal of Louis XIII in “Marion de Lorme,” he wrote a the anti-monarchial plays “Hernani” and “The King Amuses Himself.” He also published several novels in imitation of Walter Scott, including The Slave-King and Hans of Iceland. He drew on his time as a student for the character of Marius who teams with Eponine to find Cosette. For ten points, name this author of Notre-Dame de Paris and Les Miserables.
ANSWER: Victor-Marie Hugo
10) This form is taken by benevolent Basque spirit Akerbeltz; the Chinese, Yang Jing; and the mother of the Babylonian rain god Ningirsu. The Indian god Daksha used one of these after being decapitated by Shiva. Other prominent examples include a pair known as “tooth-gnasher” and “tooth-grinder,” which could be killed and eaten, only to regenerate themselves the next morning, as well as the wetnurse of the infantile Zeus. For ten points, name this animal seen as Thor’s chariot-pullers Tanngniost and Tanngrisnir and the Greek nurturer Amalthea.
11) Its fourteenth section, dealing with the appointment of a legislative council, was repealed by the Constitutional Act of 1791. Passed at the urging of Guy Carleton, it replaced the Test Act with an oath binding subjects to report all “traitorous conspiracies.” It extended the boundaries set in the Proclamation of 1763 to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, confirmed the right of the Catholic Church to collect tithes, and allowed seigneurs to set the terms for cens et rents. For ten points, name this last of the Intolerable Acts, an omnibus reform of a recently conquered French-speaking province.
ANSWER: Quebec Act
12) They eject material at a speed of one kilometer per second due to the Evershed effect, and their latitude changes according to the “butterfly diagram.” They are surrounded by plages and cannot be smaller than 500 kilometers in diameter; below that size, their magnetism cannot overcome convective forces and they are brought into thermal equilibrium with the surrounding material. Their absence from 1645 to 1715 may have caused the Little Ice Age and is known as the Maunder minimum. For ten points, name these vortices of gas that cause regions of darkness in the photosphere of the sun.
13) First prominent in the Yaroslav Young Communist League, and he became leader of that group’s Karelo-Finnish chapter. The Soviet ambassador to Hungary during the 1956 rebellion, in 1967 he succeeded Vladimir Semichastny as KGB head, eventually joining the Central Committee. As general secretary, he invited American eleven-year-old Samantha Smith on a tour of the Soviet Union. For ten points, name this Soviet politician who succeeded Leonid Brezhnev in 1982 and ruled until his own death in 1984.
ANSWER: Yury Vladimirovich Andropov
14) This volume tends to invent quotes, such as those falsely attributed to George Fox and a manufactured Jacobean verse about the inferiority of France in “The Two Races of Men.” Several parts express admiration for Thomas Brown, as in “New Year’s Eve” and “Popular Fallacies.” Frequent subjects include Charles Dyer, Samuel Salt, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, whose accent is imitated for a recollection set at Christ’s Hospital. The pseudonym adopted for this collection was an homage to an Italian clerk who worked at the South-Sea House, the subject of the first entry. For ten points, name this collection of nostalgic pieces from London Magazine by Charles Lamb.
ANSWER: Essays of Elia
15) This building was commissioned by Enrico Scrovegni to atone for the usury of his father Reginaldo. Dedicated to the Virgin of Charity, it reflects the usury motif several times, such as in the painting of Judas on the north of the Chancel Arch. Other scenes displayed here include Christ expelling the money-changers and usurers hanging from money-bags in Hell. The images form a cycle beginning with “The Story of Joachim and Anna” and culminating in an image of “The Last Judgment” spanning the entire west well. For ten points, name this Roman chapel decorated with frescoes by Giotto.
ANSWER: Arena Chapel
16) After its capture, supplies were brought to its far side by “Hump pilots,” and efforts to retake it were led by the Chindit Brigades and Merrill’s Marauders. It was refurbished by troops under Leo Dawson in 1943 after originally being built from 1937 to 1939. In 1944, two years after the Salween River Bridge was destroyed to prevent the Japanese army from using this structure, the entire project was connected to Ledo in India by forces under Joseph Stilwell. For ten points, name this supply route in World War II, a 717-mile highway that began at Kunming in China and ended at Lashio in present-day Myanmar.
ANSWER: Burma Road
17) He ironically suggested in a Senate hearing that the government should “destroy the computers” of copyright violators. Along those lines, he is sponsoring the INDUCE act, which could outlaw any device commonly used for copyright infringement. He has also worked to ease college tuition for immigrants and introduced a bill allowing immigrants to run for President, hopefully with more success than his 2000 campaign, which ended after he somehow managed to finish behind Alan Keyes in Iowa. For ten points, name this Republican from Utah.
ANSWER: Orrin Grant Hatch
18) Replacements for it have been proposed by, and named for, Sclater, Lydekker, and Murray, but the most commonly used modern refinement was suggested by Max Weber. It is caused by the gap between the Sunda and Sahul tectonic shelves and the depth of the Makassar Strait. Its existence was deduced by observing the scarcity of the Cyprinade family of birds on Lombok and Sulawesia as compared to the birds’ prominence on Java and Borneo. For ten points, identify this boundary between the Asian and Australian regions of animal habitat, named for a co-discoverer of evolution.
ANSWER: Wallace’s line
19) Groups who did this include a band of Moorish pirates that stole some silver and gold in 846, destabilizing the reign of Sergius II. It most recently occurred when the Imperial treasury failed to pay Landsknecht troops in a war with the League of Cognac; Charles V thus allowed the army to do this in 1527, intimidating Clement VII. It first happened due to the Gaulish victory at the Battle of the Allia River, resulting in the second appointment of Camillus as dictator. Armies that did this were also led by Gaiseric and Alaric. For ten points, identify this activity performed by Vandals in 455 and Visigoths in 410.
ANSWER: sacking Rome [or equivalents]
20) Ralph Fowler corrected the first quantum equation for it by adding terms for the role of the temperature squared and the Boltzmann constant. Particles undergoing it lose energy according to the work function omega, causing a difference between the actual energy and the product of frequency and Planck’s constant. In semiconductors, it occurs as the raising of a valence electron into the conduction band. For ten points, name this ejection of particles from a medium absorbing radiant energy, one type of which is the removal of electrons from metal by light.
ANSWER: photoelectric effect
21) It’s western portion includes the Palace of Facets, Terem Palace, and Armory Palace, which surround the Church of the Resurrection of Lazarus. Between its giant bell and cannon stands the Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles next door to the Patriarchal Palace. Pietro Solario designed its Savior Tower, which sits alongside nineteen other towers including Trinity and St. Nicholas. On Cathedral Square sits the Cathedral of the Annunciation, containing icons by Theophanes and Rublyov. The whole structure is connected on the west to St. Basil’s and on the east to Red Square. For ten points, name this fortress in central Moscow, the symbolic seat of Russian government.
ANSWER: the Kremlin
22) One work by this title includes imitations of a cab and an accordion and bookends itself with the sound of chimes in lento. The slow second movement is set on a “November afternoon” and incorporates the tune “Lavender.” Another group of works with this name was composed at the same time as the Apponyi Quartets under the commission of Johann Peter Salomon. Their subtitles include the Military, Miracle, Drumroll, Clock, and Surprise. For ten points, give this common name for the second symphony of Ralph Vaughan Williams and the 93rd through 104th symphonies of Joseph Haydn.
ANSWER: London Symphonies
23) People murdered by the chief villain include a slave-trader, a seller of cakes, and the schemer’s stepson Guange. This novel was inspired by a passage in Outlaws of the Marsh describing Wu Song’s avenging of Wu Dalang upon Dalang’s wife and her lover. Eventually, Moon Lady’s son becomes a Buddhist monk, atoning for the immoral behavior of the Pan and Ximen Qing (SHI-men CHING), who married after the unnatural death of Pan’s first husband, a “seven-inch dwarf.” For ten points, name this erotic novel attributed to the anonymous “Scoffing Scholar of Lanling,” depicting the debauchery of the late Ming period.
ANSWER: Jin Pingmei [or The Gold Plum Vase; or The Golden Lotus; or The Plum In The Golden Vase; or anything involving gold and either a lotus, a plum, or a vase or any equivalent terms; prompt on The Adventurous History of Ximen and his Six Wives before “Ximen” is read]
24) Under its president, the Canadian Philippe Kirsch, it has established a Victims Trust Fund and appointed Hans Bevers to formulate an auxiliary professional organization. Established by the Rome Statute of 1998, it has undertaken investigations in Congo and Uganda under the leadership of Luis Moreno-Ocampo. Problems in forming it included the lack of a consensus on what constitutes the “crime of aggression” and the refusal of membership by Russia, China, and the US. For ten points, name this Hague-based organ, which prosecutes individuals accused of war crimes if national governments fail to act.
ANSWER: International Criminal Court
25) This was the second and last event to be labeled an agon stephanites (AY-gon steh-FOHN-ih-tees). Unlike its older counterpart, it allowed the participation of women, contained musical and dramatic portions, and made use of bay leaves. Originally organized by the city of Kirra, it was re-established by Cleisthenes, who won a chariot race at this event. It was held in the summer a year before each Olympic Games, sometimes on the Crisaean plain and otherwise at the Delphic shrine on Mount Parnassus. For ten points, name this athletic gathering celebrating Apollo’s defeat of a snake.
ANSWER: Pythian Games
1) Answer the following about the twenty-three “Problems in Mathematics” put forth by David Hilbert for 10 points per part.
 The still-unsatisfied eighth problem seeks a proof of this statement, which claims that all nontrivial zeros of a certain function are on the critical line, where the real part equals 1/2.
ANSWER: Riemann hypothesis
 The tenth problem asks whether there exists a single algorithm which can determine if an arbitrary equation of this type is solvable. In 1970, Yuri Matiyasevich proved that no such algorithm exists to solve these equations, which can have only integer solutions.
ANSWER: Diophantine equations
 Problem sixteen asked for the development of a system of topology relating surfaces to real algebraic curves. The problem is solved by this conjecture, which translates elliptic curves into modular forms and was crucial to proving Fermat’s Last Theorem.
ANSWER: Taniyama-Shimura conjecture
2) Name these members of the 1860s “Radical Republicans” for 10 points each.
 This Massachusetts senator denounced the expansion of slavery to territories. In a typical example of Southern diplomacy, patron saint of rednecks Preston Brooks responded by beating him with a cane
ANSWER: Charles Sumner
 He controlled New Orleans after it fell to Union forces in 1862 and wrote one of the articles of impeachment against Andrew Johnson. In 1884, he ran as the Presidential candidate of the Greenback-Labor and Anti-Monopoly parties.
ANSWER: Benjamin Franklin Butler
 As a Michigan senator and chairman of the “Senate Committee on the Conduct of the War,” this onetime mayor of Detroit denounced Lincoln for failing to pursue the war more aggressively. He was later Grant’s campaign manager and Interior secretary.
ANSWER: Zachariah Chandler 3) Name these Latin American poems for 10 points each.
 It denounces the political indifference seen in Mexicans by Octavio Paz through examination of an artifact celebrating the fifth age of the world. It has one line for each day in the Aztec calendar and uses ring composition to invoke a cyclical view of time.
ANSWER: “Sun Stone” [or “Piedra del sol”]
 This poem from Pablo Neruda’s Canto General muses that “Jehovah distributed the world/to Coca-Cola Inc., Anaconda,/Ford Motors and other entities” but the title corporation “reserved for itself the juiciest.”
ANSWER: “The United Fruit Company” [or “La United Fruit Company”]
 Addressed to a man dubbed “an Alexander-Nebuchadnezzar,” this Ruben Dario piece warns that “men of Saxon eyes and barbarous soul” can never conquer Latin America because they “lack one thing: God.”
ANSWER: “To Roosevelt” [or “Á Roosevelt”]
4) Name these members of J.D. Salinger’s Nine Stories from plots for 10 points each.
 Seymour Glass leaves his wife Muriel behind by shooting himself.
ANSWER: “A Perfect Day for Bananafish”
 During the McArdle family’s return from a European vacation, the title character discusses Eastern philosophy with Bob Nicholson.
 This story, which lends its title to the British edition of the volume, discusses an American soldier’s rediscovery of his writing talent thanks to a British girl and her brother Charles.
ANSWER: “For Esme, With Love and Squalor”
5) Name these types of isomers for 10 points each.
 As opposed to stereoisomers, they differ from one another in spatial arrangement and can contain entirely different functional groups.
ANSWER: structural or constitutional
 Optical isomers of this type are mirror images in structure but are not superimposable.
 This is the other class of optical isomers; they do not form mirror images and can be further divided into cis and trans types.
ANSWER: diastereomers or geometric isomers
6) For…10…pointsperPART..answer the following…aboutanactor…turned..SINGER!
 He played a tormented airplane passenger and other roles on The Twilight Zone but is likely better known as T.J. Hooker and Captain Kirk.
ANSWER: William Shatner
 Shatner can now be seen shouting his own name at James Spader as the not entirely rational law firm head Denny Crane on this David E. Kelley spinoff.
ANSWER: Boston Legal
 On his landmark 2004 album Has Been, Shatner collaborates with Joe Jackson for an indescribably fantastic cover of this mid-90s hit by Pulp about a Greek student seeking to disavow her wealthy roots.
ANSWER: “Common People”
7) Name these formerly disputed areas of Germany for 10 points each.
 Now the northernmost state of the Federal Republic, control of this hyphenated region of two former duchies was contested in war between Prussia and Denmark twice.
 Spanning the area between the Rhine, the Lippe, and the city of Hamm, this heavily industrialized region, producing much of the steel and coal in Germany, was occupied by France in 1923 and subsequently returned under the Dawes Plan.
 Centered on the city of Wroclaw, this region is now controlled mostly by Poland with portions in Germany and the Czech Republic. Frederick II captured it in the War of the Austrian Succession, and over three million of the ethnic Germans deported after World War II came from here.
ANSWER: Silesia [or Slask; orSlezsko; orSchlesien]
8) Identify these predictions of general relativity for 10 points each.
 This weak, quadropolar form of radiation travels at the speed of light and causes a minute loss in mass in the object emitting it. The most solid evidence for its existence is an observation of a gradually slowing binary system of neutron stars.
ANSWER: gravitational waves [accept anything with forms of the word “gravity” and the word “wave” in it]
 Seen classically as a form of the Doppler effect when the object is moving away from the observer, this can also affect light coming from a gravitational field in proportion to the gravitational potential of the field’s source.
ANSWER: gravitational redshift
 This is a perturbation in local spacetime by a rotating mass, causing a precession in gyroscopes. An experiment aboard Gravity Probe B, launched in 2004, uses perfectly round spheres of quartz in a low-temperature vacuum to test for it.
ANSWER: frame dragging [prompt on gravitomagnetism]
9) Answer the following about a Roman author for 10 points per part.
 This Carthaginian-born slave worked in the second century BCE on such plays as “The Andrian Girl,” “The Mother-in-Law,” and “The Self-Tormentor.”
ANSWER: Terence [or Publius Terentius Afer]
 This Terence play follows the madam Thais, who attempts to return Pamphila to her biological family by selling the girl to Thraso. A slave bought as a gift by Phaedria complicates things.
ANSWER: “Eunuchus” [or “The Eunuch”]
 In this play, Aeschinus and Ctesipho, the sons of Demea, are brought up separately but engage in similar behavior with another Pamphila and a “music-girl.”
ANSWER: “Adelphi” [or “Adelphoe”; or “The Brothers”]
10) Answer the following about the law of German barbarians for 10 points per part.
 In this form of trial, a person produced up to twelve witnesses to swear an oath saying that the person was trustworthy. It was commonly used to settle the question of whether one person had taken on a debt to another.
ANSWER: compurgation [prompt on wager of law]
 Taking such forms as divination, ritual battle, or a test such as passing through fire, this method of trial used a physical means to determine the favor of divine justice.
ANSWER: trial by ordeal
 A person could compensate for manslaughter by paying relatives of the victim this monetary penalty, which was determined based on social rank and nationality.
ANSWER: wergild [or bot; or wite; or man-price]
11) Name these George Eliot novels from plots for 10 points each.
 The title character, a carpenter’s foreman in the town of Hayslope, finds the body of his drowned alcoholic father and competes with his brother Arthur for the hand of Hetty Sorrel.
ANSWER: Adam Bede
 Maggie Tulliver, frustrated with her brother Tom, falls out with Philip Wakem and ends up competing with Lucy for Stephen.
ANSWER: The Mill on the Floss
 Set in Savonarola’s Florence, it opens with a lengthy monologue by the barber Nello and moves on to the pagan revivalist Bardo dei Bardi, whose title daughter marries his collaborator Tito Melema.
12) Name these African rivers for 10 points each.
 This river flows from the Lesotho Highlands, receives the Vaal, and continues west for a total of 1300 miles to Alexander Bay on the Atlantic Ocean. It defines the south border of the Kalahari and the boundary between Namibia and South Africa.
ANSWER: Orange River
 It irrigates the Accra Plains before ending at Ada in the Gulf of Guinea. Formed from “Black” and “White” branches, which originate in Burkina Faso, it now feeds an enormous namesake lake thanks to the Akosombo Dam.
ANSWER: Volta River
 The third longest river in Africa, this western river flows through Guinea, Mali, and two countries named for it, receiving the Kaduna and Benue.
ANSWER: Niger River [or Joliba; or Mayo Balleo; or Isa Eghirren; or Kwarra, or Quorra]
13) Name these general problems in the behavior of economic actors for 10 points each.
 Akerlof, Spence, and Stiglitz won the 2001 Nobel in economics for analyzing facets of this problem, in which the market does not work as expected because one party in a transaction possesses unique knowledge that the other party cannot access.
 Asymmetric information can lead to this problem, first named in Akerlof’s 1970 paper “The Market for Lemons,” in which those likely to profit from asymmetric information seek out situations where it exists, as in chronically ill persons who purchase health insurance at a fixed rate or shady used-car dealers.
ANSWER: adverse selection
 Related to adverse selection is this problem that arises when the compensation for some harm is worth more than avoiding the harm in the first place. Overvalued insurance policies and welfare benefits worth more than the minimum wage are common examples.
ANSWER: moral hazard 14) Answer the following about a British philosopher for 10 points per part.
 This author of A Vindication of Natural Society and A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful defended the independent representative model of a legislator and is known as a father of conservative political philosophy.
ANSWER: Edmund Burke
 In response to George III’s attempt to regain the right to appoint ministers from Parliament, Burke wrote this pamphlet defending the “spirit” of the constitutions and the role of political parties.
ANSWER: “Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents”
 After hearing Richard Price’s speech praising the Jacobins, Burke wrote this work which in turn provoked Thomas Paine to pen The Rights of Man. It argues that rapid change is always destructive due to the innate inability of humans to achieve perfection.
ANSWER: Reflections on the Revolution in France 15) Name these Congressional acts from the “Progressive” era for 10 points each.
 Harvey Wiley and Charles Russell led a group concerned about “embalmed beef” and quackish patent medicines in urging passage of the Meat Inspection Act and this 1906 law imposing federal sanctions on makers of mislabeled consumables.
ANSWER: Pure Food and Drug Act
 This act prohibited free rail transport, forbade rail owners from transporting commodities produced in their own factories, and allowed the Interstate Commerce Commission to nullify “unreasonable” rates.
ANSWER: Hepburn Act
 This 1913 tariff was the first in four decades to reduce duties, but it also imposed the first federal income tax under the Sixteenth Amendment.
ANSWER: Underwood-Simmons Tariff
16) Name these works of minimalist music for 10 points each.
 Alice Goodman wrote the libretto to this John Adams opera, which follows a 1972 diplomatic summit.
ANSWER: Nixon in China
 Divided into three sections titled “Tolstoy,” “Tagore,” and “King,” this opera follows a concept from “The Kuru Field of Justice” to “Evening Song.”
 This John Cage work began in September 2001 with a two-year rest note, added three notes in February 2003, and is scheduled to finish in 2640.
ANSWER: Organ-Squared [or Organ-Squared ASLSP; or As Slow As Possible]
17) Answer the following about a Russian author for 10 points per part.
 This author of “The Queen of Spades” and Yevgeny Onegin is important and stuff.
ANSWER: Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin
 In this Pushkin poem, the St. Petersburg flood of 1824 is experienced by a common city-dweller and the animated equestrian statue of Peter the Great.
ANSWER: “The Bronze Horseman” [or “Mednyi vsadnik”]
 This short play, based on a John Wilson piece, ends with a priest yelling at the chairman about the impropriety of the title activity after Walsingham offers a hymn to the recent epidemic.
ANSWER: “Feast in the Time of the Plague” [or “Feast During Plague” or other equivalents; or “Pir vo vremya chumy”]
18) Name these things found in a plant root for 10 points each.
 This tip contains cells capable of indefinite division. It is protected by a cap of parenchyma cells supplied by the calyptrogen.
ANSWER: apical meristem [prompt on partial answer; prompt on root apex]
 Located in the endodermis of the cortex, these clusters of suberin control intake of water and minerals.
ANSWER: Casparian strips
 Roots are the area where this tissue is formed. Arranged in sieve tubes, it moves the products of photosynthesis through the plant.
ANSWER: phloem or bast 19) Medieval England was great at losing battles. Name some for 10 points each.
 Coming on the heels of another defeat at La Roche-aux-Moines, this 1214 victory for Philip II of France over Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV and King John transferred most of the Angevin lands in France to Phillip.
ANSWER: Battle of Bouvines
 In 1297, a band led by William Wallace confronted John de Warenne, the earl of Surrey, on one side of this structure, slaughtering the English troops at the bottleneck.
ANSWER: Battle of Stirling Bridge 20) Name these books of the Protestant Apocrypha for 10 points each.
 Accepted by Catholicism, this book addresses Sophia, the lady of wisdom, and assures the Alexandrian Jews that Greek philosophy is in accordance with Biblical teaching. It has a similar name to a book written by a “preacher” who sees a lot of vanity.
ANSWER: Ecclesiasticus [or Sirach; prompt on Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach; prompt on Sophia Iesou hyiou Sirach; prompt on Hokhmat Yeshua Ben-Sira; prompt on Wisdom of Ben-Sira; do not accept Ecclesiastes]
 This pseudopigraphic gospel asserts that Christ returned as a phantasm only and did not suffer during the crucifixion. It is attributed to a canonical New Testament figure who denied knowing Jesus but became the first to see him after the resurrection.
ANSWER: Gospel of Peter
 This book’s historical content is contemporaneous with Second Chronicles and Nehemiah, but it adds a Persian folk story, “The Tale of the Three Guardsmen,” to emphasize points about temple worship and the prohibition on intermarriage.
ANSWER: First Book of Esdras [or First Book of Greek Ezra]
21) Answer the following about plays within other literary works for the stated points.
 For 10, while not devising torture devices for the king of Persia or baking Raoul, the Phantom of the Opera works on this play of bygone Spain.
ANSWER: “Don Juan Triumphant”
 For 10, this was originally the third act of “Man and Superman” but is often performed separately. In it, John Tanner has a dream of the afterlife and talks to an old woman, a statue, and the devil.
ANSWER: “Don Juan in Hell”
[5/5] Name the authors of the novel The Phantom of the Opera and the play “Man and Superman,” for 5 points each.
ANSWER: Gaston Leroux and George Bernard Shaw 22) Name these periods of the Paleozoic era for 10 points each.
 Named after the Roman term for Wales, this first period of the era featured a namesake “explosion” of animal phyla due to increased levels of atmospheric oxygen.
 This period, which came between the Silurian and Carboniferous, saw the emergence of forests, gymnosperms, insects, jawed fish, and four-limbed animals.
 This period, the final of the Paleozoic, included the formation of Pangaea and an extinction affecting over ninety percent of aquatic species.
ANSWER: Permian 23) Name the two states in conflict in each of these stages from Erikson’s model of development for 5 points per answer.
[5/5] In adolescence, a person must place himself into peer groups and social networks in order to overcome this conflict.
ANSWER: identify versus role confusion
[5/5] In the infantile oral-sensory stage, the newborn must resolve this conflict to form a relationship with family members.
ANSWER: trust versus mistrust
[5/5] In the final stage, maturity, one reflects on life through this conflict.
ANSWER: ego integrity versus despair 24) Name these Achaemenid kings of Persia for 10 points each.
 This son of Cyrus the Great and Cassandane overthrew Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium to bring Egypt under Persian control. Upon his death, the revolt of the “False Smerdis” gave the throne to Gaumata the Magian.
ANSWER: Cambyses II
 He was placed on the throne by Artabanus, who murdered his father, and later killed Artabanus in close combat. He put down a revolt in Bactria and sent Megabyzus to defeat Inaros’s revolt in Egypt.
ANSWER: Artaxerxes I [prompt on Artaxerxes; accept Artaxerxes Macrocheir, Artaxerxes Longhand, or Artaxerxes Longimanus]
 His attempts to conquer Greece were thwarted by a storm in 492 BCE and the Battle of Marathon in 490.
ANSWER: Darius I [prompt on Darius]
25) Answer the following about a painter for 10 points per part.
 This Venetian produced the Rokeby Venus and Venus of Urbino and often used a shade of red now named for him.
ANSWER: Titian [or Tiziano Vecellio]
 This Titian painting shows Zeus in the form of a white bull carrying off a maiden, who is dressed in white and holding a red cloth. Three cherubs flit about on the left.
ANSWER: The Rape of Europa
 This painting removes the parapet used by Titian’s instructor Giorgione, putting the viewer face to face with a mustachioed figure. Wearing a white ruffled shirt, pendant, and black coat, the subject rests his right hand, ringed index finger extended, on his waist.